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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 

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— OF- 






Volume I 







All life and achievement is evolution ; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men that have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Lafayette county, Missouri, with what they 
were one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin prairie, 
it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of 
wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid indus- 
tries and immense agricultural productions. Can any thinking person be 
insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the incentives, hopes, 
aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the founda- 
tion upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? 
To perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the social, 
political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception 
is the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts 
and personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite 
the present to the past, is the motive for the present publication. The work 
has been in the hands of able writers, who have, after much patient study 
and research, produced here the most complete biographical memoirs of 
Lafayette county, Missouri, ever offered to the public. A specially valuable 
and interesting department is that one devoted to the sketches of representa- 
tive citizens of this county whose records deserve preservation because of 
their worth, effort and accomplishment. The publishers desire to extend 
their thanks to the gentlemen who have so faithfully labored to this end. 
Thanks are also due to the citizens of Lafayette county for the uniform 
kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking and for their many 
services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing "Young's History of Lafayette County, Missouri," before 
the citizens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried 
out the plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the 
work has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore 
any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the 
sketch was prepared. Confident that our efforts to please will fitly meet the 
approbation of the public, we are, 





Design of the Work — First Historical Event — Location of Old Fort Orleans — 
Condition of Country at the Advent of the First Settler — Increase of Popu- 
lation — Origin of Early Settlers — German Settlements — Coal Fields — Negro 
Population — Missouri's Part in the Great Drama of the Nation. 



Organization of Lillard County — Change of Name to Lafayette — Mound- 
Builders — Prehistoric Relics — Advent of the White Race — Ferdinand de Soto 
— First Permanent Settlement in Missouri by the French — Changes in Ter- 
ritorial Ownership — Admission of Missouri as a State. 


First Geological Work — Formation of Strata — Bluff or Loess — Richness of 
the Soil — Plant Food Values in Lafayette Soil — Native Trees of the County — 
Native Shrubs — Native Animals — Native Birds — Fish Found in Lafayette 
County Waters — Coal Mines of the County — Streams of the County — Present 
Boundary of the County. 


Division Into Precincts — Change in Territorial Bounds — Organization of 
Townships — Early Records Absent — County Seal Adopted — First Circuit Court 
— First County Seat — Villages Platted in Lafayette County. 


Gilead Rupe, the First Settler — Succeeding Newcomers — Washington Irving 
— First School — Settlement in 1837 — Early Morals — Pioneer Customs — Both- 
ersome Indians — First Important Events — Germans of Lafayette County — 
First German Settlers — German Settlers After the War — The German Farmer, 
Business Man and Mechanic — German Churches and Schools — German Soci- 
eties — Language — The "Missouri Thalbote" — German Characteristics — A 
Reminiscence of War Times. 


Organization of County Government — First Official Appointments — First Elec- 
tion — Erection of Public Buildings — First Court House Sold — Second and 
Third Court Houses Erected — County Office Buildings — Jails — County Poor 
House — Highways, Ferries, Licenses — First Marriages — County Line Sur- 


veys — Seal of the County — County Finances — Tax List Abstract for 1828 — 
Taxes in 1870 — Assessed Valuations in 1880 — County Receipts and Expend- 
itures, 1908 — Liquor Licenses in 1880. 


Congressmen — State Senators — State Representatives — County Officers — Re- 
corders — Treasurers — Sheriffs — Circuit Clerks — County Clerks — Coroners — 
County Assessors — County Surveyors — Public Administrators — Probate Judges 
— County Collectors — Prosecuting Attorneys — County Judges — Superintendent 
of Public Schools — Presidential Vote at Various Times — Constitutional Votes 
— Local Option Vote. 


War with Mexico — Colonel Doniphan's Command — "Old Sac" — Kansas-Ne- 
braska Border War — Civil War — First Troops Raised — Union Men Few in 
Numbers — County Militia Fund — First Battle for Lafayette Men — Bledsoe's 
Battery — Plenty of Powder — Governor Jackson Calls Militia — Sudden Flight 
of Price's Army, and Its Cause — First Union Troops — Lafayette's First Pris- 
oner of War — Major Becker — Lexington as a Military Headquarters — Encamp- 
men of State Troops at Fair Ground — Battle of Lexington — Lexington Bank 
Seized by Federals — Confederates March to Lexington — Official Report of 
General Price — Colonel Mulligan's Story of the Siege — General Raines' Report 
— Recollections of Battle by Captain Wilson — Efforts to Relieve the Siege — 
As Seen by Colonel Van Horn — Impartial Opinion — Miscellaneous Battle 
Items — Recapture of Lexington — Battle of Wellington — Lafayette County's 
Soldiers — Confederate Commands — Promotion of George P. Gordon and Ben- 
jamin F. Gordon — Federal Commands — Companies A, C, D and I, Seventh 
Regiment — Colonel Neill's Missouri Militia — Second M : ssouri Volunteer In- 
fantry — Fifth Missouri Volunteer Infantry — First Regiment (Cavalry) Mis- 
souri State Militia — Seventh Cavalry Regiment — Lafayette Men in Miscellane- 
ous Regiments — Bushwhackers or Guerrillas — Aid for Enrolled Militia — A 
Bushwhacker Incident — Surrender of Lexington Demanded — Men and Women 
Conspirators — Events at the Close of the War — First Negro Militia in La- 
fayette — Local Military Police — Spanish-American War — Company K, Fifth 
Missouri Regiment — Confederate Soldiers' Home. 


Evangelical Lutherans — St. Paul's Congregation, Concordia — Holy Cross 
Church, Emma — Trinity Church, Alma — Evangelical Lutheran Zion Church, 
Corder — Immanuel Church, Higginsville — Blackburn Congregation — Immanuel 
Congregation, Hazel Hill — St. Matthew's Congregation, near Concordia — St. 
Peter's Congregation, near Alma — Catholic Churches — Civil War Flag Episode 
— Corder Catholic Church — Higginsville Catholic Church — Dover Catholic 
Church — Concordia Catholic Church — Lexington Presbyterian Church — Hig- 
ginsville Presbyterian Church — Prairie Presbyterian Church — Hopewell Old- 
School Presbyterian Church — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Evangelical 
Church — Bethel Evangelical Church, Concordia — St. Luke's Evangelical 


Church, Wellington — St. Paul's Evangelical Church, Napoleon — St. Jonn's 
Evangelical Church — German Evangelical Salem Church, Higginsville — Evan- 
gelical Trinity Church, Lexington — Christ Episcopal Church, Lexington — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Dover Methodist Church — Waverly Methodist 
Church — Odessa Methodist Church — Mt. Tabor Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Higginsville Methodist Episcopal Church — Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
Wellington — McKendree Methodist Church — Neal's Chapel — Bates City Meth- 
odist Church — Wallace Chapel Methodist Church — Three Groves Church — Beth- 
el Church — Marnin Chapel, Methodist — Christian Church — Higginsville Church 
— Mayview and Odessa Churches — Baptist Church — First Baptist Church, 
Lexington — Mayview Baptist Church — Concord Baptist Church — Concordia 
German Baptist Church — Greenton Baptist Church — First Baptist Church, 
Higginsville — Waverly Baptist Church — Aullville Baptist Church — Long 
Branch Baptist Church — Second Baptist Church, Higginsville — Corder Bap- 
tist Church — Three Groves Baptist Church — Odessa Baptist Church — Bates 
City Baptist Church — Chapel Hill Baptist Church — Lafayette Baptist Church 
— Dover Baptist Church — Colored Churches. 


First Schools in Lafayette County — The Aull Fund — Early School Statistics — 
Town Schools of Lafayette County — Chapel Hill College — Some Eminent 
Graduates — Destruction of Chapel Hill College — Wentworth Military Acad- 
emy — Lexington Masonic College — Eminent Alumni — Lexington College for 
Young Women — Central College for Women — St. Paul's College — Western 
Bible and Literary College — Elizabeth Aull Female Seminary. 


Ancient Free and Accepted Masons — Independent Order of Odd Fellows — 
Knights of Pythias — Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 


' First Agricultural Society — Lafayette County Industrial and Stock Associa- 
tion — Hemp Growing and Marketing — The Grange Movement — Statistics. 


First River Navigation — Advent of Railroads — Shipments by Water — Deep 
Waterway Conventions — Boat Landings of Lafayette County — Early News- 
paper Notes — Railroads — Subscriptions to Aid Railroads — Railroad Promoters 
and Bonded Debt of County — Proposed Railroads — Convention of Taxpayers — 
Bonded Railroad Debt Compromise — Dates of Constructing Railroads — Train 
of Cars Seized for Taxes — Proposed Electric Line. 


First Judicial Circuit Established — Opening of the First Circuit Court in La- 
fayette County— Judge David Todd— Judge Peyton R. Hayden— Judge George 
Tompkins — John S. Brickey — Abiel Leonard — Judge John F. Ryland — Robert 


W. Wells— Joseph Davis— Judge William T. Wood— Judge Eldridge Burden- 
Judge Henderson Young— Charles French — Fidelio C. Sharp— Judge Samuel 
L. Sawyer— Thomas T. Crittenden— Judge John A. S. Tutt — Judge John E. 
Ryland — Judge Robert G. Smart — George S. Rathbun — Elisha M. Edwards — 
Cuthbert O. Smith — A. Fitzhugh Alexander — Tilton Davis — Xenophon Ryland 
— John S. Blackburn — Judge William Walker — Alexander Graves — Judge 
Richard Field — J. D. Shewalter— Capt. A. E. Asbury— Thomas P. Akers — John 
E. Burden — Robert A. Hicklin — William H. Chiles — William B. Wilson — John 
Welborn — Uriah G. Phetzing — William Aull — Clarence Vivian — Judge Thomas 
A. Walker — Judge James P. Chinn — John M. Price — Charles A. Keith — Charles 
Lyons — Horace F. Blackwell — Judge Richard Field — Other Attorneys. 


High Character of Pioneer Physicians — Early Practice Difficult — Great Ad- 
vance in the Science of Medicine — Early Physicians — Present Physicians of 
Lafayette County — County Medical Society. 


First Newspaper on Lafayette Soil — The "Lexington Express" — The "Tele- 
graph" — "Appeal" — "Democratic Journal" — "The People's Press" — "Western 
Chronicle" — "American Citizen" — "Expositor" — "Missouri Cumberland Pres- 
byterian" — "Lafayette Pioneer" — "Visitor" — Waverly "Express" — "Citizens' 
Daily Advertiser" — "Weekly Union" — "The Caucasian" — "Weekly Journal" 
— "Missouri Valley Register" — - "Intelligencer" — "Dispatch" — "Lafayette 
County Advance" — Aullville "Times" — Odessa "Herald" — Lexington "News" 
— Lexington "Lexingtonian" — Corder "Journal" — Waverly "News" — Higgins- 
ville "Jeffersonian" — Higginsville "Advance" — "Missouri Thalbote" — Odessa 
"Ledger" — Odessa "Democrat" — Concordia "Concordian" — Wellington "News" 
— Items from the First Newspaper. 


Little Specie Required in Early Trade Transactions — The Branch of the 
State Bank — Robert Aull Bank — Waverly Bank — American Bank of Higgins- 
ville — The Corder Bank — A Daring Robbery — The Lexington Banks: The 
Commercial Bank, the Lexington Savings Bank, the Morrison-Wentworth 
Bank and the Traders Bank — State Bank of Dover — Napoleon Bank — The 
Wellington Bank— The Aullville Bank— The Concordia Savings Bank— Farmers 
Bank of Concordia — The Alma Bank — Higginsville Banks: American Bank, 
the Bank of Higginsville and the Farmers Bank — Odessa Banks: Bank of 
Odessa, Farmers Bank and the Merchants Bank — Waverly Bank — Bank of 


Legal Beginning of Lexington — Its Early Importance as a Trading Point- 
Old Town Succeeded by the New — Municipal History of Lexington — Present 
City Officials— The City Hall— Early Business Interests— The Old Market 


Place — The Fire Department — Postoffice History — Gas and Electric Lighting 
Plant — Waterworks — Drilling for Oil — Old Horse Street Car Line — Public 
Schools — Roster of School Board — Early-day Select and Private Schools — 
The Hurricane of July, 1869. 


Named in Honor of Henry Clay — Description — Principal Streams — Early Set- 
tlement — Cemeteries — Milling Interests — Railroads — Towns and Villages — 
Incorporation of Wellington — Postoffice History — Milling — Great Fires — Busi- 
ness Interests — Village of Greenton — Napoleon — Bates City — Waterloo — Dark 


Boundaries — Origin of Name Tabo — Early Settlements — Villages and Steam- 
boat Landings — Town of Corder — 'Incorporation — Dover and Its Business In- 
terests — First Events in Township. 


Organization and Boundaries — Early Settlement — First Events and Customs 
— Grain and Fruit-Growing Thirty Years Ago — Incidents of the Civil War — 
Higginsville — Business Interests — Public Utilities — Civil War Incidents. 


Location, Organization and Boundary — Early Settlement — Towns and Vil- 
lages — Concordia — Settled Mainly by Germans — Postoffice — Incorporation 
Matters — Churches — Lodges — Business Interests — Bushwhacking and Bank 
Robbery — Aullville — Postoffice — Business Interests — Interesting Items and 


One of the Original Townships — Pioneer Settlers — Gilead Rupe — First Events 
of Importance — Population — A War-time Murder. 


First Mention of the Township — Early Settlement — Waverly — Industrial De- 
velopment — Commercial Interests — Postoffice — Municipal Incorporation — Alma 
— Incorporation — Business Houses. 


Original and Second Townships of this Name — Origin of the Name — Local 
Names — Burial Grounds — Milling — Early Settlers — Social Affairs — A Gray- 
haired Veteran — Chapel Hill — Mt. Hope — Noted Men from Sniabar Town- 
ship — Incidents of the Civil War — Odessa — Present Business Interests — In- 
corporation — Postoffice — Shipments — Churches and Newspapers. 



Largest Township in County — Organization — Early Settlement — Mayview — 
Postoffice — Churches and Lodges — Fruit Depot of the County — Crimes of the 


Indian Campaign Hoax — Bledsoe's Battery Survivors Remembered — Had to 
Get a License to Reside Here — Mastodons in this County — Mourning for 
Presidents Garfield and McKinley — Grasshopper Plagues — Old Men's Associa- 
tion — Explosion of the Steamboat "Saluda" — Ensign Nicholas Houx — Popula- 
tion of Lafayette County — Population by Townships, Towns and Villages — A 
Duel Almost Fought in Lafayette County. 

- ; 



Administrators, Public 74 

Advent of the White Race 26 

Agricultural Society, First 229 

Agricultural Statistics 233 

Agriculture 229 

Allegiance, Oath of 77 

Alma 369 

Alma Bank 307 

Almost a Duel 397 

American Bank, Higginsville 308 

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 222 

Animals, Native, of the County 33 

Assessors of Lafayette County 73 

Attorneys, Prosecuting 75 

Aull Fund 198 

Aull, William 278 

Aullville 358 

Aullville Bank 304, ou7 

Aullville Baptist Church 190 


Bank Funds Seized 93 

Bank of Higginsville 308 

Bank of Odessa 308 

Bank Robbery 305 

Banks and Banking 302 

Baptist Church 186 

Baptist Church, Aullville 190 

Baptist Church, Bates City 195 

Baptist Church, Concord 188 

Baptist Church, Concordia 189 

Baptist Church, Corder 193 

Baptist Church, Greenton 189 

Baptist Church, Lexington 187 

Baptist Church, Mayview ., 188 

Baptist Church, Odessa 194 

Baptist Church, Waverly 190 

Bates City 334 

Bates City Baptist Church 195 

Bates City Methodist Church 183 

Battle of Boonville 86 

Battle of Lexington 91 

Battle of Lexington, Notes on 117 

Battle of Wellington 119 

Bench and Bar 250 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 

Elks 228 

Bethel Church 183 

Bethel Evangelical Church, Con- 
cordia 173 

Birds, Native, of the County 34 

Blackburn Congregation, Evangel- 

cal Lutheran 153 

Blackwell, Horace F 282 

Blackwell, John S 267 

Bluff or Loess 30 

Boat Landings 236 

Bonded Debt of the County 240 

Boonville, Battle of 86 

Border War 81 

Boundary Lines, Changes in 40 

Boundary of Lafayette County 39 

Brickey, John S 252 

Burden, Judge Eldridge 257 

Burden, John E 276 

Bushwhacker Incident 132 

Bushwhackers 127 

Bushwhacking and Robbery 357 


Cars Seized for Taxes 248 

Catholic Church, Concordia 163 

Catholic Church, Corder 160 

Catholic Church, Dover 162 

Catholic Church, Higginsville 161 

Catholic Church, Lexington 156 

Catholic Churches 156 

Cemeteries of Clay Township 327 

Central College for Women 213 

Changes in Boundary Lines 40 

Chapel Hill Baptist Church 195 

Chapel Hill College 201 

Chapel Hill College, Destruction of. 204 

Chinn, Judge James P 280 

Christian Church, Higginsville 185 

Christian Church, Lexington 184 

Christian Church, Mayview 186 

Christian Church, Odessa 186 

Churches and Schools, German .... 54 

Churches of Lafayette County 140 

Circuit Clerks 72 


Circuit Court, First 41, 42 

City Hall, Lexington 312 

City of Lexington 309 

Civil War 82 

Civil War Flag Episode 157 

Clay Township 325 

Clay Township Cemeteries 327 

Clay Township Milling Interests 328 

Clay Township Railroads 328 

Clay Township, Settlement of 326 

Clerks of Circuit Court 72 

Clerks of Lafayette County 73 

Close of War, Events 136 

Coal Mines of the County 35 

Collectors 75 

College, Chapel Hill 201 

College for Women, Central 213 

College for Young Women, Lexing- 
ton 211 

Colored Churches 195 

Commercial Bank, Lexington 306 

Company A, Seventh Regiment 124 

Company C, Seventh Regiment 124 

Company D, Seventh Regiment 124 

Company I, Seventh Regiment 124 

Company K, Fifth Regiment 138 

Concord Baptist Church 188 

Concordia 353 

"Concordian" 300 

Concordia Baptist Church 189 

Concord.a Bethel Evangelical Church 173 

Concordia Catholic Church 163 

Concordia Evangelical Lutheran 

Church 140 

Concordia Savings Bank 307 

Confederate Commands 121 

Confederate Soldiers' Home 139 

Conspirators 135 

Constitutional Votes 77, 78 

Congressmen 70 

Convention of Taxpayers 244 

Corder 338 

Corder Bank 305, 307 

Corder Baptist Church 193 

Corder Catholic Church 160 

Corder "Journal" 298 

Coroners 73 

County Assesors 73 

County Clerks 73 

County Collectors 75 

County Finances 65 

County Government 59 

County Jails 62 

County Judges 75 

County Line Surveys 64 

County Medical Society 290 

County Militia Fund 84 

County Office Buildings 61 

County Officers 71 

County Poor House 62 

County Seat, First 42 

County Seat, Original 310 

County Surveyors 74 

County Treasurers 72 

Court House and Jail, First 59 

Court House, First 60 

Creeks in Lafayette County 38 

Crittenden, Thomas T 262 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church... 169 

Customs, Pioneer 49 


"Daily Advertiser," Lexington .... 299 

Daring Bank Robbery 305 

Dates of Constructing Railroads.... 247 

Davis Township 343 

Debt of the County, Bonded 240 

"Democrat," Odessa 298 

De Soto, Ferdinand 26 

Destruction of Chapel Hill College.. 204 

Doniphan's Regiment 79 

Dover 340 

Dover Catholic Church 162 

Dover Methodist Church 179 

Dover Township 336 

Dover Township, Early Settlement. . 336 

Drilling for Oil 318 


Early Business Interests, Lexington 312 

Early-day Ferries 63 

Early Morals 48 

Early Physicians 287 

Early School Statistics 199 

Early Settlement 45 

Educational Interests 197 

Edwards, Elisha M 265 

Elizabeth Aull Female Seminary.... 219 

Elks, Order of 228 

Encampment at Fairground 90 

Episcopal Church 178 

Evangelical Church, Mayview 172 


Evangelical Lutheran Zion Church, 

Corder 151 

Evangelical Lutherans 140 

Evangelical Trinity Church, Lexing- 
ton 177 

Events at Close of the War 136 

Events, First Important 50 

Expenditures of County, 1908 68 

Explosion of Steamboat "Saluda".. 393 


Fairground Encampment 90 

Farmers Bank, Higginsville 308 

Farmers Bank of Concordia 307 , 

Farmers Bank of Mayview 305 

Federal Commands 123 

Ferries, Early-day 63 

Field, Judge Richard 272 

Fifth Regiment Volunteer Infantry.. 125 

Finances of the County 65 

First Agricultural Society 229 

First Bank in Lafayette County 302 

First Baptist Church, Higginsville.. 190 

First Battle for Lafayette Men 84 

First Cavalry Regiment 125 

First Circuit Court 41, 42 

First County Seat 42 

First Court House and Jail 59 

First Events 46 

First German Settlers 51 

First Highways 62 

First Historical Event in County. 17, 27 

First Important Events 50 

First Licenses Issued 63 

First Marriages 64 

First Official Appointments 59 

First Permanent Settlement 27 

First Prisoner of War 87 

First Schools in Lafayette County.. 197 

First Settler, The 45 

First Settlers, Origin of 20 

First Troops Raised 83 

First Union Troops 87 

Fish Found in Lafayette County.... 34 

Flag Episode, Civil War 157 

Formation of Strata 29 

Fort Orleans ...'. 17, 27 

Freedom 352 

Freedom Township 351 

Freemasons 222 

French, Charles 258 


Geology of Lafayette County 29 

German Characteristics 57 

German Churches and Schools 54 

German Evangelical Salem Church, 

Higginsville 176 

German Farmer, The 53 

German Language 56 

German Newspaper 56 

German Settlers After the War 53 

German Settlements 20 

German Societies 56 

Germans of Lafayette County 51 

Gordon, Benjamin F 123 

Gordon, George P 123 

Governor Jackson Calls Militia 85 

Grange Movement . .• 232 

Grasshopper Plague 391 

Graves, Alexander 271 

Greenton 333 

Greenton Baptist Church 189 

Guerrillas 127 


Hayden, Judge Peyton R 251 

Hemp Growing 231 

Hicklin, Robert A 276 

Higginsville 348 

Higginsville Baptist Churches. . .190, 191 

Higginsville Catholic Church 161 

Higginsville Christian Church 185 

Higginsville German Evangelical Sa- 
lem Church 176 

Higginsville Methodist Church 180 

Higginsville Presbyterian Church... 166 

Highways, First 62 

Holy Cross Church, Emma 149 

Home for Confederate Soldiers .... 139 
Hopewell Presbyterian Church, 

Odessa 169 

Horticulture 229 

Houx, Ensign Nicholas 396 

Hurricane of July, 1869 323 


Immanuel Church, Higginsville .... 152 

Immanuel Congregation, Hazel Hill. 154 

Incidents of the Civil War 347 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows.. 225 

Indian Campaign Hoax 388 


"Intelligencer," Lexington 296 

Introductory 17 

Irving, Washington 47 


Jails 62 

"Journal," Corder 298 

Judges of the County Court 75 

Judges of the Probate Court 74 


Kansas-Nebraska Border War 81 

Knights of Pythias 227 


Lafayette Baptist Church 195 

Lafayette County, Boundary of 39 

Lafayette County, Geology of 29 

Lafayette County Industrial and 

Stock Association 230 

Lafayette County, Organization of . . 40 

Lafayette County's Soldiers 120 

Leonard, Abiel 253 

Lexington Bank Seized 93 

Lexington Baptist Church 187 

Lexington, Battle of 91 

Lexington Catholic Church 156 

Lexington Christian Church 184 

Lexington College for Young Women 211 

"Lafayette County Advance" 296 

Lexington "Daily Advertiser" 299 

Lexington Episcopal Church 178 

Lexington Evangelical Church 177 

Lexington Fire Department 315 

Lexington Gas and Electric Light 

Plant 317 

Lexington "Intelligencer" 296 

Lexington Masonic College 207 

Lexington Method st Episcopal 

Church South 178 

Lexington "News" 297 

Lexington Presbyterian Church .... 163 

Lexington Postoffice 316 

Lexington Public Schools 319 

Lexington, Recapture of 118 

Lexington Savings Bank 306 

Lexington School Board 321 

Lexington Township 362 

Lexington Waterworks 318 

"Lexingtonian" 297 

Licenses in 1880, Liquor 69 

Licenses Issued, First 63 

Lillard County 23 

Liquor Licenses, 1880 69 

Local Option Vote 78 

Location of Fort Orleans 17, 27 

Long Branch Baptist Church 191 

Lyons, Charles 282 


McKendree Methodist Church 182 

Marnin Methodist Chapel 184 

Marriages, First 64 

Masonic College 207 

Masons 222 

Mastodons in Lafayette County . . . 389 

Mayview 383 

Mayview Baptist Church 188 

Mayview Christian Church 186 

Mayview Evangelical Church 172 

Medical Profession 286 

Medical Society, County 290 

Merchants Bank, Odessa 308 

Methodist Church, Bates City 183 

Methodist Church, Dover 179 

Methodist Church, Higginsville .... 180 

Methodist Church, Mt. Tabor 180 

Methodist Church, Odessa 180 

Methodist Church, Waverly 179 

Methodist Church, Wellington 181 

Methodist Episcopal Church South, 

Lexington 178 

Mex'can War 79 

Middleton Township 365 

Military History of County 79 

Military Police 137 

Militia Fund 84 

Mines of the County, Coal 35 

Miscellaneous Commands 126 

Miscellaneous Events 388 

•\i*i ssouri Thalbote" 298 

Morals, Early 48 

Morrison-Wentworth Bank 306 

Mound-builders 23 

Mt. Tabor Methodist Church 180 

Mulligan's Story of Battle of Lex- 
ington 101 


Napoleon 333 

Napoleon Bank 306 

Napoleon Evangelical Church 174 



Native Trees of the County 33 

Neal's Chapel 182 

Negro Militia 137 

Neill's Militia 125 

"News," Lexington 297 

"News," Waverly 299 

"News," Wellington 299 

Newspapers of Lafayette County . . 292 

Newspapers of the Present Day .... 297 

Notes of Battle of Lexington 117 


Oath of Allegiance 77 

Oddfellowship 225 

Odessa 379 

Odessa Baptist Church 194 

Odessa Christian Church 186 

Odessa "Democrat" 298 

Odessa Methodist Church 180 

Odessa Presbyterian Church 169 

Office Buildings, County 61 

Official Appointments, First 59 

Official Roster 70 

Old Market Place, Lexington 314 

Old Men's Association 392 

"Old Sac" 80 

Old Street Car Line, Lexington 318 

Origin of First Settlers 20 

Original County Seat 310 

Organization of Lafayette County . . 40 

Organization of Townships 41 

Orleans, Location of Old Fort 17 


Phetzing, Uriah G 277 

Physician, First in Lafayette County 287 

Physicians, Early 287 

Physicians of Lafayette County, 

Present 290 

Pioneer Customs 49 

Plant Food Values of Soil 32 

Platting of Lexington 309 

Platting of Villages 43 

Poor House, County 62 

Population of Lafayette County.... 397 

Population of Towns and Townships. 397 

Presbyterian Church, Higginsville. . 166 

Presbyterian Church, Lexington 163 

Prairie Presbyterian Church 168 

Prehistoric Race 23 

Prehistoric Relics 24 

Present-day Newspapers 297 

Present Physicians of Lafayette 

County 290 

Presidential Vote 76 

Price, John M 281 

Price's Report of Battle of Lexing- 
ton 97 

Price's Retreat 86 

Prisoner of War, First 87 

Probate Judges 74 

Proposed Electric Line 248 

Prosecuting Attorneys 75 

Public Administrators 74 

Public Schools, Lexington 319 


Railroad Debt Compromise 245 

Railroading 234, 237 

Railroad Promoters 240 

Railroad Subscriptions, Vote for.... 238 

Railroads of Clay Township 328 

Recapture of Lexington 118 

Receipts of County, 1908 68 

Recollections by Captain Wilson . . 107 

Recorders 72 

Records, Absence of 41 

Reminiscences of War Times 57 

Representatives 71 

Retreat of Price's Army 86 

River Navigation 234 

Robert Aull Bank 303 

Rupe, Gilead 45 

Ryland, Judge John E 264 

Ryland, Judge John F 254 

Ryland, Xenophon 267 


St. John's Evangelical Church, Con- 
cordia 175 

St. Luke's Evangelical Church, Wel- 
lington 174 

St. Matthew's Congregation, Near 

Concordia 154 

St. Paul's Church, Concordia 140 

St. Paul's College 2x5 

St. Paul's Evangelical Church, Na- 
poleon 174 

St. Peter's Congregation, near Alma 155 

"Saluda," Explosion of Steamer 393 

Sawyer, Judge Samuel L 261 

School Statistics, Early 199 


Schools and Churches, German 54 

Schools, First in Lafayette County. 197 

Schools, Select and Private 322 

Schools, Superintendent of 76 

Schools, Town 200 

Seal, County 41 

Seal of the County 65 

Second Court House Erected 60 

Second Regiment Volunteer Infantry 125 

Secret Societies 222 

Select and Private Schools 322 

Senators 70 

Settlement, Early 45 

Settlement, First Permanent 27 

Settlement in 1837 47 

Seventh Cavalry Regiment 125 

Sharp, Fidelio C 259 

Sheriffs 72 

Shewalter, J. D 273 

Shrubs, Native, of the County 33 

Smart, Judge Robert G 264 

Smith, Cuthbert 265 

Sniabar, Origin of Name 371 

Sniabar Township 371 

Soil, Richness of the 32 

Soldiers' Home, Confederate 139 

Soldiers, Lafayette County's 120 

Spanish-American War 138 

State Bank of Dover 306 

State Representatives 71 

State Senators 70 

Steamboat'ng 234 

Strata, Formation of 29 

Streams of Lafayette County 38 

Superintendent of Public Schools... 76 

Surveyors 74 

Surveys, County Line 64 


Tabo, Origin of Name 336 

Tax List for 1828 65 

Taxes in 1870 67 

Taxpayers' Convention 244 

"Thalbote" 298 

The Press 292 

Third Court House 61 

Three Groves Church 183 

Three Groves Baptist Church 193 

Todd, Judge David 251 

Tompkins, Judge George 252 

Town Schools 200 

Towns and Villages, Clay Township 329 

Townships, Organization of 41 

Traders Bank, Lexington 306 

Transportation 234 

Treasurers, County 72 

Trees, Native, of the County 33 

Trinity Lutheran Church, Alma 150 

Tutt, Judge John A. S 263 


Union Troops, First 87 


Valuations of 1880 68 

Villages Platted 43 

Vivian, Clarence 279 

Vote on Local Option 78 

Vote on Railroad Subscriptions . . 238 

Vote, Presidential 76 

Votes on State Constitutions 77, 78 


Walker, Judge William 268 

Wallace Chapel Methodist Church . . 183 

War with Mexico ; . . . 79 

War-Time Murder 364 

War Times, a Reminiscence 57 

Washington Township 382 

Waterloo 335 

Waverly 366 

Waverly Bank 308 

Waverly Baptist Church 190 

Waverly "News" 299 

Waverly Methodist Church 179 

Welborn, John 277 

Wellington 330 

Wellington Bank 307 

Wellington, Battle of 119 

Wellington, Business Interests 332 

Wellington Evangelical Church 174 

Wellington Methodist Church 181 

Wellington "News" 299 

Wells, Robert W 255 

Wentworth Military Academy 204 

Western Bible and Literary College. 219 

White Race, Advent of the 26 

Wilson, William B 277 

Wood, Judge William T 256 


Young, Judge Henderson 258 



Adair, Abner John 487 

Adams, Eli Sterling Price 540 

Alger, Charles F., M. D 472 

Alger, Charles Fremont 471 

Allen, Alden Williams 467 

Ardinger, John P 646 

Armentrout, George W 832 

Asbury, Ai Edgar 640 

Ashurst Brothers 508 

Ashurst, John 1 508 

Ashurst, Robert E 508 

Aull, John 432 

Aull, Mary E. Meteer 433 

Aull, William 434 

Ayres, Philip E 616 


Baepler, Andrew 740 

Bargfrede, Herman 772 

Barker, Mathew 752 

Barker, Stephen W 752 

Barnett, Jefferson Davis 785 

Barnett, John M 769 

Barnett, Joseph Ryland 442 

Bascom, Lee 553 

Bascom, Walker 627 

Beale, Arthur L 575 

Beamer, Menoah 782 

Bear, Samuel 764 

Becker, Frank 549 

Bell, George T 543 

Belt, Marcus L 736 

Benton, Richard H 623 

Berry, John L 789 

Bertsch, Fred J 721 

Bishop, Alfred 567 

Bishop, Rufus L 682 

Blackwell, James F 47 1 

Board, James J 692 

Bonkoski, Andrew 707 

Brackmann, Ernest 807 

Brackmann, George Frederick 600 

Bradley, Jackson 535 

Branch, Glover 464 

Bray, James L 827 

Bredehoeft, John J., Jr 597 

Brinkman, Fritz 565 

Brinkman, Henry 566 

Brockhoff, Charles 547 

Brooks, Alexander 524 

Broughton, Robert W 700 

Bruns, August E 599 

Buck, Napoleon P 774 

Euehler, Rev. William C 558 

Butt, Edward S 444 

Butt, Thomas 444 


Calfee, John C 726 

Campbell, Urbin S 727 

Carthrae, Lewis, M. D 684 

Carthrae, Lewis, Jr., M. D 685 

Chalkley, A. Judson, M. D 514 

Chalkley, William B 514 

Chamblin, R. L., Sr 687 

Chiles, William H 423 

Chinn, Joseph G 667 

Chinn, Thomas M 439 

Christy, Bainbridge 419 

Christy, Joseph H 418 

Cobb, John C 818 

Cobb, Rev. Thomas M 713 

Coen, Leonard 479 

Coffin, John Oliver 644 

Colvin, Robert S 734 

Corder, James S 652 

Corse, Henry B 706 

Creasey, Samuel W 771 

Crews, Edwin P 755 


DeLay, James A 670 

Deterding, George 671 

Dieckhoff, Hermann 822 

Dierker, Henry G 708 


Donaldson, John H 815 

Douthitt, R. W 542 

Drosselmeyer, Fred 563 

Drummond, Beatty C 624 

Drummond, Milton 624 

Duval, Louis 735 


Eckle, Walter Rockwell, D. D. S 637 

Elliott, Benjamin 591 

Emison, William B 834 

Eppes, John Boyd 779 

Ewing, Joel H 661 

Ewing, John M 628 

Ewing, Neander C 661 

Ewing, Walker E 628 


Fehner, Herman Gerhard 809 

Ferguson, Jonas T 592 

Ficken, Henry 544 

Field, John 449 

Field, Richard 448 

Field, William H 449 

Fieth, Herman 583 

Filler, Oscar L 655 

Filler, Solomon 534 

Fischer, Henry W 527 

Fischer, J. G. W., M. D 512 

Fitch, George A 569 

Ford, Cornelius Y 790 

Ford, John R 500 

Ford, Walter P 500 

Franz, Fred 773 

Frazer, Benjamin Boyd 510 

Fredendall, George W 461 

Frerking, Gustavus Adolphus 560 

Freymiller, Fred 711 

Frick, William C 617 

Frye, George Benjamin 681 

Fuchs, Andrew 821 

Fulkerson, Jacob J., M. D 608 


Galbraith, Horace J 557 

Garr, George Wilhoit 663 

Gavin, Michael 528 

Gavin, Thomas 529 

Geraughty, James J 757 

Gibson, James A 575 

Gibson, John E 576 

Gladish, James E 674 

Goetz, John 753 

Goodwin, James W 828 

Goodwin, William C, M. D 722 

Gordon, George P 427 

Gordon, Jno. P 427 

Gordon, Lynn B 501 

Greife, Rev. Frederick Wilhelm 537 

Greife, Henry William 538 

Grosshart, Jarrott S 803 

Groves, J. F 647 

Groves, Jesse Lee 587 

Groves, William M 696 


Hader, Edward Franklin 778 

Hagood, Joseph B 446 

Haerle, Nicholas 509 

Hall, George 689 

Ham, John 695 

Hancock, David H 607 

Hannah, James W 730 

Hartman Brothers 690 

Hartman, H. C 691 

Hartman, William 691 

Hartwig, Fred H 820 

Harwood, William G 798 

Hefter, B. E 698 

Henning, Henry 586 

Hereford, Ammon B 633 

Hereford, George H 632 

Hereford, John B 633 

Herold, Isaac N 783 

Hickman, William F 584 

Hinck, Thees 831 

Hix, Frederick Trent 454 

Hoefer, Charles 451 

Hoefer, Charles, Jr 463 

Hohenwald, Charles H 649 

Hohenwald, Robert H 649 

Holscher, Henry 533 

Hook, O. A 750 

Horstmann, Charles F. W 823 

Horton, John B 570 

Houx, George W 483 

Houx, Nicholas Mattison 482 


Jackson, Cyrus Walker 588 



Jackson, James, Jr 651 

Jackson, John F 714 

Jennings, J. H 531 

Jennings, William H 531 

Johnson, Claud W 835 

Johnson, Louis 788 

Johnson, William T 760 


Kaeppel, Rev. John Henry C 453 

Kampf, E. J., Dr 475 

Karsten, William L 709 

Keith, Charles Alexander 477 

Keith, John 784 

Keith, William P 477 

Keith, William P 746 

Kellermann, William H 805 

Kessler, Fred 585 

Kessler, George G 564 

Kessler, William 654 

Kincheloe, Charles W 610 

Kirkpatrick, John 626 

Kleinschmidt, H. F 488 

Klingenberg, J. W 770 

Klingenberg, John S 604 

Knipmeyer, Henry 804 

Knipmeyer, John Herman 562 


Lake, Thomas Marion 491 

Lankford, Chatham E 522 

Lankford, George 526 

Lankford, John D 525 

Larkin, John F 705 

Lewis, Charles J 559 

Lewis, Jonas J 762 

Liese, Charles 683 

Liese, Frederick 816 

Lieser, F. D., M. D 710 

Lobeck, Rev. Henry 726 

Lohoefener, John P 602 

Lynch, William M 572 

Lyons, John Earle 768 

Lyons, John L 836 


McDaniel, Mrs. Bessie 441 

McFadden, John 573 


Mann, Francis W., M. D 702 

Mann, John A., M. D 496 

Mann, Robert L 701 

Marquis, George Claud 486 

Meinershagen, Benjamin, D. V. S. . . . 606 

Meinershagen, Frederick G 792 

Meyer, William H 810 

Miller, Thomas Jones 697 

Morris, Daniel Connor 507 

Mulhearn, Michael 801 

Musgrove, William G 678 


Neer, Charles E 811 

Nolte, Otto 611 

Nordsieck, Henry 679 

Null, George W 727 

Null, Samuel 728 


Offel, Henry 519 

Osborn, P. Walker 489 


Pardieck, Rev. Eduard 719 

Payne, Bryan Temple, M. D 639 

Payne, Charles H 829 

Peacock, Franklin 615 

Peacock, John H 754 

Peterson, Algert T 715 

Phelps, Charles D 799 

Phetzing, Uriah George 473 

Plattenburg, J. R 812 

Powell, Burr G 555 

Powell, David J., Jr 582 

Powell, Edward B 793 

Powell, Henry C 554 

Powell, John H 598 

Powell, Joseph P 443 

Powell, Richard W 571 

Powell, Walter S 629 

Price, Frank C 796 

Puckett, Thomas T 717 


Rabius, Gustave H 729 

Rankin, William David 458 

Redd, William A 739 

Rethmeyer, Christopher 743 

Rethmeyer, Frederick W 744 

Rieger, Rev. Nicholas P 724 

Ritter, G. A 555 


Robison, John E 668 

Rodekohr, Harry 742 

Roehrs, Henry 833 

Rogge, George Frederick 694 

Royle, Charles H 505 

Russell, Robert T 630 

Ryland, Caius Tacitus, M. D 435 

Ryland, John E 435 

Ryland, John F 437 

Ryland, Legrand 741 

Ryland, Xenophon 420 


Sander, John 530 

Sanders, James H 751 

Sandring, Albert Walter 665 

Santmyer, John Barnett 621 

Schmidt, Conrad 692 

Schmidt, Joseph H 776 

Schoede, Rev. August Hermann 720 

Schooling, Samuel A 658 

Schreiman, Charles 561 

Schreiman, Ferdinand, M. D 603 

Schreiman, William 808 

Schneider, J. A., M. D 594 

Scott, George 725 

Sellers, Sandford 456 

Semmler, Charles F., Jr 716 

Seuser, Fred P 620 

Sevin, Richard P 737 

Shelby, Joseph B 781 

Sherwood, Dyer 680 

Siler, John T 552 

Slusher, David A 672 

Slusher, John D 656 

Slusher, Lee J 656 

Slusher, Thomas H 673 

Smarr, Edward T 676 

Smith, John R 732 

Smith, Samuel L 580 

Smith, William L 614 

Speas, Andrew J 499 

Staley, David A 748 

Starke, William Thomas 796 

Steele, Harrison 826 

Strodtman, William 777 


Tempel, Christopher 650 

Terhune, Lock 521 

Thee, H. C 733 

Thomas, Emory Meredith 765 

Tracy, Kemuel 806 

Trail, George L 494 

Trail, Leonard 494 


Uphaus, Casper H 498 

Uphaus, Martin H 497 


Vance, Isaac N 704 

Vandiver, Charles H 424 

Van Meter, Abram 550 

Van Meter, Richard T 551 

Vaughan, John W 795 

Vickars, James S 787 

Vogt, Julius, Jr 595 


Waddell, William H 518 

Wagoner, Charles W 634 

Wagoner, Ira E 636 

Wagoner, John T 635 

Wahrenbrock, John E 767 

Wakeman, George W 745 

Wakeman, Jared 745 

Walkenhorst, Francis H 712 

Walkenhorst, William F 718 

Walker, John 688 

Walker, William 699 

Wallace, Fidelio Lee 756 

Wallace, Henry 470 

Wallace, Henry C, Sr 470 

Wallace, Henry Crockett, Jr 468 

Walton, James R 430 

Watkins, Hollis E 747 

Weaver, Lucius F 613 

Weaver, William J 613 

Weedin, Benjamin D 517 

Wentworth, Stephen G 417 

Wessel, John H 749 

White, Albert 776 

Whitsett, William A 786 

Williams, John W 485 

Williams, Samuel W 484 

Williamson, Thomas D 545 

Williamson, Turner 546 

Wilson, C. L 685 

Wilson, Stephen N 455 


Wilson, Upton 455 

Winkler, Fred 576 

Winkler, Henry 576 

Winkler, Oswald 579 

Winn, James M 618 

Wright, Zachariah William 515 


Yancey, David L 817 

Yancey, Leyton 539 

Yancey, Paul W 824 

Yancey, Samuel R 814 

Yates, Elihu 659 

Yates, Lewis Cass 659 

Young, A. G 504 

Young, Alfred A 520 

Young, Fred A 502 

Young, Henderson 481 

Young, R. C 800 

Young, Rufus 503 

Young, William 480 

Settled in Lafayette County in 1815 




Whether America came forth as an habitable continent when God said, 
"Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and 
let the dry land appear," or whether when fabled Atlantis sunk into the sea, 
America lifted herself up from out of the waters, or whether her physical de- 
velopment is comparatively as modern as her civilization, must remain the 
sport of conjecture. No ancient record speaks of her existence. Until her 
new phase of civilization commences, her past is indeed a dead past. 

The design of this work is to present a history of Lafayette county, Mis- 
souri, which is indeed a very small plat in this great territory, omitting as far 
as possible all those matters of general history which it shares in common with 
the rest of the country and limiting the record to those facts, figures and cir- 
cumstances that particularly affect the small territory selected. 

The first historical event in this county was the location of old Ft. 
Orleans by the French voyageurs in 1720 on the Missouri river, near the 
mouth of Tabo creek. Unfortunately there are no records in existence which 
of themselves establish its location beyond a doubt. Lippincott's "Gazetteer 
of Missouri," published at an early date, locates it in a general way as on the 
Missouri river some fifty miles above Jefferson City, but another and more 
accurate author fixes the locality as on the south side of the river, about twenty 
miles above the mouth of the Grand river, which comes within ten miles of 
what we here claim as the exact spot, and which, considering the usual want 
of accuracy in giving distances in those times, may well pass for that location. 
The writer is assured in his own mind that the location of Fort Orleans is as 
here claimed. There is no other spot between there and the mouth of the 
Grand river to which any reference has been made as to its location and the 
writer was assured in his early boyhood by old men who had followed the line 
of occupation and settlement from their youth and who had received this in- 


formation from others still older who had made incursions into this section 
long before there was ever a permanent white settlement. The original fort 
was completely destroyed and its occupants massacred by the Indians not 
many years after its location and the fort was never rebuilt, but there was 
always a landing place there from which a trail ran out into the interior and 
the location was always called Fort Orleans until, after the settlers began to 
come in, a small hamlet was built on or near the site of the old fort which the 
patriotic Americans called Mount Vernon. This trail began at the river land- 
ing, ran up along the river north of what is now the Dover road to the city 
of Lexington. From thence it turned almost due south, running along what 
is now Twenty-first street, keeping on the dividing ridges between the branches 
and ravines which flowed away from it on either side, and did not cross run- 
ning water until it crossed Little Sniabar creek, at a ford in section 30, town- 
ship 50, range 27, where there is now a bridge, passed on to the crest of a 
high ridge known as the Devil's Backbone, thence on out south, where it 
finally terminated at the old Jesuit mission in southeastern Kansas, called 
Osage Mission. 

As the country settled and the farms were fenced in, the trail was 
changed to division lines and turned into a public road which from the earliest 
day was called the "Old Missionary Road." This trail was used by the early 
travelers and traders with the Indians. 

But the history proper of Lafayette county begins with the advent of 
the first permanent settler, in 181 5, and it may be profitable to take a view of 
the country as it then appeared. The general appearance of the country at 
that time, except along the bluffs of the Missouri river, was that of a low 
rolling prairie, threaded east, west, north and south by narrow strips of tim- 
ber which skirted the larger streams. The line of demarkation between prairie 
and timber was very sharply defined. Prairie fires occurred every spring be- 
fore the grass began to grow, burned the grass up to the very edge of the 
timber, thus keeping the timber within its bounds. It may be wondered why 
these fires did not destroy the timber also. This is the reason : All the tim- 
ber regions were covered with a heavy undergrowth of green pea vines and 
weeds ten feet high. These grew so dense, I have been told by the old set- 
tlers, that the ground never froze in the hardest winter. The tops of the 
vines were killed for several feet and fell over in a mat, while underneath the 
vines continued green the whole winter long so that the mass was never dry 
enough to burn, but effectually stopped the fire. 

All over the prairies the grass grew luxuriantly and the soil was loose 
and held water like a great sponge. When it rained the water did not rush 


off down the hills into the creeks, as it does now, but was held by the grass 
roots and soil, whence it slowly trickled in tiny rivulets, keeping them and 
the streams running full the whole year round. The prairies were all full 
of dangerous bogs and wet-weather springs where the water seeped out along 
the hillsides continually. It was most difficult and occasionally dangerous to 
travel across the prairie on foot, and horseback riding across such a country, 
except along a few well marked lines, was all but impossible. The dense 
undergrowth of vines in the creek bottoms was impassable except along paths 
made by the elks, which here abounded. These animals, standing six feet 
high and over at the shoulder, with spiked and spreading antlers, almost as 
tall again, by their great strength made themselves paths through the bottoms 
and ranged over the country without fear of molestation by any beast of 
prey. For many years malaria was prevalent. Every house and family had 
its fever and ague patients. The settlers seemed to take this as a matter of 
course. To shake and burn every third day seemed the natural thing to do. 
James Lillard, of Tennessee, who had gained great prominence here, on his 
return to Tennessee wrote letters advising his countrymen not to come to such 
an unhealthy country. This so offended the people of Missouri that at the 
first opportunity they changed the name of the county, which had been called 
after Lillard, to Lafayette. This unhealthy condition has passed away, fever 
and ague are things of the past, and Lafayette county will now compare with 
any other section of the country in healthfulness. 

Perhaps the most difficult thing to realize about the section of country in 
which we live is its newness — its newness to civilization. When we look 
over the broad land, thickly settled, widely improved and well cultivated, dot- 
ted over with thriving towns and villages, with here and there magnificently 
built cities, all evidences of a state of high civilization, it requires no small 
effort to realize that less than a century ago all of this great country was just 
as it came from the hands of its Creator, adorned only by nature, without a 
sign of the hand of man to mar its appearance, its few inhabitants, the children 
of nature, leaving its wilds unmarked by the labor of their hands. 

For the first fifteen years the population of the county increased very 
slowly. The immigrants were mostly roving pioneers, who had been keeping 
in advance of civilization from the beginning of its march westward. They 
were restless under any control and loved to live in surroundings where every 
man could do that which was right in his own sight, and they generally pushed 
on as other settlers followed. 

In the early thirties there began a new condition of things. Real home- 


seeking immigrants began to pour into this new and fertile country where 
land was so cheap they could easily find homes for their growing families. 
While there was some immigration from nearly every quarter of the United 
States, the vast majority came from Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina. 
A sprinkle of New Englanders and Pennsylvanians were included. After a 
while, beginning in the late forties, there was an inrush of Kentuckians, who 
were closely allied by blood and marriage to many of the settlers already here. 
While almost every nationality had a representative, the great mass were 
descended from the inhabitants of the British Isles, and the great majority of 
these were of the most aggressive branch of the dominant family of the super- 
ior race of mankind. Their names spoke their origin. There were Johnsons, 
and Jacksons, Wilsons and Petersons, and all the other sons! Then there 
were the Carpenters and Bakers and Masons and Carters and Taylors and 
Coopers and all other callings and occupations ; there were Blacks and Browns 
and Greens and Redds and Greys and all the other shades and colors; there 
were Rylands and Hills and Fields and Longs and Shorts and Walkers and 
Rhodes; there were Barnes and Calloways and Youngs and Smiths and 
Smiths! In addition there were Irish Aulls and O's and Mac's and Scotch 
Campbells and Stewarts. 

There was a sturdy German here and there and an occasional French- 
man, but the great mass were descended from the middle English. But soon 
another element made its appearance. The thrifty German began to come in 
colonies. They founded settlements completely German. In the town of 
Lexington there was a small colony ; the north side of Main street was almost 
exclusively occupied by their business houses and was popularly called "Dutch 
Row." The southern part of Freedom township was almost exclusively oc- 
cupied by them and Concordia was as much a German town as if it had been 
located in Germany itself. Drawn together by a language different from that 
of their neighbors, with different social customs, they lived almost to them- 
selves, with very little intercourse with their English-speaking neighbors. 
From this condition there naturally arose no small jealousy and mutual criti- 
cism. As the passage of time was bringing about a better understanding, the 
Civil war broke out. The great majority of the English-speaking people 
sympathized with the South, while the Germans were almost unanimously 
loyal to the Union. This could have no other effect than to intensify the 
antagonism and excite animosity between the two peoples. Naturally there 
were some outrages committed on both sides during the war, but, considering 
the circumstances, they were remarkably few. Here the writer will stop to 
remark that the people of Lafayette county, English and German, have reason 



to be proud of their record in respect to their treatment of each other during 
those trying times. Nearly fifty years have passed since the close of that 
wonderful contest. In the light of the present, events take on a different 
aspect from that in which they appeared at the time. We challenge the 
world to produce a parallel. A civil war that divided households, raging in 
an open country where there were no forts or fenced cities, where the citizen 
remained in his own home comparatively defenseless, composed of two nation- 
alities divided in sentiment along that line. They being in close proximity 
to one another, yet as a general thing regardful of each other's rights, social, 
political and otherwise, with scarcely a personal clash, with very little inter- 
ference, during four years of a hot civil war, presents a spectacle never seen 
in any other country save our own United States. Lafayette county emerged 
from the war rejoicing that it was over and without a single feud in its borders. 

Since the war the German population has steadily increased. Many of 
the settlers of English descent have moved out farther west and their places 
have been taken by German immigrants from other parts of the state and from 
the old country and should the same conditions continue it will not be many 
years before they will rival in numbers the other white settlers of the county. 

Lafayette county's large coal fields have created a demand for miners, 
which has brought in other elements of population. For ten years past there 
have been at least two thousand miners engaged in this business, most of them 
foreigners, and while this population is rather transient, some of them have 
made permanent homes here. There are French and Swedes and Italians and 
Syrians and others, forming no inconsiderable addition to the population. 

There is another element in its population to which no reference has as 
yet been made but whose presence adds to the difficulties of the problems which 
arise. This is the negro element. Lafayette county ranked second among the 
counties in Missouri, in the number of slaves owned before the war. The 
negroes who were brought here and who have been raised here are far super- 
ior in intelligence and good citizenship to the negro of the South. There 
were few large plantations in the county and the slaves, being owned in small 
numbers, were managed by their own masters on their farms without the 
intervention of overseers. In fact the great majority of them were slaves 
with which their masters had grown up on their fathers' farms and which they 
had inherited from their fathers' estates and were thus brought into closer re- 
lationship and sympathy than simply that of master and slave. There was an 
exodus of slaves from this county to Kansas during the latter part of the war, 
but many returned after the war was over. They were attracted back to 
their old homes as much by their affection for their old and young masters as 


by any other motive. This may account for the fact that notwithtsanding 
the large number of negroes in Lafayette county, there has never been any 
serious clash between the races. 

For years past writers on public questions have been predicting that the 
great social problems of humanity would be worked out in the Mississippi 
valley. Here, they have said, all creeds and nationalities would meet on equal 
terms in a country surpassing in resources, under a free government, where 
everything that affects the social excellence and progress of mankind would 
be put to the test of actual experience and comparison, and that here will sur- 
vive the best and fittest for the use of man. It is plain that a great drama is 
being acted here. Missouri, occupying a central position in this great stretch 
of country, will share her part and Lafayette, holding within its borders all 
the elements and factors of the problem, will enjoy and suffer the fullest ex- 
perience of the struggle and present in its borders a miniature of the great 


History is but a record of the rise and fall of nations and empires. It 
repeatedly records how primitive people with primitive habits and virtues, 
march out and conquer older civilizations and lift themselves up in power and 
might, until, becoming rich and luxurious, in their turn they become corrupt 
and effete and are themselves conquered and subdued by a newer people. The 
rise of every nation has been based on the primitive virtues. Their fall has 
followed their moral degradation. As the morals decay the nation decays. 
Moral corruption is but the consequence of debased conscience and conscience 
has always been developed by the nation's religion. 

Strictly speaking, Lafayette county is too young to have a history. So 
far, only the foundations of civilization have been made ; the elements have 
only been brought together. The consequences are to follow and it is their 
development that constitutes the true history of a country. The pages that 
follow are necessarily more statistical than historical. The future historian 
will gather from these statistics the reasons, causes and events which he may 
be called upon to record. An examination into the church history of Lafay- 
ette county, as shown by the statistics here given, will impress upon any 
thinking mind the fact of how deeply is the religious idea fixed in the very 
heart and soul of the county's society and Lafayette county is only an index 
of all of rural Missouri, which in turn is a fair illustration of society in the 
great Mississippi valley. It is not too much to hope that the theme of the 
historian will constantly be the rise of the nation; that while there may be 
retrogression, it will be saved from fall by the activity of her conscience, con- 
trolled by the only perfect code of personal, social and political conduct. 



Lafayette county (then called Lillard) was included in the lot of new 
counties organized by an act of the Missouri Legislature November 16, 1820. 
It embraced all that portion of country taken from Cooper county, lying west 
of the present eastern boundary of Lafayette county, and between the Missouri 
river on the north and the Osage river on the south. It was named Lillard after 
James Lillard, the first member of the Legislature from this locality, who 
introduced the bill which created the several new counties above mentioned. 
The territory had previously been within Howard county, but in 1818 Cooper 
was cut off and from it came the present Lafayette county. The name Lillard 
was changed by the Legislature of 1824-5 to Lafayette, in honor of General 
Lafayette, the distinguished Frenchman, who at that date was paying St. 
Louis a visit, being received with a magnificent ovation. James Lillard had 
abandoned his namesake and returned to Tennessee and this displeased the 
people here, hence they sought and obtained a new name — Lafayette. 

Before entering into the real history of the organized county of Lafayette, 
the reader will be informed as to how this territory was obtained by white 
men, its natural characteristics, geological formation and other points of gen- 
eral interest, including the various races of people who occupied its fair and 
fertile domain. 


Missouri has several evidences of a pre-historic race of people, and such 
evidences are found to considerable extent within Lafayette county. One evi- 
dence of this long-ago race of people's activities in this section of Missouri is 
at Kansas City, where, in 1876, on the banks of the Missouri river, were dis- 
covered several groups of earth works. Some were built entirely of earth, 
and some had a rude chamber or vault inside, but covered with earth so as to 
look the same as earth from the exterior. These were in irregular shape, gen- 
erally oval in form and from four to six feet in height, and upon them were 
growing large forest trees. The works were investigated by W. H. R. Ly- 
kins, of Kansas City, and this is a part of his description of the excavation* 

"We did not notice any marked peculiarity as to these bones, except their 


great size and thickness, and the great prominence of the supraciliary ridges. 
The teeth were worn down to a smooth and even surface. The next one we 
opened was a stone mound. On clearing off the top of this we came upon a 
stone wall inclosing an area of about eight feet square, with a narrow opening 
or doorway for an entrance on the south side. The wall was about two feet 
thick ; the inside was as smooth and compactly built and the corners correctly 
squared as if constructed by a practical workman. No mortar had been used. 
At a depth of about two feet from the top of the wall we found a layer of 
five skeletons, lying with their feet toward the south." 

In other sections of Missouri are found like evidences of a pre-historic 
race. Among such are those found in Crawford, Clay, Pike and Gasconade 
counties ; also some in Boone, Calloway and other counties. The first evi- 
dences of such people's workmanship were found in 1819, by Major H. S. 
Long, at St. Louis. He made a map of these "mounds" and sent it to the 
department at Washington. It was from this incident that St. Louis was 
styled the "Mound City." No matter what theory may be advanced as to 
the builders of these Missouri mounds by a pre-historic race, who at one time 
peopled this country, the citizens of Missouri and of Lafayette county may 
feel confident that a different type of humanity flourished all over this region 
hundreds — yes thousands — of years ago, and that they were marked by differ- 
ent modes of life from those of the North American Indian known to modern 
days. Their origin, their careers and into what they finally merged, or were 
succeeded by, will doubtless ever be mere speculations, as their true record has 
been lost in the shifting sands of oblivion. 

In Lafayette county has long ago been discovered an ancient mound- 
builders' village near the city of Lexington. It is situated on the north half 
of the southeast quarter of section 27, township 51, range 27, known as the 
old Cromwell place, just across a ravine north from the old Judge A. S. Tutt 
place. Here five or six acres are dotted over with flint chips, bits of ancient 
pottery and other relics of the race long ago forgotten in the world's history 
of races. The Lexington Intelligencer of June 25, 1881, is the authority for 
the following paragraphs : 

"Two of the Intelligencer office boys, Frank Lamborn and Eathen Allen, 
Jr., have specimens of flint arrow heads and other curious things which they 
showed to Professor Reid, of the Missouri Historical Society, and he has listed 
and named them thus: 

"Eathen Allen's List— One flint drill three and a half inches long, used 
by an ancient people to drill their soap stones for making pipes; four flint 
arrow heads of different sizes, shapes and colors; one flesher, an implement 


made of green stone, and which was used as a hand wedge or peeler in the 
process of skinning animals. This tool weighs just one pound. It was also 
used to peel bark, it is believed. 

"Frank Lamborn's List — Consists of twenty-five arrow heads and jave- 
lin heads, varying from an inch and a half to five inches in length. Five so- 
called shovels, from three to six and a half inches long; one flesher; one stone 
ax — a beautiful specimen made from a species of granite. 

"Last Monday evening the boys went with Professor Reid out to a place 
they called 'Indian Hill,' east of the old Masonic College, and there they 
found great quantities of flint chips, broken arrow heads, fragments of ancient 
pottery with different styles of ornamentation, and, best of all, a tiny ax made 
of copper. The last article is supposed to have been an emblem of authority, 
kept or worn by the chief. The abundance of flint chips and broken bits of 
pottery show that a manufactory of arrow heads, flint knives, shovels, stone 
axes and pottery must have been kept there for some time. The copper ax 
found at this point looks as though it may have been molded, instead of ham- 
mered out from the virgin ore." 

Professor Reid made many other trips hereabouts and found other relics 
bearing the same unmistakable evidence of a pre-historic race. Other evi- 
dences are the mounds partly dug away at the Elizabeth Aull seminary prop- 
erty, and the one unexplored overlooking the river bank. 

Where the old Lexington and Warrensburg road crosses the creek is a 
group of five mounds on Brush creek, section 36, township 50, range 27. An- 
other mound is located on the southeast quarter of section 24, township 51, 
range 27; also two more on the Doctor Wilmott place, northwest quarter of 
section 23 ; others on section 22, a quarter of a mile northeast from the negro 
burying ground on the Aull estate. Still another large mound is found on sec- 
tion 5, township 50, range 27. Before the Civil war, old Mr. Odell dug into 
it from top to bottom. Its extreme height was about six feet. A layer of 
loose stones had been laid on the ground and then the earth piled up over 
them. No wall or chamber was found, nor any relics except a few crumbling 
human bones. 

Jackson Cox, in his field in the south half of section 2, township 48, range 
28, Sniabar township, plowed up an ancient pipe of flattened oval form, with a 
groove and two creases worked around from the stem hole. It is made of the 
pipe-stone variety of material. 

Charles Teubner, of Lexington, made a collection, many years since, 
of over two thousand specimens in flint, comprising arrow heads, spear heads, 
javelins, daggers, knives, lances, etc. He also collected all over the state and 


had the largest collection of any man in the entire state, if not the country. 
Many of these fine specimens have found their way to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, at Washington. 


Florida was discovered by that daring adventurer, Ponce de Leon, in 
1 5 12. He was a Spanish explorer who was imbued with the then current be- 
lief that in this country existed vast mines of gold, precious stones, and springs 
of water whose elements, if drank, would perpetuate vigor and youth eternally 
— at least such is ascribed to this adventurer by tradition and legend. It is 
believed also that the Spaniards in Old Mexico had gathered from the na- 
tives an inkling of this supposed "fountain of perpetual youth" from the 
healing waters now known as the Hot Springs of Arkansas, and the brilliant 
quartz crystals found among the rich ores of Missouri gave an understanding 
that here was true and untold wealth in store for the explorer who would but 
venture to this then unknown section of the New World. 

Ferdinand de Soto landed in Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1539 and in May, 
1 54 1, discovered the "Great river," a few miles below the present city of 
Memphis. After remaining there long enough to build rude boats, he pushed 
on as far as where New Madrid now stands, and this was doubtless the first 
time that the eyes of white men ever looked out upon the soil now known as 
the state of Missouri. This was three hundred and sixty-nine years ago, so 
that really, while the New Englander may boast of its Plymouth Rock, and 
Jamestown. Virginia, of its first American settlement, they are far behind in 
point of time in being viewed and explored by the white race. De Soto and 
his army entered Missouri from the south, twice crossing the Ozarks. He 
spent the winter of 1541-42 in Vernon county, in the extreme western part of 
the state. Ruins of their camp and smelting operations are still to be seen. 
They melted lead ore for silver and zinc blende (Smithsonite) for supposed 
gold. To their disgust, they soon found they handled but the baser metals, 
but which have in these later days made that section of our commonwealth 
one of vast richness. 

The above was the beginning of operations by white men on what is now 
Missouri soil, and it was then abandoned for a period of one hundred and 
thirty-two years (June, 1673), when the French missionaries, Marquette and 
Joliet, went down the Mississippi river as far as the mouth of the Missouri 
river, which stream they named "Muddy Water river" and it was thus known 
until about 1712, when it was known as the "River of the Missouris," from 
the Indian tribe found living in lands now comprised in St. Louis county. 
These great navigators, en route down the river, camped on Missouri soil 


several times, and finally discovered the Ohio river, as well as the waters of 
the Arkansas. They reached Green bay, Wisconsin, again in September that 
year (1673). 

In 1678 the French people built a fort at a point near present Peoria, 
Illinois, had a trading post and missionary station there, and during the win- 
ter of 1681-82 Robert de la Salle made preparations to explore the Mississippi 
river country to its mouth. He embarked with his fleet in February, 1682, 
but he makes no reference in his log book of stopping on Missouri soil. He 
reached the mouth of the Mississippi early in April, that year, and at once set 
up a column bearing the cross of the royal arms of France, and there, during 
the imposing ceremony, La Salle, in a clear loud voice, proclaimed and took 
possession of all the country between the "great gulf and the frozen ocean," 
in the name of the "most high, mighty and victorious prince, Louis the Great, 
by the grace of God king of France and Navarre, the fourteenth of the name, 
this 9th day of April, 1682." This whole territory was by him named Loui- 
siana — Louis' land — and named the river itself St. Louis. Thus it came about 
that the state of Missouri first became a part of Louisiana and passed into the 
ownership and authority of the French government. 

Up to 1705 the French people had kept on the east side of the Mississippi 
river, but during that year they sent out an exploring party in search of gold. 
The party prospected as far as the mouth of the Kansas river, where now 
stands Kansas City, but, not succeeding, returned in disgust. Then in 17 12 
the king of France gave a royal patent to Anthony Crozat for all the lands 
within the Louisiana country. He sent out practical miners in search of gold, 
but they found only iron, copper, lead, mica, pyrites, quartz crystals, etc., so 
after five years of disappointment, in 171 7, Crozat returned his charter to his 
king, Louis XIV. 

The next scheme was in 17 16, by the Scotchman, John Law, whose wild 
frenzied-finance scheme, as it might be called today, was known as the "Mis- 
sissippi bubble," "The South Sea Bubble," etc. This was another gold mining 
enterprise which failed, but some of the miners fell to lead mining and sent 
the product of the mines back to France. In 1731 this charter was returned 
to the king. 


Lippincott's "World's Gazetteer" says : "Fort Orleans, near where Jeffer- 
son City now stands [as a matter of fact, the location was in Lafayette 
county], was built by the French in 1719; this was a temporary safe-guard for 
John Law's crazy gold hunters, but did not make a permanent settlement. 


Kaskaskia, Illinois, was settled by the French in 1673, and was the metropolis 
of the 'Upper Louisiana' for about a century. In 1735 some of the French 
moved across the river and made a settlement in Missouri, at what is now 
known as St. Genevieve, which was the first permanent settlement made and 
maintained within the state; the previous adventurers in search of mineral 
wealth had located mining camps at several points, but had not established 
any permanent town or trading post." 

The next settlement was made at St. Louis, by the noted Frenchman, 
Pierre Liguest Laclede, who lived in New Orleans in 1762 and organized the 
Louisiana Fur Company, carrying on his operations as far north as St. Peter, 
Minnesota. He located his main post where St. Louis now stands, the date 
being December, 1763. He named the place in honor of his king, Louis XIV, 
but never once dreamed that for two years the territory had been the prop- 
erty of Spain. The English government took possession of the territory 
about Kaskaskia (Fort de Chartres), after which many of the French and 
friendly Indians came to the site of present St. Louis, which caused the place 
to grow quite rapidly. The next settlements sprung up at New Bourbon, 
1789, while St. Charles had been settled prior to this some years. St. Charles 
county was organized in 1803 and comprised all the territory lying north of 
the Missouri river and the entire states of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, and on 
west to the Pacific ocean. This was the largest single "county" ever known 
in the world, and St. Charles was the county seat. 

In 1 80 1, the territory west of the Mississippi river was ceded back to 
France by Spain and two years later President Jefferson purchased from 
France, through Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, the entire territory of Loui- 
siana, for fifteen million dollars. Change after change went forward until, in 
June, 1812, Congress passed an act naming "Missouri Territory," and in 
October of that year was held the first annual election. The territory was 
admitted to the Union as a state August 10, 1821, the capital being first at St. 
Louis, then at St. Charles for five years, but in October, 1826, it was removed 
to Jefferson City, its present site. 

The above will give the reader of the history of Lafayette county a more 
intelligent understanding as to the conditions that obtained prior to the organ- 
ization of this county, the various forms of government and nations under 
which it has existed since the discovery by white men. 



It is not the aim of the author to go into the detail of the geological 
formation of Lafayette county, but to rather give a glimpse of the general 
lay of the land, its topography — hills, valleys, streams — and something con- 
cerning the sub-strata of the earth, with its mineral wealth, etc., without enter- 
ing into the tedious routine of multiplied geological terms — rather, to give 
something more practical for the average reader of local history. 

The first geological work performed systematically in Missouri was exe- 
cuted by Prof. David Dale Owen, who from 1847 to x ^5 2 was tne United 
States geologist. He surveyed the Missouri river valley from Sioux City. 
Iowa, to its mouth. His official map shows sections of the Missouri bluffs 
taken from the opposite side of the river, at Napoleon and Wellington, in 
Lafayette county, and on the south side, at Lexington, as well as at a point 
fourteen miles below. This was before coal mining had taken on much of 
development, hence his observations can be of little or no interest to the pres- 
ent-day reader. 

The first state geologist for Missouri was Prof. G. C. Swallow, appointed 
April 12, 1853. In 1873 Raphael Pumpelly took the position and his pub- 
lished reports give out the most interesting, valuable accounts of the forma- 
tion of the earth's strata in Lafayette county : 

"In going from the east line of the county to Lexington, we pass in suc- 
cession from the lower to the middle coal measures. At Henry Frank's mine, 
a half mile east of Concordia, the following geological section was noted, be- 
longing to the lower coal measure : 


Feet. Inches. 

Earthly slope, bluff or loess 24 

Sandstone 2 o 

Pyritiferous limestone 1 2 

Slate, enclosing pyritiferous concretions 5 6 


Feet. Inches. 

Hard splintery, slaty cannel coal o 3 

Bituminous coal 1 8 

Slate and coal o 2 

Fire clay ' 2 6 

Clay and Sandstone o o 

"In going to the farm of McCausland, two miles north of Higginsville, 
we find the outcrops of bituminous sandstone, and borings were made to the 
depth of eight hundred feet for oil, but without success. Professor Swallow 
made geological sections here as follows : 

Buff and brown marls and clays 5 to 50 feet. 

Blue and brown sandy shales 10 to 50 feet. 

Bluish gray and brown sandstone, the oil stone ... 20 to 50 feet. 

Blue and brown sandy shales 3 to 50 feet." 

The following interesting and practical sketch on the geological forma- 
tion of Lafayette county was prepared by the first state geologist for Missouri, 
in 1881 : 

"It is to these formations that Lafayette county owes its fair fame as a 
most beautiful, fertile and prosperous country. 


in order from surface down, are as follows : 

I. Quaternary System : 

Period 1. Recent Alluvium. 
Period 2. Bottom Prairie. 
Period 3. Bluff or Loess. 
Period 4. Drift. 

II. Carboniferous System: 

Period 1. Lower Coal Measures. 

Period 2. Middle Coal Measures. 
"1. The recent alluvium of Lafayette county includes the soils and all the 
deposits of clays, sand, gravels and river drift of pebbles found in the river 
bottoms or beds of lakes. These deposits abound in the beds of the stream, 
as the sand bars of the Missouri and the mud, gravel and pebbles of smaller 
streams, and in the stratified sands and clays beneath the bottom lands of the 
principal streams in the county. 


"2. The bottom prairies, so extensive in the Missouri bottoms in Char- 
iton, Carroll and Clay counties, cover but a small area in Lafayette county. 
It is known by the many thin beds of sand, clay and loam interst ratified in the 
formation under the old bottom prairies. These beds were deposited in the 
Missouri river bottoms, when that stream spread its sluggish waters from the 
bluffs, filling the whole valley with the sediments of its lake-like waters. After 
the level was changed so as to give a rapid current to the waters, the river 
cut its channel through these deposits thus made, and has been wearing away 
ever since and forming the newer river or alluvial bottoms, whose surface is 
more uneven and whose deposits of sand are more irregular. 


"3. It is a singular fact that while the bluff is older than the alluvial 
bottoms and bottom prairie lands, it lies higher on the bluffs and highlands 
adjacent to the river valleys. 

"The bluff which underlies the soil in all the highlands of the county con- 
sists of a sandy marl more or less stratified and varying in thickness from a 
few inches to more than one hundred feet. This vast deposit was evidently 
formed in one of those lakes which were formed as the ice of the glacial period 
melted away. This lake extended over northern Missouri, eastern Kansas, 
southeastern Nebraska and southwestern Iowa. These bluff marls constitute 
the rich sub-soils of all the uplands of central Missouri. The marls of the 
bluff are a little coarser and more sandy on the bluffs adjacent to the rivers, 
as the finer materials were washed out by the subsiding waters of the streams 
where the land was changed and the lake drained off and the rivers became 
more and more rapid, until they found their present condition. 

"The bluff is by far the most valuable formation in the Mississippi valley. 
It is a vast storehouse of plant-food and agricultural wealth. 

"4. The drift, which is so abundant on the north side of the Missouri 
river, is very sparingly developed on the south side. Where seen in Lafayette 
county it rests immediately on the consolidated rocks of the coal measures, 
beneath the marls of the bluff just described. These limited deposits consist 
of sands and pebbles, containing some bowlders, called Lost Rocks. 

"In Lafayette county the upper coal measures overlie the middle coal 
measures to the west, and the lower coal measures underlie them below Lex- 

"The clays and shale of the coal measures usually make a poor soil, as 
in England and Pennsylvania, but in Lafayette county all the coal rocks are so 
deeply inbedded beneath the bluff marls that they have very little influence on 
the soils." 




The Professor continues: "The usual process of forming soils on the 
surface of solid rocks, such as the surface of Missouri was before the clays, 
gravel, sands and soils were placed over the solid rocks, is a very slow pro- 
cess. The action of the winds, the rains and the frosts would slowly decom- 
pose the rocks into sand and clays. Plants would grow on these clays and 
marls, and animals would live on the plants; and when the plants and animals 
died they would make up the necessary organic matter and thus the soil would 
take a thousand years to form a foot of soil by this process. 

"But if some vast mill of the gods would grind up the rocks to the depth 
of some fifty or a hundred feet and then sort out the finest and best material 
and place it on top to the depth of from five to fifty feet, a first-rate soil would 
be formed in a few years, since all the mineral elements would be provided in 
vast abundance and in the best possible condition to receive the decaying plants 
and animals to complete the soil. This is just what has been done for central 
and northern Missouri." 


The subjoined table shows the amount of various elements of plant food 
in each foot of Lafayette soils of the uplands. 

First Foot. Second Foot. Twelfth Foot. 

Lime 19 lbs. 16 lbs. 26 lbs. 

Magnesia 13 lbs. 30 lbs. 18 lbs. 

Potash 13 lbs. 32 lbs. 40 lbs. 

Soda 7 lbs. 7 lbs. 104 lbs. 

Phosphoric Acid. ... 12 lbs. 11 lbs. 1 lbs. 

Organic Matter 269 lbs. 253 lbs. 46 lbs. 

Sulphuric Acid 3 lbs. 2 lbs. unknown 

Chlorine 405 lb. .429 lb. unknown 

Carbonic Acid ....unknown unknown unknown 

This shows that these soils are as rich in food for plant life, save organic 
matter, at a depth of three feet as they are at the surface, even a little richer 
in phosphorus, soda, potash, chlorine and sulphuric acid. At twelve feet 
below the surface the amount of plant food is still greater, except in organic 
matter and phosphoric acid. 


For this reason the Lafayette county farmer does not have to artificially 
supply his lands with fertilizers, but simply sets his plow a little deeper each 
few years and draws from mother earth the very elements wanted to sustain 
his crops. This holds good from the very surface down to the depth of from 
one hundred to two hundred feet. 


The second foot from the surface of these soils in Lafayette county 
contains phosphoric acid to the amount of eleven thousand one hundred and 
fifty-seven pounds to every acre. The next foot contains thirteen thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-six pounds, which, at ten cents per pound, would 
be worth one thousand three hundred and ninety-nine dollars and sixty cents. 
Thus it will be seen that two feet only of these sub-soils contain on each acre 
as much phosphoric acid as could be bought in commercial fertilizers for 
two thousand five hundred and fifteen dollars and thirty cents. Hence, 
the oft heard statement that "Lafayette county soil is inexhaustible" is 
strictly and scientifically correct. It is, then, no wonder that farm lands in 
this section range in value from one hundred to two hundred dollars per 


Originally there were found the following varieties of trees growing 
on Lafayette county soil : Ash, coffee bean, cottonwood, crabapple, elm, dog- 
wood, hackberry, hickory, ironwood, locust, linden, mulberry, maple, oak, 
persimmon, sycamore, walnut, wild cherry, willow. 


Blackberry, buttonbush, coralberry, elderberry, gooseberry, greenbriar, 
hawthorn, blackhaw, raspberry, red-bud, pawpaw, hazel nut, wild plum, 
sumach, wahoo, laurel bush, wild black or Missouri currant, wild rose, 
wild grapes, woodbine and honeysuckle. 


Beaver, bear, buffalo, catamount, chipmunk, coyote, deer, deer mouse, 
elk, fox (gray and red), gopher, ground mole, groundhog, mink, muskrat, 



otter, opossum, panther, prairie dog, prairie mouse, pouched rat (pocket 
gopher), rabbit, jack rabbit, raccoon, skunk, squirrel (red, gray and black 
varieties), swift, weasel, prairie wolf (gray and black varieties), and the wild- 


Wild turkeys, grouse, or prairie chickens, wild goose, swan, pelican, wild 
duck, snipe, plover, pigeon, partridge, gray and bald eagles, raven, crow, 
turkey buzzard, owl, hawk, finch, mocking birds, blue jay, king fisher, gull, 
bluebird, blackbird, bobolink, woodpecker, oriole, sapsucker, night hawk, 
whippoorwill, curlew, sandhill crane, blue heron, swallow, wren, and other 
birds that have been common ever since white men first knew the county. 

The "black Missouri honey-bee" is an original native of this state and 


In 1880 an old-time fisherman compiled the following list of fish 
whose home was then found in the various streams of this county, including 
the Missouri river of course : 

Blue catfish, crescent tail, from one hundred to one hundred and twenty- 
five pounds weight. 

Channel catfish, dirty white color, forked tail, thirty to forty pounds. 

Yellow and mud catfish, extra big head, with tail nearly square, weight 
from five to one hundred pounds. 

Black catfish, five to twenty-five pounds. 

Pone-head or bank catfish, head narrow, but deep, weight from five to 
eighteen pounds. 

Speckled catfish, small forked tail. 

Bull heads, small fish. 

Spoonbill catfish, long, shovel nose — not eatable. 

Channel buffalo fish, sucker mouthed, ten to forty pounds. 

Round buffalo, sucker-mouthed, ten to forty-five pounds. 

Perched mouthed buffalo. 

Red carp, sucker mouthed. 

Drum fish, perch mouthed, a game fish, good biter. 

Jack salmon, six to eight pounds. 

Garfish, long jaws with sharp teeth ; this fish is not eatable and is very 
destructive to other fish. 


Shovel fish — not eatable. 

Alewives, a small fish common in the early springtime. 

Red horse, log perch, black bass, croppie, chubs, silversides and min- 
nows. Occasionally there are caught estray pike and sunfish, but they come 
from some of the northern waters. 


The most valuable of all the mineral deposits within Lafayette county 
is its vast coal fields, which underlie so great a portion of the territory at a 
shallow or deeper location from the surface. The coal seams are not as 
thick as in some sections, but the "Lexington" coal is known to be superior 
to most any other in Missouri. 

As early as 1876 Hon. William H. Chiles, in his "Centennial History," 
had this to say concerning the coal mining interests of Lafayette county: 

"The coal beds of our county have had a wide reputation for years, and 
for home and river use many mines were operated. The Goodwin Brothers 
took the initiatory steps about the close of the war to build up a large export 
trade in this useful mineral, but the best facilities for transportation were not 
sufficient to reward their enterprise with profit, and after a few years their 
work was abandoned. On the completion of the Lexington & Sedalia rail- 
road, however, the Lexington Coal Company sank an expensive shaft near 
Old Town, and now carries on a flourishing trade. This company has sold 
more than one hundred thousand dollars' worth of coal per annum since they 
commenced business." 

The author is indebted largely to the state mining report for 1908, 
kindly furnished by Mine Inspector Michael Gavin, of Lexington, for the 
following array of facts concerning the present mining operations of this 
county : 

There are forty-six coal mining plants in the county; twenty-three of 
these are shafts, nineteen drifts and four are slope mines. The depths of 
these mines runs from sixteen to one hundred and eighty feet from the sur- 
face. The vein, or seam, of the workable coal, suitable for marketing pur- 
pose, is from thirteen inches to twenty-two inches in thickness, and this is 
covered by a roofing of thick slating, which makes a safe means by which 
cheap mining operations can be carried on — but few accidents occur to miners 
in this kind of coal mining. All but six of these mines are what are known 
as "long wall" mines, while these six are "room." 


In these forty-six mines, the report says that the total number of miners 
and helpers employed was two thousand and ninety-five during the winter 
months, with about half the number in the summer season. 

Perry Brothers' mines are two and a half miles south of Higginsville, 
on one hundred and sixty acres of land owned by John Wagner. The shaft 
is thirty feet deep. Horse power is employed. 

Plattenburg Coal Company is three-fourths of a mile out of Lexington, 
on a thirty-five-acre tract. 

Sipe mine, south from Lexington, has a twenty-eight-foot shaft. Horse 
power is used in hoisting. 

Stoll mine is a small slope two and a half miles east of Higginsville. 
The coal from here is sold to local dealers. 

Davidson mine, near Higginsville, supplies home trade. The coal is 
eighteen inches thick. 

Macey mine, located near Myric station, is entered by drift. The seam 
is twenty-two inches thick, extra quality, and is sold in Kansas City. 

Hamilton & Bennett mine, near Higginsville, supplies winter home 

Old Glory mine, on eighty acres, is entered by a drift. Coal is hauled 
over a tramway three hundred feet long and dumped into the cars. 

Independence Coal Company, one mile east of Napoleon, is fifty feet 
deep. Coal seam is eighteen inches thick. 

Kierstead Coal Company is one mile west of Corder, on five hundred 
and seventy acres of good coal land. The shaft entrance is ninety feet deep. 
Steam power is employed. 

Latchaw mine is a hand-power mine of no considerable capacity. 

Corder Coal Company mine, near Corder, is entered by a shaft forty 
feet deep. 

Cary mines, at Mayview, on one hundred and forty-four acres, has a 
shaft one hundred and thirty-five feet in depth. 

Ridd mine, a drift plant on the Bell & Greer land, near Lexington, has 
an eighteen-inch vein of good coal. 

Wright mine, on ten acres of coal land, has a shaft twenty-eight feet 
deep. Coal is sold to local dealers. 

Waterloo Co-Operative Coal Company, a half mile east of Waterloo, 
has a shaft entrance of forty-five feet. Steam power is used. 

Geisendoerfer mine, two miles southeast of Corder, on eighty acres, has 
a sixteen-inch vein of excellent coal. 


Steamboat Coal and Mining Company operates a mine on the bank of 
the Missouri river. It has shaft entrance of one hundred feet ; employs steam 
for hoisting. This has an extra thick seam — fifty-four inches. 

Western Coal and Mining Company, capitalized at one million dollars, 
operates the following mines in Lafayette county : Glen Oak, Valley, Mid- 
way, Summit, Seawall and South mines. This is the largest company in the 
county, and maintains large machine shops at the mines for building and 
repair work. 

Among the mines in operation now are these : The Waverley Brick and 
Coal Company, where the old Backbone mine used to be. The company owns 
or controls two thousand and five acres of coal, clay and shale lands. The 
mine's capacity for coal is one thousand tons a day, while the brick-making 
works produce one hundred and fifty thousand paving bricks, fifty thousand 
facing brick and fifty thousand fire brick, also ten thousand vitrified fence 
posts. The coal shaft is one hundred and forty-five feet deep. 

Labor Exchange mine, a mile and a half east of Wellington, obtains coal 
through a shaft ninety-three feet deep, the seam being eighteen inches thick. 
Steam power is used. 

Daisy mine owns thirty acres. Electric power is here employed. The 
coal seam is eighteen inches thick, overlaid with lime rock. 

Ed. Aull mine, located two miles east of Lexington, on three hundred 
acres. The coal seam is twenty inches thick. 

The Bell & Greer mine is a half mile south of Lexington, on seventy 
acres of land owned by Bell & Greer. Here the seam of coal is eighteen inches. 
This coal is sold to local dealers mostly. 

Bonanza Coal Company, on two hundred and fifty-seven acres of land 
two miles east of Higginsville, has a shaft entrance eighty feet deep. The 
coal is sent to Kansas City. 

Canterberry & Griffith mine, near Higginsville, is a slope mine. 

Diamond Coal Company, the Wilson mine, is three-fourths of a mile from 
Corder on a three hundred and twenty-acre tract. The coal is eighteen inches 

Salt Fork mine is a half mile east of Corder on a four hundred and 
twenty-acre tract. The shaft here is forty-seven feet deep. Horse power is 
here employed. 

Dover Coal Company, at Dover, is located on a tract of two hundred and 
sixty-five acres. The coal seam is here twenty-two inches thick. Product is 
sent to Kansas City and intermediate towns. 


Duncan mine is in the vicinity of Higginsville, on one hundred and 
twenty acres. The coal from this place is mostly consumed at Higginsville. 
Seam is twenty inches thick. 

Farmers' Coal Company has several mines in the county, one at Higgins- 
ville. on three hundred and twenty acres of land, with shaft eighty feet deep. 
Steam power is applied, together with electricity. No. 7 of the company's 
mines is ten miles west of Higginsville. 

Kratz mine is a slope mine near Higginsville and supplied the local trade. 

The J. H. Looney mine, one mile west of Higginsville, has a shaft sev- 
enty-five feet deep and hoists by steam. 

McGrew Coal Company has several mines in the vicinity of Lexington. 
They are operated on the latest improved mining plans. 


As the rivers and creeks are a part of the natural features of any country, 
in this connection may be named the more important streams in Lafayette 
county, which are as follows: 

The largest and longest stream in this county is Davis creek, which takes 
its rise through several tributaries in the southern, western and central parts 
of Washington township and flows northeasterly between Freedom and Davis 
townships, then southeasterly into Saline county, where it finds its way into the 
Blackwater river. 

The east and west branches of the Big Sni both rise in Sniabar township, 
the east fork flowing northward, while the west fork makes a grand detour 
westward into Jackson county, then back northeasterly to a junction with the 
east fork in Clay township, about three miles from its mouth, near the village 
of Wellington. 

The Little Sni rises partly in Clay and partly in Washington townships, 
meanders north, northwest and north and for about three miles of its length 
forms the boundary line between Lexington and Clay townships. 

Tabo creek rises in Washington township in two forks, in two forks in 
Lexington township and by one branch in Dover township. One of its tribu- 
taries or forks rises in the southeast part of the city of Lexington. 

Salt creek rises in the southwest part of Middleton township, with lesser 
branches or head-streams flowing into its waters from Davis and Dover town- 
ships. Its course is north and northeast, and finally enters and flows across 
the entire county of Saline, emptying into Blackwater river, of which in that 
county it is called Salt fork. 


Elm creek takes its source in the southeastern part of Middleton town- 
ship, flows northeasterly into Saline county and there unites with Salt creek. 

Panther creek rises in Freedom township, to the west of the town of Con- 
cordia, and flows- southeasterly into the Blackwater river. 

Lesser streams, not marked on the common maps of the county, are: 
Mulkey creek, in Freedom township; Blackjack creek, in the same township, as 
well as Peavine creek. In Middleton township are Willow creek and Craig's 
branch. In Davis township are found Elm branch, Bear branch, Merritt's 
branch and Johnson's creek, all flowing into Davis creek. In Dover township 
there is the Cottonwood. In Washington township flow the James and Honey 
creeks, north and south forks of Davis creek and Brush creek. In Clay town- 
ship is Owl creek, and Helm's lake, what is left of the ancient river bed. In 
Lexington township are Graham's branch and Rupe's branch, at Lexington 
city, and the Garrison fork, of Tabo creek. In Sniabar township there is 
Horseshoe creek. In Clay and Lexington townships, together with Dover 
and Middleton, the river frontage is that of the Missouri river, which forms 
their northern boundaries. The chief steamboat landings in the county on 
this majestic water course are those at Lexington, Napoleon, Berlin, Dover 
and Waverly. 


The present boundary lines of Lafayette county are as follows : It is the 
second county from the line on the west, between Kansas and Missouri ; is the 
seventh from the south and sixth county from the east line of the state of 
Missouri. It is also the fourth county south of the Iowa-Missouri state line. 
It contains about four hundred thousand acres of land. The thirty-ninth 
parallel of latitude passes through the town of Higginsville, while its longi- 
tude is almost seventeen degrees west from Washington, District of Columbia. 
Saline county is to the immediate east; Johnson county on the south; Jackson 
county on the west, and Ray county, with Carroll county, across the Missouri 
river, is on the north. It may be said that this county is almost on a direct 
line drawn from Kansas City, Missouri, to Cincinnati, Ohio, and continuing 
on east to Dover, the capital of Delaware. Going north and south, a line 
drawn from Mankato, Minnesota, through the capital of Iowa, Des Moines, 
will strike this county about midway. Continuing on south, the same line 
would reach the state line between Louisiana and Texas. 

The most elevated points within Lafayette county are said to be found 
at, or near, the town of Odessa, in Sniabar township, and also about the same 
altitude is found at Mayview and Lexington. 



The Territory of Missouri was divided into five voting precincts in 
October, 1812. The districts of St. Charles embraced all north of the Mis- 
souri river ; the district of St. Louis all south of the river, except the old settle- 
ments of St. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New Madrid, on the Mississippi 
river. Therefore the territory now embraced in Lafayette county was at that 
date a part of what was called St. Louis parish or district ; however, as early 
as the first territorial election in October, 18 12, the districts were officially 
called "counties." 

The next change in territorial bounds of these counties was on January 
23, 18 1 6, when all the country lying north and west of the Osage river, on the 
south side of the Missouri river and west of Cedar creek (opposite Jefferson 
City) , and west of the dividing ridge between the streams flowing east to the 
Mississippi and those flowing southward into the Missouri, on the north side 
of the river, was organized under the name of Howard county, named in 
honor of Gen. Benjamin Howard, of Kentucky, who was appointed governor 
of the Territory of Missouri in 1810. The county seat was located at Cole's 
Fort, just below present Boonville, but was removed in 1816 to old Franklin, 
opposite Boonville. 

Following the above mentioned divisions of county line, came the change 
in 1 81 8 when all that portion of Howard county lying south of the Missouri 
river and north and west of the Osage river was organized into a new county 
called Cooper, named for Capt. Sarshall Cooper, who, with ten others of 
the same name, his sons or near kin-folk, were early pioneers and celebrated 
Indian fighters in the "Boone's Lick country." Captain Cooper was killed in 
1 8 14. The county seat of Cooper county was located at Boonville. 

Lafayette county was among the number of new counties created by an 
act of the Missouri State Legislature November 16, 1820, hence really Lafay- 
ette county, as a distinct organization, never saw a territorial form of govern- 
ment, only as it was grouped with other sections of Missouri. The county 
was bounded and defined as "all that territory between the Missouri river on 
the north and the Osage river on the south," and received the name of Lillard, 


after James Lillard, the earliest member of the Legislature from this part of 
the Territory of Missouri and who presented the bill for the sub-division of 
several counties. Mt. Vernon was fixed as the county seat of Lillard county. 
This place was but a small settlement near the mouth of the Tabo creek, about 
eight miles east of Lexington. After Mr. Lillard removed to his old home in 
Kentucky the name was changed to Lafayette, in honor of the great French- 
man of Revolutionary fame, Gen. Marquis de Lafayette. 

No other changes were effected in the territory of this county until De- 
cember 15, 1826, when Jackson county was formed, its eastern boundary being 
the present west line of Lafayette county. Another change was made Decem- 
ber 13, 1834, when Johnson county was laid off by an act of the Missouri 
Legislature, its northern boundary line being the same as the southern line 
of Lafayette county. This was the last change in the territorial lines of this 

The present townships of Lafayette county were organized as follows : 
Sniabar township, April 24, 182 1; Lexington township, May 4, 1824; Clay 
township, November 7, 1825; Davis township, May 3, 1830; Freedom town- 
ship, June 11, 1832; Dover township, February 5, 1836; Washington town- 
ship, August 2, 1836; Middleton township, July 7, 1845. 

For a detailed history of these eight town'ships constituting the county, 
the reader is referred to the chapters on township history, found elsewhere in 
this volume. 

It should be stated, in passing, that the early records are either absent 
entirely or silent in relation to the change of the name of Lillard to Lafayette 
county, as well as to many other quite important proceedings which must 
necessarily have been done in the organization of this county. It is learned, 
however, from record, that on March 12, 1822, John Duston, James Bounds 
and James Lillard gave bonds as commissioners of the county, to select suitable 
places for the erection of a court house and jail and to let contracts for the 
construction of the same. The same day, the same three gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to select a townsite for the county seat and to let contracts for county 
buildings. They finally selected the site and laid out the town of Lexington 
(old town). 

On August 6, 1822, the county court examined and adopted a county 
seal which bore the figure of a plow, with the words, "Missouri, Lillard 

The first circuit court in this county was held at Lexington, commencing 
November 24, 1825. Governor McNair appointed David Todd to be judge 
of the district, hence he held the first term of court within the county. 


The first county court was held at the house of Samuel Weston, a justice 
of the peace (then within Cooper county), and the date of the term was 
January 2, 1821. 


In passing, it may be said of Lafayette's first seat of justice that "Mt. 
Vernon," the spot designated, was never a platted place and is now gone from 
memory. It was a mere irregular shaped group of log cabins on the southwest 
quarter of section 23, township 51, range 26, on the high bluff a mile east of 
Tabo creek, three-fourths of a mile from the Missouri river. It was a place 
where three or four tribes of Indians used to congregate to smoke the pipe of 
peace, and barter with the French traders. Terre Bonne, "good land," or 
"good place," or "no fight place," was what the French had taught the Indians 
to say. But the American settlement called it Mt. Vernon, as a token of re- 
spect for General Washington, whose home was at Mt. Vernon, Virginia. 
The county court held its first court session at Mt. Vernon in November, 1822. 
Its next term was at Lexington, February 3, 1823, in Doctor Buck's house, 
the first house erected in the place. 

As a majority of the first settlers came from Kentucky, the new county 
seat was called Lexington in honor of the city of that state. 


February 12, 1821, was the date of opening the first circuit court in 
Lillard county (now Lafayette). Judge David Todd, with Hamilton P. 
Gamble, circuit attorney, Young Ewing, clerk, and W. R. Cole, as sheriff, 
were the court officials. The place of holding this pioneer court was at the 
house of Adam Lightner, in Mt. Vernon. The attorneys, besides the circuit 
attorney, were Messrs. Peyton R. Hayden and John McKinney. The reader 
will find the names of some early settlers, not already mentioned, in the list 
of grand jurors, which is as follows: William and John Lillard, John J. 
Heard, William F. Simmons, Thomas and James Linwell, David Jennings, 
Jesse Cox, James Bounds, Jr., Isaac Clark, William Wallace, Chris Mulkey, 
Jacob Catron, John Bowman, George Parkinson, Thomas Hopper, John Rob- 
inson, Thomas Fristoe, William and Samuel Fox. 

A "true bill' was found against one John Salady, for trespass, assault and 
battery. At the next term of court the man plead guilty and was fined the sum 
of five dollars. 



With the passing of years, the following village or town plats have been 
laid out and lots sold therefrom : 

Alma was platted on the northeast of the southeast quarter of section 
28, township 50, range 24, July, 1878, by Edwin Zeysing, Sr. 

Aullville was platted by Charles B. Russell. B. F. Russell and I. H. 
Hungate, July 24, 1869, on section 28, township 49. range 25. 

Bates City was platted on the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter 
of section 36, township 49, range 29, September 3, 1878, by Theodore Bates 
and wife. 

Berlin was platted on section 24, township 51, range 26, March 7, 1854, 
by Gratz & Shelby. 

Chapel Hill was platted March 26, 1857, on the southwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section 31, township 48, range 28, by B. D. Hudson. 

Concordia, on the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 
4, township 48, range 24, by George P. Gordon, H. Westerhouse and H. De- 
tort. The date was August 26, 1869. 

Corder (once called Mitchell) was platted on the northwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section 26, township 50, range 25, February 12, 1879, by 
George W. Corder and Bettie Corder. 

Dover was platted August 7, 1835, by John Duston on the northwest 
quarter of section 29, township 51, range 25. 

Edward's Mill (Hodge Station) was originally platted on the southwest 
quarter of section 11 and the northwest quarter of section 14, township 51, 
range 25, March 31, 1888, by W. C. Morris, proprietor. 

Higginsville was platted on the west half of the northwest quarter of 
section 6, township 49, range 25, and in section 1, township 49, range 26, by 
Henry and Carrie Higgins, August 14, 1869. 

Lexington, see "Old Town." 

Lisbon was platted on the northeast quarter of section 2^, township 50, 
range 29, by James Belt, December 1, 1857. 

Middleton was platted on the southeast quarter of section 15, township 
50, range 24, by W. W. Shroyer, in February, 1845. 

May view was platted originally on sections 18 and 13, township 49, range 
27, by George Houx, John P. Herr and Wentworth & Morrison, December 
2, 1867. 

Napoleon was platted November 7, 1836, by a company of men, on section 
23, township 50, range 29. 


Odessa was platted by John Kirkpatrick, Sarah Kirkpatrick and Alex. R. 
Patterson, on section 36, township 49, range 28, and section 1, township 48, 
range 28, on September 17, 1878. 

"Old Town" of Lexington (original platting) was made by the county 
commission appointed for locating the county seat, etc., April 8, 1822 (see 
City of Lexington chapter). 

Page City was platted after the railroad was built southeast from Lexing- 
ton. It is situated in section 13, township 50, range 24, in Dover township. 
The lands were owned by Joseph Page. 

St. Thomas (now a part of Waverly) was platted on the west half of 
section 14, township 51, range 24, by John D. Thomas, March 15, 1852. 

Waverly was platted as Middleton, in June, 1850. and the name changed. 

Wellington was platted on the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter 
of section 15, township 50, range 28, May 8, 1837, by Messrs. Wolfe, Bledsoe 
and Littlejohn. 

Waterloo was platted on section 18, township 50, range 28, October 11, 
1905, by Joseph A. Edmonds, Sr. 



Around the early settlement of any given community lingers many a 
hallowed memory. To have been a pioneer in Lafayette county was to be 
numbered among the early van-guard in this section of the "vast, illimitable 
and ever changing West." The settlement of Lafayette county dates back of 
the admission of Missouri into the Union as a state by half a decade and more. 
In the passing of almost a century the transformation has been great. The 
fertile, virgin soil of this county had not been touched by the plow-share of 
white men up to about 1815, when the first few settlers came to the domain 
now known as Lexington township. It seems quite well established that the 
first man to locate here was Gilead Rupe. He settled about two and a half 
miles to the southwest of where the city of Lexington now stands — the date 
being during the year 1815 (probably in the summer of that year), which 
makes it ninety-five years ago. 

Gilead Rupe, the first settler of this county, just named above, was a 
Virginian by birth and his wife was a German lady. They had twelve chil- 
dren. He emigrated west and settled first in Howard county, Missouri, and 
operated a ferryboat at Boonville. Among his children was a son Richard, 
next to the youngest, and from the latter's son, W. A. Rupe, now of Rockport, 
Missouri, it is learned that the grandfather's family record was burned by the 
Indians, who drove the white settlers to the old fort in Howard county, and 
it was while there that their property was all destroyed. The grandson from 
whom these facts are obtained was born in 1851, his parents having been mar- 
ried near Napoleon, this county, and had three children, W. A. being the 
youngest, and now the only survivor of the Rupe line in this country. 

The nearest neighbor of pioneer Rupe was Jesse Cox, who about the same 
date settled in Arrow Rock, sixty-five miles distant. Indians were then 
troublesome here and Doctor Smith, a good authority on early incidents, says 
that a party of them surrounded the house of Mr. Rupe and besieged his family 
about four days. Two of his sons succeeded in getting out and went to 
Boonville, where alarm was given and rescuers sent back and the savages 
were driven away. This was about 18 19. 


In 1817 David James came into the township and effected the second set- 
tlement on section 16, township 50, range 27. He had two grown sons, Jesse 
and Harry James. 

A tannery was built in either 1818 or 1819, by Nicholas Houx. 

The first doctor in the neighborhood was Doctor Rankin, from Kentucky. 

The first steamboat landing at Lexington was at the mouth of "Rupe's 
branch," in 1820 or 182 1. 

The first settlement in Clay township, as now defined, was effected by 
Col. Henry Renick, William Renick, Ruth, widow of Samuel Renwick, and 
Young Ewing. The latter was the first county clerk of this county. These 
all located near the present site of Wellington in 1819. About the same date 
came Thomas Hopper and Killion and John Young, who emigrated from 

The next settlement was made in Dover township, as now known, by 
John Lovelady and Solomon Cox in 181 7, at a point a half mile east of the 
site of the present village of Dover. W. R. Cole settled a mile and a half 
west of them and made improvements the same season. These families came 
from Virginia. 

Following the settlements already named was that made in what is now 
called Washington and Sniabar townships. The townships were organized 
about 1822 and prior to that date the following lived in the part of this county 
now known as Sniabar township : Julius Emmons, David Ward, Thomas 
Swift and Jesse Hitchcock, all of whom were doubtless very early settlers in 
the township. Henry Renick and Abel Owen were among the earliest to lo- 
cate there. 

The territory known now as Davis township was originally settled by 
Joseph Collins, who located at "Bear's Grove," section 13, township 49, range 
26, sometime between 1825 and 1829. (See township history for later pio- 
neer settlement in this township.) 

The next settlement of Lafayette county was made by Patrick Henry 
about 1825, and soon after came John Scott, both claiming lands in what is 
now Freedom township. James and Chris Mulkey located at what was termed 
Mulkey's Grove, two or three miles south of present Aullville village. 

In the early thirties immigrants began to pour into Middleton township, 
which was the last in the county to be generally improved and is now one of 
the most prosperous and wealthy sections of the entire county. From good 
authority, the first actual settlement was made there in the early forties, not 
later than 1842, by Alexander Galbraith, from Kentucky, who purchased two 


hundred acres on sections 22 and 14, in township 51, range 24. (See town- 
ship history for further settlement.) 

Washington Irving, the celebrated American author and traveler, im- 
mortalized the section of country near Dover and Waverly, this county. It 
was upon one of his extended western trips that he enjoyed the hospitality of 
Squire John J. Heard (whose name appears as among the first grand jurors 
of this county), at whose house Irving remained several days in 1819. He 
later wrote his book known as "Astoria," in which he paid a glowing tribute 
to the kindness of pioneer Heard. 

The first school of which there seems to be any record in Lafayette 
county was in Middleton township, in the settlement made there prior to 1820, 
by Littleberry Estes and John Evans, a Mr. Hyde and a Mr. Russell, all of 
whom emigrated from Kentucky. It is claimed a school there existed as early 
as 1820, started by Mr. Estes' son. This school was taught in 1822-23 by 
Edward Ryland. brother of Judge Ryland, the elder. This was evidently a 
private school. 

For much concerning the early times, the reader is respectfully referred 
to the various township histories contained in this volume. 


Wetmore's "Gazetteer for Missouri," published by Harper & Brothers of 
New York City, in 1837, gives the following on Lafayette county: 

"Five saw-mills and five grist-mills are driven by water power, in the 
county of Lafayette. [It should have been added that at Dover — Tare Bean 
grove — was a grist-mill driven by the water flowing from a large spring, and 
that at Lexington there was a United States land office.] 

"Lexington is one of the towns from which outfits are made in mer- 
chandise, mules, oxen and wagons for the Santa Fe or New Mexico trade. 
The fur traders who pass to the mountains by land make this town a ren- 
dezvous, and frequently are going out and coming in with their wagons and 
packed mules, at the same period of coming and going that is chosen by the 
Mexican traders. Lexington is, therefore, occasionally a thoroughfare of 
traders of great enterprise and caravans of infinite value. The dress and arms 
of the traders, trappers and hunters of these caravans, and caparisons of the 
horses and mules they ride, present as great a diversity as the general resur- 
rection itself of all nations and ages can promise for the speculations of the 
curious." £i 



The same book states that Lafayette county then had a population of 
four thousand six hundred and eighty-three persons, while it also says that 
in 182 1 it numbered but one thousand three hundred and forty; in 1830, it was 
placed at two thousand nine hundred and twelve. 

Lexington was given as three hundred and nineteen miles from St. Louis 
by river, and Fine's Landing placed as fifteen miles below Lexington. At that 
date the county had but three postoffices — Lexington, with James Aull as post- 
master; Dover, with Benjamin F. Yates as postmaster; Pleasant Grove, with 
W. H. Ewing as postmaster. 

A newspaper clipping of November 7, 1843, states: "Boats are arriving 
at our landing from the Ohio river crowded with emigrants from the older 
states, all seeking a better home in Missouri. Let them come. There is room 
and abundance of everything, and we know that they will greatly add to the 
Whig vote in November !" 


Uncle George Houx related to a correspondent of the Lexington In- 
telligencer, in 1880, many interesting things concerning pioneer life, and es- 
pecially touching on the common honesty of the first people who came in to 
build for themselves homes. The correspondent says : 

"In comparing early times with now, in regard to honesty, Uncle George 
Houx says that money was sewed up in leather bags with whangs and car- 
ried on horseback, like meal sacks, from Santa Fe, and when they arrived 
at Lexington, at the tavern, in the Old Town, were thrown down like common 
luggage. These bags would get so hard and dry that they would feel like 
logs when thrown down. A man by the name of Green kept the inn, as it was 
called, and Ed. Ryland, who was then receiver, would take the money and 
store it away in the rear of Stramake's store and when he got a wagon load 
it was hauled away in farm wagons to St. Louis, with no other guards than 
the two teamsters and a man or two. And once when he was in the circuit 
court, while John F. Ryland was on the bench, he heard the charge given to 
the grand jury and they repaired out of doors (there being no jury room) 
and after a few minutes returned into court from a hazel brush patch, and 
said that no one had been doing anything wrong and the judge replied that 
this was the fifth term and no one had been indicted, and then complimented 
the county for its morality and honesty." 

The same writer from the same good authority says: "There was no 
blacksmith shop nearer this county than Old Franklin, and his brother Nick, 
as he called him, fixed up the fore wheels of a wagon, and the neighbors all 


brought their axes and broad axes, and he, with his load, went to Old Frank- 
lin, to get a box of gold and silver belonging to Mr. Hicklin, father of James 
Hicklin. The neighbors in both counties knew of it. He says that they had 
no use for any officers, but a clerk to keep the records and a sheriff to collect 
and pay over the revenue. He says that Mr. Stramcke and Robert Hale well 
recollected these times. He tells how Judge Hicks got to be a lawyer. John 
Aiill's father furnished the money to buy the books, and he was to help his 
sons keep store in return, and read law at the same time in leisure moments." 


The reader will be interested in knowing something about the early mar- 
riage customs in this section of Missouri, as given by the following, which 
was written many years ago by Joseph H. Page : 

"The first marriage ceremony in 'Long Grove Settlement' was William 
Johnson and Peggy Ennis, in 1828. The knot was tied by Duke Young. The 
usual custom of 'running for the bottle' at weddings was indulged in, and the 
prize was won by Granville Page. A bottle of whisky, with a red ribbon tied 
around its neck and called 'Black Betty,' was the prize. The contestants 
would start on horseback from the house where the 'infair' was to be held 
and run to meet the bride and groom. The one who first met them was de- 
clared the winner, and had the pleasure of presenting 'Black Betty' to the par- 
son, who took the first drink, then to the bride, then to the groom, etc. All 
drank from the same bottle. Whole settlements came without invitation and 
all were made welcome and had a merry time, usually terminating the proceed- 
ings with a dance." 

The old-fashioned flint-lock rifle was the weapon used in those days. On 
Fourth of July occasions it was customary to organize a grand hunting expe- 
dition. The proceeds of the game sold went to furnish the barbecue which 
was invariably had afterwards. Candidates and others would furnish funds 
to pay necessary expenses. 

Joseph H. Page also writes of the early Indian troubles, and from his 
article the following is extracted : 

"Speaking of Indians in the northern part of Lafayette county, reminds 
me that the Indians were at an early time very bothersome and numerous, and, 
while not savage, were given to petty thieving. The following is told on a 
party of early immigrants who were in pursuit of an Indian who had stolen a 
horse from one of them : They had succeeded in approaching him and were 



bringing him back to the settlement. The red man professed to be very peni- 
tent, and so won upon the sympathy of his captors that they allowed him con- 
siderable liberty. One night while encamped on the Blackwater, as he was 
assisting them to gather firewood, he gave them the slip and secreted himself, 
as they later ascertained, in some driftwood in the creek, just allowing his 
head to project from the water, where he remained until they had crossed and 
ceased hunting for him and the camp had become quiet. He then emerged 
from his hiding place, secured another and better horse from the camp, with 
which he succeeded in making his way to his tribe." 

Game was plenty. Chris. Mulkey, in 1826, killed five deer before sun- 
rise, where Mr. Page now lives. Bears, panthers, catamounts and elk were 
plenty, and wolves "by the acre," as old Uncle Jo Page would say. A panther 
killed a hog weighing one hundred and fifty pounds and covered it with grass, 
near Mr. Page's residence. Hunters watched for his return, but he never 
showed up again. 


Around the first events of a county's settlement there hangs much of 
interest, even away down the years. The following events show the begin- 
nings of affairs in Lafayette county : 

The first settler was Gilead Rupe. It is believed he effected his perma- 
nent settlement about 181 5. 

The judges of the first county court were John Stapp, John Whitsett and 
James Lillard. 

The first justices of the peace was Henry Renick, and it was he who 
administered the oath of office to the first county judges. 

The first county clerk was Young Ewing, his bond being fixed at one 
thousand two hundred dollars. 

The first county treasurer was also Young Ewing. 

The first collector was Markham Fristoe ; he was also the first constable, 
and served from Sniabar township two years. 

The first county surveyor was John Dustin. 

The first sheriff was William R. Cole. 

The first road overseer was Abner Graham. 

The first retail dealer's license was granted to Robert Castle, and the price 
or fee was fifteen dollars for six months. 

The first saloon license was granted to Amos Riley, dated May, 1823, 
and was for six months ; the fee was five dollars. The limit of saloons in the 
county was then six. 


The first tavern and ferry licenses issued were to Adam Lightner. 

The first will filed for probate in this county was that of Amasa Crain. 

The first school land commissioners were William Y. C. Ewing, Thomas 
Fristoe, Joseph Irwin, Abel Owens and James Evans. 

The first county jail was erected in 1823. 

The first term of circuit court was held February 17, 182 1 ; David Todd 
was the presiding judge. 

The first case tried by a jury was that of the State vs. Jacob Catron, 
trespass. He was acquitted. The jury was as follows : John Wallace, Amos 
Rylah, Jesse Gray, William Cox, Joseph Irvin, John Hillion, Benjaor Majors, 
Christopher Cox, David Blevins, William Bowers, William Dobson and James 

The first lawful execution was that of Leland Tromly, April 4, 1834, 
for the killing with an ax of Joseph Stephens. The judge was John F. 
Ryland, the prosecuting attorney, Amos Rees, and the sherifif, James Fletcher. 

The first woman to be hung in Missouri (it is believed) was the second 
execution in Lafayette county, Mary Andreas, alias Tromberg, who was 
hanged April 30, 1834, for the killing of her infant child. 

Lexington's first mayor was Judge Eldridge Burden. 

The first newspaper published in this county was the Lexington Express, 
its first issue being dated April 4, 1840, Charles Patterson being its editor. 


By R. P. Sevin. 

When the publishers of this work requested me to write a sketch on the 
Germans of Lafayette county I entered upon this task with pleasure, hoping 
to be able to give justice to an element of our population which, in a large, if 
not the largest measure, has contributed and is still contributing to the de- 
velopment of the resources of this county and helped to make it one of the 
best, one of the richest sections of the great commonwealth of Missouri. As 
the space in this book allotted to my use has been limited I must be brief and 
spare the reader a lengthy preamble. 


A historical sketch of our first German settlers would certainly be of great 
interest. But since the first German settlements of this county were not 
prompted or aided by immigration societies, statistics are meagre and not 


easily obtainable. We. therefore, must content ourselves with a general 
sketch. The reader will find a narration of the historical events which espe- 
cially concern the German settlers, principally during the Civil war, in the 
general history of Lafayette county and in the sketch of Professor A. Baepler 
on the German Lutheran church. 

This region became settled by Germans through the "consciousness of 
kinship." The first Germans who ventured into the wilds of west Missouri 
came about 1838. Those who entered land in Lafayette county in the years 
of 1838 to 1850, according to the original entry book in the recorder's office, 
were: Friedrich Dierking, 1838; Friedrich Frerking, 1838; Friedrich Thre- 
mann, 1838; Christian Oetting, 1839; Christian Dierking, 1840; Conrad 
Stuenkel, 1840 and 1847; Heinrich Franke, 1840 and 1847; Heinrich Bruns, 
1840 and 1842; Dietrich Oetting, 1841 ; Georg Brackmann, 1841 ; Heinrich 
F. Pauling, 1841 ; Heinrich Meyer, 1842; Wilhelm Frerking, 1843; Georg 
Knecker, 1845; Johann C. Holtkamp, 1845; Heinrich Ehlers, 1845; Fried- 
rich Rabe, 1845; Heinrich Brockmann, 1845; Heinrich Dierking, 1846; F. H. 
Walkenhorst, 1846; Casper H. Wahrenbrock, 1848; Heinrich Thiemann, 
1848; Casper H. Klingenberg, 1848; Georg C. Dreiver, 1849; Heinrich 
Rabe, 1849; Casper Holtkamp, 1849; Louis Evert, 1849; Heinrich Oelschlae- 
ger, 1849; Louis Stuenkel, 1850; Heinrich Heidorn, 1850; Heinrich 
Meinecke, 1850. 

Documents in the probate court show that the first German estate was 
that of August Steiger, in 1840, and in 1844 Conrad Stuenkel was ap- 
pointed administrator of the estate of Heinrich Bruns, Sr., deceased. 

The first Germans who were naturalized in Lafayette county were : 
Christian Harra, in 1839; Friedrich Duerking and Casper Weiker in 1840; 
Heinrich Evert, Johann H. L. Brackmann, Friedrich Pauling, Heinrich Bruns, 
Friedrich Thiemann, Georg H. Brackmann and Johann H. Frerking, in 1841. 

The fertile prairies of Lafayette county and the rich, well-wooded creek 
bottoms pleased these pioneers exceedingly. Their letters to friends and kin 
in Hanover and Westphalia soon brought numbers of immigrants to this 
neighborhood. Thus this region became settled by a people bound together 
by like tradition, like speech, and in many instances by blood-relationship. 
These pioneers came not to found a new German state in this country ; they 
simply came as farmers who found the tillage of their small acres in Germany 
too meager a source of income. Once having gotten a foothold in that rich 
agricultural country of west Missouri, they, by the peaceful methods of pur- 
chase, drove their English-speaking neighbors farther and farther out, until 


now one may journey for many miles without meeting any but German set- 
tlers or their descendants in this section. This applies especially to the eastern 
part of Lafayette county, Concordia and vicinity. This prosperous German 
community, year by year, stretched farther out in all directions. Emma, 
Sweet Springs, Ernstville, Corder, Alma and Blackburn are, in a measure, 
daughter settlements of Concordia. 


After the Civil war the advantages offered by the fertility of Lafayette 
county soil and the prosperity of its inhabitants became known in the coun- 
ties in the eastern part of the state where older German settlements exist. 
Many farmers of these counties, and some from Illinois, Indiana and other 
states were attracted by the agricultural richness of this section, and new Ger- 
man settlements in different parts of Lafayette were formed. Es- 
pecially Warren county, Missouri, sent many of its farmers to the Higgins- 
ville neighborhood. These settlers again induced their relatives in the father- 
land, mostly in Lippe-Detmold, to come to this land of plenty. In this way 
Higginsville, Mayview, Wellington, Napoleon and Lexington became the cen- 
ters of German communities. It may be stated that the Germans who settled 
in Lexington were in a large proportion mechanics, and only within the last 
two decades the German fanners have invaded the Lexington vicinity in 
greater numbers. 

Today we find German settlers in every part of the county, and the Ger- 
man-speaking people of Lafayette number about twelve thousand, or one- 
third the entire population. Churches and church schools have contributed 
their share to keep things German very much alive, and so it happens that in 
this, a foreign land, the best of the German characteristics survived in our 
people for three-quarters of a century. 


The German farmer was the most potent factor in the development of 
our county. His love for the soil makes him an industrious, never-relaxing 
tiller. His painstaking endurance and his thorough methods of farming 
greatly increased the productiveness of the land, and thereby its value. Thus 
every land owner, even the one who did not cultivate his land, profited by 
the prosperity of the thrifty German farmer. Within the last four decades 


the prices of land in Lafayette county increased from twenty-five dollars to 
fifty dollars to seventy-five dollars to one hundred and fifty dollars and more 
per acre. No price seems too high for the German farmer, provided the land 
is good, and conveniently located. 


While the German farmers have been, and are, very prosperous, the Ger- 
man business men, in great number recruiting from the families of old set- 
tlers, are not less successful. In every town of the county we find German 
firms. In several towns the mercantile business is exclusively in the hands of 
Germans, in others these are predominant, and even where they are in the 
minority their conservative business methods make them a substantial factor, 
All the creameries, most of the flour mills and grain elevators, one of the 
canneries, etc., have been established and are run by Germans. Half of the 
banking houses of the county are entirely or partly controlled by Germans, 
and their officers transact business with their German customers in the mother 
tongue. We may safely say that the German business man has established an 
enviable reputation for integrity and good service. 


In other fields of industry the Germans of Lafayette county have excelled 
in like manner. Magnificent churches, substantial school buildings, stately 
business houses, innumerable residences in town and in the country, large 
barns all over the county, tell us of the skill and diligence of German house- 
builders (carpenters, masons, plasterers, etc.). The saddlers, the shoemakers, 
the blacksmiths, the wagonmakers in every town and village are, with a few 
exceptions, Germans, and in all other branches of pursuit the sons of our pio- 
neers are well represented. German physicians, and dentists, and teachers 
enjoy the best reputation, and the ministers of the numerous German congre- 
gations in Lafayette have the highest esteem of their fellow-citizens. Last, 
but not least, we think of the German laborer in town and on the farm, whose 
services are sought in preference to those of all others. 


We stated above that churches and church schools above all have done 
their share in maintaining the good characteristics of the Germans of Lafay- 
ette county. The list of the German churches and schools given below cer- 
tainly speaks well of the high standard and the value of the German element 


as a moral factor in the upbuilding of the American nation. Several of the 
congregations, especially the Lutheran and the Evangelical, maintain separate 
school buildings and employ from one to five teachers, while in others the 
ministers teach school in the churches. The ministers of the Baptist and 
Methodist churches teach German in short summer courses. In the regular 
church schools, both English and German are being taught and great pains 
is taken to maintain the standard of the public schools in all branches of 
study. Here is a list of the German churches and schools in Lafayette county : 

Alma — Lutheran, two schools ; Baptist, Three Groves, near Alma ; Meth- 
odist, served by Corder minister. 

Concordia — Baptist; Catholic, served by Higginsville priest; Evangel- 
ical, school; Methodist; Lutheran, four schools and college (see Prof. A. 
Buepler's article). 

Corder — Lutheran, school; Methodist. 

Emma — Evangelical, school ; Lutheran, school. 

Ernstville (near Concordia) — Lutheran, school. 

Flora (near Alma) — Lutheran, school. 

Higginsville — Baptist; Evangelical, school; Lutheran, school; Metho- 

Lexington — Evangelical; Lutheran, served by Higginsville minister; 

Mayview — Evangelical, school. 

Napoleon — Evangelical, school ; Methodist, served by Lexington min- 

Waverly (Hazel Hill) — Lutheran, school. 

Wellington — Evangelical, school. 

The German Catholics worship at the churches at Concordia, Higgins- 
ville, Corder, Dover and Lexington. Two German-speaking priests, residing 
at Higginsville, serve the first named three congregations. 

Many members of the German congregations of Blackburn and Sweet 
Springs (in Saline county) reside in Lafayette county. 

A compilation of the church statistics of Lafayette county for the year 
1909 shows that in the German congregations there were two hundred and 
sixty-one births, fifty-four marriages and one hundred and four burials (sev- 
eral persons who had died in other parts of the country were brought here 
for burial). A comparison of these figures with the average rates of the 
nation will convincingly show that the German element is one of the main 
factors in upholding the vitality of the people of the United States and in 
maintaining a natural increase of its population. 



It is a well known fact that the Germans are very fond of organizing 
and joining societies, and in our larger cities these social organizations are 
exceedingly numerous. It is different, however, in Lafayette county, where 
only a few German societies exist. They are the German Pioneer Society, 
counting over one hundred members in all sections ; the "Turnverein" at Lex- 
ington; the "Kriegerverein," for honorably discharged soldiers of the Ger- 
man army; the Mechanics and Laborers' Aid Society of Concordia, with a 
branch at Alma; Guttenberg Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, at 
Lexington. Besides these the different congregations have a number of so- 
cieties for the promotion of church work. 


It may be of interest to state that the major portion of the Germans of 
Lafayette county hail from Hanover, Westphalia and Lippe-Detmold, or are 
descendants of immigrants from these sections of Germany. The dialect of 
these, therefore, naturally prevails. The High Germans and Swiss who have 
strayed among these Low Germans are very few in number. So strong is the 
influence of the Low German dialect that the descendants of the High Ger- 
mans soon acquire the prevailing Low German dialect. 


The intellectual tie which binds the inhabitants of the German settlements 
together as one great family, is the Missouri Thalbote, a German paper pub- 
lished at Higginsville, a history of which is to be found under the heading 
"Newspapers of Lafayette County." The editor of this publication has, and 
had for many years, a highly esteemed co-worker in the person of N. Haerle, 
of Lexington, whose writings in prose and rhyme are eagerly read. Mr. 
Haerle, who has done very much for the enhancement of the German interests 
in this section, is the honorary member of nearly all the German societies in 
the county and the founder of the "Pioneer-Verein," and in spite of his ad- 
vanced years he is ever ready to work in the front rank for the successful ar- 
rangement and celebration of the annual "German Day." (We have come 
into possession of a reminiscence by Mr. Haerle's pen, which, being of 
historic value, is annexed to this article in English translation.) 



The Germans of Lafayette county are a pleasure-loving people, and their 
social gatherings always are well attended and a source of wholesome and re- 
freshing amusement. They are a law-abiding people, and the criminal annals 
of our courts count but very few German names on their pages ; this small 
percentage speaks volumes for the high moral standard of the German. They 
are a patriotic people who, although upholding the traditions, the customs and 
the language of their forefathers, are excellent citizens of this glorious coun- 
try, ever ready to perform the duties of such in times of war and in times of 
peace. History tells us that. 

May the Germans of Lafayette county continue to maintain and aug- 
ment their good reputation, acquired through a history of three-quarters of 
a century, for painstaking industry and wise economy, conservative progress- 
iveness, immaculate honesty, true love of home and country, devout adher- 
ence to their fathers' faith, high esteem of morality and liberal hospitality. 

We conclude our treatise with sincere thanks to Prof. W. G. Bek, of the 
Missouri State University, and N. G. Phetzing, of Legington, Missouri, for 
kindly furnishing useful information. 


By N. Haerle. 

It was in 1 86 1. I was the manager of the German Turner Hall at Lex- 
ington, Missouri. The sentiments for and against the Union clashed bit- 
terly in the border states. Lexington was at fever-heat. On the 3d of May, 
1 861, a pro-Union meeting at the court house had been called. With others, 
I went to attend the same, and soon the hall was crowded. Several speakers 
had made their appearance to address those present. As soon as the first ora- 
tor began to speak, he was interrupted by noise and hisses, and suddenly all 
the lights were extinguished. Pandemonium reigned. A mob thronged to 
the rostrum and seized the Union flag which had been placed there. Quickly 
I rushed between the men and took the flag from them. I tore it from the 
staff and hid it under my vestcoat. During the melee I was shot in the leg 
and beaten over the head. While I was being taken to my home two old citi- 
zens knocked me again over the head with their canes. The next morning 
six men, heavily armed, came to my residence and ordered me, in the name of 
Jefferson Davis and the Southern Confederacy, to leave town at once. My 


faithful wife told them that my condition did not allow my leaving home. 
The men answered that I would be hung on the nearest tree, if I should be 
found in town the next morning. What could be done? Early the next day 
friends brought me across the Missouri river, and, accompanied by Captain 
Fred Nest, I took a train of the Hannibal & St. Joe for St. Louis. Here I 
found a good position in the war relief office. In 1865 I returned to Lexing- 
ton where I have lived ever since, for the last twenty-five years retired from 

By-gones are by-gones. I always was a peaceable citizen, and I bear no 
hatred or grudge against my enemies of those days. They now count among 
my best friends. I have forgiven. 

The little flag — we do not see the like today, the stripes sewn together 
and the stars fastened upon the cloth — is still in my possession. A battered 
and torn little flag, of no value to others, but priceless to me. I have saved 
its honor ; it shall be with me as long as I live, and it shall lie with me after 
I am dead. 



After the county was organized, then came the setting in motion of the 
machinery for its government and the regulation of its financial and internal 
improvement affairs, which in those early days, as well as at even a much later 
date, was no small undertaking. Officers had to be selected by the voters and 
property owners, and a place had to be provided' for the holding of county 
courts and circuit courts, as well as a safe place provided for the keeping of 
public records and money, as collected for the running expenses of the new 
county, which had hitherto been attached to other, older sections of the state. 
But pioneer men ever have been equal to such emergencies, and they faltered 
not at the task before them, but went manfully about their duties as county 

The first mention of official appointments was at the first term of county 
court, held at the house of Samuel Weston, January 22, 182 1, when John 
Stapp, John Whitsett and James Lillard, Sr., had been commissioned by 
Governor McNair, under date of St. Louis, December 8, 1820, as justices of 
the court of Lillard county. Henry Renick was then justice of the peace for 
the county, and he administered the oath of office to the new justices. Young 
Ewing was the first clerk of the county court, and he gave bond for the sum 
of twelve hundred dollars, with William Y. Young and Joel Campbell as 
sureties. This was the April term of the county court. The January term 
did no business other than to swear into office the justices above named. The 
first case in this court was that concerning the will of Amasa Crain, deceased, 
and the appraisers were appointed to place value on the slaves and all per- 
sonal property of the estate and report the same into court as provided by law. 

On April 24, 182 1, John Dustin was examined and then appointed sur- 
veyor of the county of Lillard. 

On July 24th of the same year, John Stapp was appointed to be presi- 
dent of the court and the first bill of county expenses was made out at that 
date, the same amounting to fifty-five dollars and twenty-five cents, which in- 
cluded rental for county offices, sheriff's fees and other expenses incurred up 
to that time. 


At the October term of county court, Braxton Small was appointed 
deputy clerk of the county court. On the same day, the first report of the 
county's first tax collector was made to the court, and the amount due from 
his collections was eighty-three dollars and seventy cents. 

At the March 12, 1822, term of county court, as before mentioned, the 
court appointed the commissioners to select a county seat site and they gave 
bonds in the sum of two thousand dollars ; they were to also see to getting a 
proper location on which to erect county buildings. 

Concerning the first election held in the county, the minutes of the 
county court state that on July 9, 1822, Solomon Cox, Legard Fine and 
James Lillard, Jr., were "appointed judges of election to be held at Mt. 
Vernon, in Tabo township; and Julius Emmons, David Ward and Thomas 
Swift were appointed judges of the election to be held in Sniabar township, 
at the place of preaching near Henry Renick's." These appear to have been 
township elections for the election of constables. 

The contract to erect public buildings was let to Henry Renick, and on 
June 27, 1825, appears an account of eight hundred and seventy-five dollars 
and fifteen cents paid him on the contract. For the next two or three years 
there appear various items and small partial payments on the construction 
of a court house and jail, but the total cost is unknown and of little conse- 
quence today; it may be stated, however, that the jobs were not well done 
and only served their purpose a few years, when other provisions had to be 
made for a permanent set of county buildings. It seems that this building 
— the first court house — was accepted by the court on November 23, 1825, 
and the commissioners were then discharged. 


Being unfit for further use, the old court house (built in 1825) was 
ordered to be sold, except the stone in its foundation. This sale took place 
August 1, 1832, after which the county rented accommodations for a num- 
ber of years. (This was built in Old Town.) 


In 1835 Messrs. Rollins and Thomas completed a new three-story build- 
ing for the county's use. This was used until 1847, when the present court 
house was completed, and in its early day was looked upon as among the 
finest, most classic public buildings in Missouri. The second building was 


in the old town, but the present temple of justice stands in the public 
square, facing Main street on the north. The new court house was erected 
by Hunter & Alford, contractors. The second court house was eventually 
sold to the Baptist Female College, and by that institution used until the 
coming on of the great Civil war, during which turmoil it was used by 
the United States troops as a hospital, and finally as a pest-house for small- 
pox cases; hence, after the war it was abandoned for school purposes and 
torn down, the brick being sold. 

The county court records show that on March 25, 1849, the court 
ordered "that the public square in the town of Lexington (commonly called 
Old Town), together with the buildings thereon, be sold to the highest 
bidder, on the first Monday of August next; and also the lot on which the 
old jail stood." Louis W. Smallwood was the commissioner to manage 
the sale. 

The commissioners to oversee the construction of the new court house 
were Silas Silver, John Carton and Robert Aull, with Henderson Young 
as their attorney for legal counsel on any contracts drawn. William Spratt 
was subsequently added to the board. In April a plan was submitted by 
William Daugherty for the court house to be built. It was accepted and 
called for a twelve-thousand-dollar structure, and Daugherty received forty 
dollars for his specifications and plans — not modern prices for such expert 
work. The following appear as having had part in the real construction of 
this, the present court house of Lafayette county : Elijah Littlejohn, Alex- 
ander McFadden, John Alford, William Hunter, G. F. Brown, Samuel Ball 
and Cyrus Osborn, the latter doing the painting on the building. 

In the eighties a wing or addition was made to the court house, which 
gives the present court house accommodations. In the days of the Civil 
war a cannon ball shattered one of the immense columns in front of the 
main structure, near its top, and it still remains in view, a relic and reminder 
to the passerby of those days when brother fought against brother. 

In December, 1865, the county jail was burned down. There was an 
insurance of three thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars on the same, 
which was promptly paid. The jail was rebuilt by a Mr. Hackett in 1866-67, 
and accepted by the county court. This is the present jail, with slight changes 
and additions. 


Here, as in other counties, a part of the county's business is transacted 
in an office building, situated close to the court house proper, and upon the 
east side of the public square. This building was originally constructed 


in 1854, by an appropriation of four thousand five hundred dollars, the 
same to be used by the clerks of the circuit and county clerks. It was 
William Morrison who superintended the construction of this building, in 
which, under the present order of things, are the offices and fire-proof vaults 
occupied by the clerks above mentioned, together with the county auditor 
and treasurer. 


The first recorded mention of any county jail was in May, 1823, when 
the court record reads : "That the jail be received for public use, but the 
commissioners are to go on and have it finished according to contract; 
and it is further ordered that all persons liable to be sent to jail be confined 
in the same." 

About 1845, Eldredge Burden, William Boyce and Alexander McFad- 
den were jail commissioners appointed by the county court, and on October 
6, 1846, it is recorded that two thousand seven hundred dollars was paid 
to Gabriel F. Brown, contractor for jail building. This is the jail that is 
still in use, with some additions made thereto, which have been built of 
brick, the original section being of rough stone. 


The poor house for Lafayette county is situated in Clay township, 
about six miles west of Lexington. It comprises a fine modern brick struc- 
ture, with hot and cold water, baths and closets. It was first occupied in 
the autumn of 1906. Its cost was about twelve thousand dollars. The aver- 
age number of inmates is from twelve to twenty unfortunate poor. They 
are cared for by a superintendent, who receives a certain sum per capita for 
boarding the persons, all of whom are aged and unable to labor. In addi- 
tion to this means of caring for the poor, the county court provides for upon 
an average, now, of about fifty-five persons, by allowing them from two to 
eight dollars per month, and they have their homes with friends or relatives 
in the various townships. 


The first mention in the county records of a public road occurs April 
24. 182 1, when Abner Graham was appointed overseer of a road leading 
from Fort Osage through Sniabar township. This road was to be kept clear 


and in good repair for twenty feet in width. At the same term of county 
court, James Young was appointed overseer of the road from Little Sniabar 
to James Connors' ; William F. Simmons overseer of the road from the Tabo 
creek, crossing near Mt. Vernon, to the range lines 26 and 27. 

On the same day were appointed commissioners to view the best and 
nearest route for a road leading from Jack's Ferry to intersect the road lead- 
ing from Fort Osage to Mt. Vernon. Fort Osage stood near the present 
town of Sibley in Jackson county. This fort was simply a United States 
military post with soldiers to protect the settlers from intrusion by the 


In 1 82 1 a license was granted by the county court to Adam Lightner to 
operate a ferry across Tabo creek, for which he paid the sum of two dol- 
lars. The rate of toll to be charged was fixed at : One passenger, three 
cents ; horse, three cents ; cattle, three cents each ; hogs or sheep, two cents 
each ; carriage or cart, twenty-five cents ; wagon and team, thirty-seven and 
a half cents. 

On July 23, 1 82 1, license was granted to Thomas Stokely to keep a 
ferry across the Missouri river about three miles below Fort Osage. Abel 
Owens went on his bond for two thousand dollars. The following toll rates 
were charged : Passengers, twelve and a half cents ; man and horse, twenty- 
five cents ; cattle, ten cents each ; hogs or sheep, three cents each ; carriages, 
thirty-seven and a half cents; carts, fifty cents; wagons, one dollar; lumber, 
or goods not in vehicle, six cents per hundred weight. A road was also 
authorized laid out from the bridge on Fire Prairie creek to this ferry land- 
ing on the Missouri river. 

Just where "Jack's Ferry" was and when authorized is not now a 
matter of record, but many years since it was stated by General Graham 
to have been located at the original steamboat landing, which later became 
the foot of Commercial street in Lexington, although there was a strip of 
solid land for a half mile out from the old "landing more than twenty-five 
years ago. 


On July 9, 182 1, was issued the first license for the sale of merchandise 
to be sold in Lafayette county. It was given to Robert Castles to retail 
merchandise, and for such he paid the amount of thirty dollars per year. 
Just where his store was located is not now positively known. 


On July 24, 1 82 1, Adam Lightner was granted license to keep a tav- 
ern; the fee was twelve dollars per year. Michael Ely was granted mer- 
chandise license on the day last named. 

On August 6, 1822, Alfred K. Stevens was given a permit to build a 
warehouse on the Missouri river, on the northwest fractional quarter of 
section 24, fractional township 51. This was for the storage and proper 
inspection of tobacco, and it is related that this was the first real industrial 
enterprise promoted in Lafayette county. 

The liquor license in those early days amounted to only five dollars 
for six months, while to sell the necessaries of life six times this amount 
was charged the retail merchant — but times have changed in ninety years 
and more. 


Here in Lafayette county, as well as in all parts of the West, the young 
frontiersman saw the need of a good wife to share his fortunes with him, 
and the record shows that the first to take advantage of the matrimonial 
pledge was James Keeney, who married "Anney"' Ramsey, February 8, 1821. 

During the same year additional marriages were recorded as follows : 
George Shelby to Margaret Tunage, by Rev. Martin Trapp; William Cox to 
Sary Cantrel, by the same minister; William Ferguson to Polly Heard, by 
Samuel Weston, a justice of the peace; Wallace McAffee to Susanna Givens, 
by John Heard, justice of the peace; Robert McAffee to Mary Gladden, by the 
same officer; Walter Burril to Lydia Cox, by the same. These constituted 
all the marriages within this county for the first year of its organization — 
1 82 1. There were sixty-one marriages from February 8, 1821, to August 1, 
1825. The first marriage actually within this county was that of John 
Lovelady and Mary Cox, in 1818, before the organization of the county, 
hence it does not appear of record here. 


A paragraph in the county court's minutes, dated September 2, 1846, 
states that a report was made to the court by John C. Bledsoe, surveyor of 
Lafayette county, and A. H. Perry, surveyor of Johnson county, regarding 
an official survey of the line between these two counties. The cost of this 
joint survey was six hundred and ninety-six dollars and thirty-five cents, of 
which Lafayette county paid one-half. The twenty-two-page report is found 
from pages 131 to 152 of the County Record Book No. 8. 


On September i, 1851, the county surveyor was ordered to resurvey 
and establish the boundary line between Lafayette and Saline counties. On 
October 10, 1854, appears a similar entry with reference to Lafayette and 
Johnson counties again. 

Through some ill-worded instruments, and a misunderstanding in late 
years, the defining of the territory embraced in Clay and Lexington town- 
ships is not quite clear, and out of it has grown some litigation concerning 
the collection of taxes, especially those of railroad corporations. This has 
come about by reason of the supposition that the Sni creek was to be the 
boundary to its mouth into the Missouri, which with passing years and topo- 
graphical changes is a mixed question. The matter is not fully settled as yet. 


In 1828 Lafayette county had not yet been provided with an official 
seal, and Markham Fristoe, the county assessor, and County Clerk Young 
Ewing affixed an improvised seal, known as "a private seal," consisting of a 
four-rayed star cut out of white paper, the rays measuring three inches 
from point to point, and stuck it onto the document with a red sealing wafer, 
such as was common in the early days for sealing letters and documents of 
various kinds. 

The seal of today is a circle a little larger than a silver dollar coin, 
with the word "SEAL" in its center, while around its outer rim are the 
words "Lafayette County, Missouri — County Court." 


It is not the aim to go into a detailed statement of the finances of 
this county by years or even decades, but to give the reader a general idea 
of the county's finances from the date of its organization to the present 
time — 1910. 

While the county was yet known as "Lillard county," William Y. C. 
Ewing, on April 23, 1821, was appointed assessor of the county. The first 
tax collector was Markham Fristoe, appointed at the same time, his bonds- 
men being Isaac Clark and Thomas Fristoe. William Christie is also named 
in the records as being the "auditor of public accounts." He was really a 
state officer to whom all county financial matters had to be certified. On 
July 23d, the same year, Young Ewing is mentioned as county treasurer, 
but there seems to be no record now of when or how he was elected to such 



office. It appears on the date just mentioned that W. Y. C. Ewing received 
the sum of thirty dollars for his services as county assessor. It is here 
that the first mention is made of a county fund. 

The total tax assessed for 1822 amounted to one hundred and sixty- 
eight dollars and seventeen cents. This seems to have all been collected ex- 
cept eight dollars and ninety-seven cents. 

The record shows that in 1821 there were one hundred and eighty-eight 
resident and seven non-resident tax-payers, and the total taxable property 
was as follows : 

Total on valuation $i997 2 

Total on bachelors 38.00 

Total on watches 9.12 

Total on carriages 6.00 

Total on household furniture 1.00 

Total amount of state tax $253.84 

At the time the county was organized the state of Missouri levied a 
special tax on "unmarried white males above twenty-one years and under 
fifty years." During .the time Lafayette was called Lillard county the fol- 
lowing bachelors were thus taxed for their "single blessedness" : Aaron 
Bryant, Thomas Blakey, John Bastic, David Blevins, James Ball, Solomon 
Catron, Gabriel Chineth, William Wallace, Joseph Cox, Isaac Tribble, Elijah 
Demasters, Isaac Dunaway, Moses Day, Alexander Dunbar, Robert Ewing, 
Green Hughes, William Hall, William Young, Jr., Amos Horn, Elijah Tate, 
John Ingram, Zachariah Linville, Green McCafferty, Thomas McCafferty, 
Hugh McCafferty, Robert Renick, George Stevens, James Young, John Sal- 
lady, Henderson Wheeler. 


What Taxed for. Number. Value. 

White males (poll tax) 315-00 

Acres of Land 17,118 $22,617.00 

Town Lots 7150 4,607.50 

Improvements 136 8.400.00 

Slaves 239 59,665.00 

Horses 713 23,407.00 

Cattle 1,459 9,306.00 

Watches 21 396.00 


What Taxed for. Number. Value. 

Tanyards 3 $140.00 

Distilleries 4 360.00 

Mills 4 225.00 

Carriages 3 4 I 5-°° 

Added at Court (increase) ... 3.16 

Total ...'. $487.52 

There was but forty-two dollars and twenty-six cents of a non-resident 
tax at the above date. Forty-two years later, 1870, the total number of acres 
of land taxed within this county was three hundred eighty-seven thousand 
six hundred and seventy-eight ; number of town lots in county, three thousand 
eight hundred and forty-six; valuation of landed property, five and three- 
quarters million dollars ; personal property assessed, two and a half million 
dollars ; this made a total valuation of all property of eight and a quarter 
million dollars. 


State tax $20,984 

State Interest tax 20,897 

County tax 41.813 

Road tax 19,872 

Poorhouse tax 13.30 1 

Lexington & St. Louis Ry. tax 62,798 

Bridge tax 16,716 

County Interest tax 20,899 

Lexington township railway tax 9-344 

Total : $226,588 

At the above date the rate of school tax in Lexington township was 
sixty-nine cents on every hundred dollars of taxable property. 

In 1870 the records show that the county received from all revenue 
sources the amount of $26,772.62, and after paying all current expenses had 
a balance in the treasury of $4,509.63. 

Ten years later, 1880, the books show that the county had $280.72 of a 
balance on hand, which was turned over to the state treasurer and credited 
with the same. 

In the case of the Lexington & St. Louis railroad bonds, at that time, the 
amount compromised was $578,900; amount outstanding, $44,900; amount in 


litigation, $11,000; amount paid and canceled, $131,900. Of county funding 
bonds, compromised, $95,000; amount outstanding, $65,000; amount in liti- 
gation, $41,000; amount canceled and paid, $81,250. Of the compromise 
bonds outstanding, $611,900 and $19,200 paid. The Lexington & St. 
Joseph railroad bonds had then been declared unconstitutional by the United 
States supreme court, but were in 1880 still out in claimant's hands. All 
township bonds were then still outstanding, with accrued interest from date of 


In 1880, the assessed valuation of property in Lafayette county was on 
lands (491,645 acres), $4,493,855, an average of $11.47 P er acre; number of 
town lots, 6,575, valued at $988,500, an average of $150.34 each. Total 
value of all realty in county, $5,482,355. Total personal property, $2,307,- 
530. Grand total taxable wealth of county, $8,789,885. 


From Merchant's Tax-book $ 1,944 , 

Current Receipts 43,3 12 

Railway and Telegraph 7,558 

Book Personal tax list J »399 

Land Delinquent Book 3,73& 

All Licenses 5,386 

All other sources 14,788 

Total $80,430 


Highways and Bridges $44,833 

Support of Paupers 8,275 

Poor Person's Asylum 5, l 3& 

Reform Schools for Boys 245 

Fees, Salaries and Court Expenses 14,453 

Books and Stationery 2,012 

Costs in Criminal Cases 3,836 

Grand and Petit Jurors and Witnesses 5,466 

County Building Repairs 750 

Miscellaneous Expenses 6,150 

TotaI $91,195 



In 1880 the county had twenty-eight dram-shops, as reported to the state 
authorities. From the same the county received a revenue of two thousand 
five hundred and ninety-three dollars, while Missouri received license money 
amounting to one thousand two hundred and ninety-five dollars. The state 
license was then fifty dollars, while that imposed by the county was one hun- 
dred dollars. In 1909 there were twenty-six dram-shop licenses in force in 
Lafayette county. 



The object of this chapter is to give as near a complete list of the men 
who have filled the various county, state and national offices as is possible to 
compile at this date. The men who have been residents of Lafayette county 
who have served in the United States Congress, the state senators and state's 
representatives and the various county officials here follow : 


Thomas P. Akers, of this county, served in the thirty-fourth Congress 
in 1855-56; Alexander Graves served in the forty-eighth Congress in 1883-85 ; 
John Welborn served in the fifty-ninth Congress in 1905-07. 


1826— L. W. Boggs. 
1828— L. W. Boggs. 
1830 — L. W. Boggs. 
1832 — Julius Emmons. 
1834 — Julius Emmons. 
1838— Peter R. Pratt. 
1840 — John Polk. 
1842 — L. W. Boggs. 
1844 — L. W. Boggs. 
1846 — George W. Miller. 
1848 — E. L. Edwards. 
1850 — Preston B. Reed. 
1852 — Preston B. Reed. 
1854 — John D. Stevenson. 
1856 — John D. Stevenson. 
1858— R. L. Y. Peyton. 
i860— R. L. Y. Peyton. 

1862— Robert T. Van Horn. 
1864— Robert T. Van Horn. 
1866 — James Young. 
1868— L. Davis. 
1870— J. B. Wornell. 
r873— J. B. Wornell. 
1875 — J onn B. Newberry. 
1877 — John B. Newberry. 
1879 — James N. Bradley. 
1 88 1 — James N. Bradley. 
1883— James H. Walker. 
1885— James H. Walker. 
1887— James E. Hazell. 
1889— James E. Hazell. 
1891 — James D. Stark. 
l8 93 — James D. Stark. 
l8 95 — Hiram M. Bledsoe. 



1897 — C. H. Vandiver. 
1899 — C. H. Vandiver. 
1901 — N. M. Bradley. 
1903 — N. M. Bradley. 

1905 — Robert H. Brown. 
1907 — Robert H. Brown. 
1909 — James P. Chinn. 


1820 — William Lillard. 
1826 — Abel Owen. 
1828— David Ward. 
1832— N. C. Mitchell. 
1834— R. Macklin White. 
1836 — William McCausland. 
1838 — J. Young. 
1840 — John B. Vivian. 
1842 — Eldredge Burden. 
1844— Stephen T. Neill. 
1846 — Eldredge Burden. 
1848 — John P. Campbell. 
1850— J. P. Campbell. 

E. Burden. 
1852— R. N. Smith. 

I. S. Warren. 
1854— S. T. Neill. 

W. S. Field. 
j 85 6— John S. Holliday. 

William Morrison. 
1858 — Samuel F. Taylor. 

Eldredge Burden. 
i860 — G. S. Rathburn. 

W. A. Gordon. 
1862 — Thomas H. Allen. 

H. C. Chiles. 
1864 — William Boyce. 

William Spratt. 

1866— A. K. Stilington. 
1868 — August Hackman. 


1870— Z. J. Mitchell. 

B. H. Wilson. 
1872 — Richard A. Collins. 
1874— M. V. L. McClelland. 
1876 — Charles L. Ewing. 

H. S. Van Angelen. 
1878— R. A. Collins. 

A. A. Lesueur. 
1880— Jo F. Smith. 

J. A. Lockhart. 
1882— William H. Carter. 
1884— William H. Carter. 
1886— Robert Hicklin. 
1888— Robert Hicklin. 
1890 — J. T. Ferguson. 
1892 — John F. Miller. 
1894 — J. T. Ferguson. 
1896— Jo. H. Christy. 
1898— Jo. H. Christy. 
1900 — Jo. B. Shelby. 
1902 — Jo. B. Shelby. 
1904 — Glover Branch. 
1906 — J. H. Christy. 
1908 — J. H. Branch. 


The early election records being absent, a list of those who have served 
as county officers from about the close of the Civil war will be here given : 




1870 — William Hixon. 
1874 — J. D. Conner. 
1878 — J. D. Conner. 
1882 — J. D. Conner. 
1886— J. D. Conner. 

1890 — Charles C. Wallace. 
1894 — Charles C. Wallace. 
1898 — Clem Tyree. 
1902 — Clem Tyree. 
1906— H. W. McNeel. 


1866 — M. Chapman. 
1868— Charles B. Scott. 
1870 — Benjamin Marshall. 
1872 — B. I. Ireland. 
1874 — B. I. Ireland. 
1876— B. I. Ireland. 
1878— B. I. Ireland. 
1880— B. I. Ireland. 
1882— B. I. Ireland. 
1884— M. V. L. McClelland. 
1886— M. V. L. McClelland. 

1888— J. R. Dillard. 
1890— J. R. Dillard. 
1892— Lee H. Dillard. 
1894 — Lee H. Dillard. 
1896 — J. C. Bledsoe. 
1898— J. C. Bledsoe. 
1900 — William H. Edwards. 
1902 — William H. Edwards. 
1904 — John Taubman. 
1906 — B. C. Drummond. 
1908 — Charles Hoefer, Jr. 


1866— J. M. Pool. 
1868— J. M. Fleming. 
1870 — Robert Taubman. 
1872 — William Young. 
1874 — George M. Mount joy. 
1876 — George M. Mount joy. 
1878 — George M. Mount joy. 
1880 — Benjamin Elliott. 
1882 — Benjamin Elliott. 
1884 — J. W. Bowman. 
1886— J. W. Bowman. 

1888— Charles S. Mitchell. 
1890 — Charles S. Mitchell. 
1892— Z. W. Wright. 
1894— Z. W. Wright. 
1896 — J. A. Fulkerson. 
1898— J. A. Fulkerson. 
1900 — Oscar A. Thomas. 
1902 — Oscar A. Thomas. 
1904 — Charles F. Kinkead. 
1906 — Charles F. Kinkead. 
1908 — W. S. Peacock. 


1866— John B. Terry. 
1870 — H. L. Barksdale. 

1874 — Frank Trigg. 
1878— Frank Trigg. 



1882 — Frank Trigg. 
1886— C. B. Daniel. 
1890 — Charles C. Ewing. 
1894 — Charles C. Ewing. 

1898 — Hub. Campbell. 
1902 — Hub. Campbell. 
1906 — J. W. Sydnor. 


1866— W. H. Bowen. 
1870 — Jo. O'Gorman. 
1874 — William B. Steele. 
1878— William B. Steele. 
1882— William B. Steele. 
1886— William B. Steele. 

1890 — Samuel J. Andrew. 
1894 — Samuel J. Andrew. 
1898 — Frank Thornton. 
1902 — Frank Thornton. 
1906 — C. L. Glasscock. 

i860— H. Smith. 
1868 — Granville Clayton. 
1870 — Adam Walk. 
1872 — Harrison Smith. 
1874 — John D. Williams. 
1876 — James D. Williams. 
1878— J. D. Williams. 
1880 — James G. Russell. 
1882— James G. Russell. 
1884 — James G. Russell. 
1886 — William J. Drummond. 




• J- 




H. Straughn 



H. Straughn 





1896— F. 



1898— F. 



1900 — W 

. B. 




. B. 






1906 — F. 








i860— Robert F. Taylor. 
1868— Milton Smith. 
1870 — John Fritz. 
1872 — John Fritz. 
1874— Z. S. Mitchell. 
1876— William C. White. 
187&- William C. White. 
1880— Z. S. Marshall. 
1882— William A. Thornton. 
1884— William A. Thornton. 

1886 — James B. Santmyer. 
1888 — James B. Santmyer. 
1890 — John Walker. 
1892 — John Walker. 
1894 — M. Drummond. 
1896 — M. Drummond. 
1900 — George C. Marquis. 
1904 — George C. Marquis. 
1908 — George C. Marquis. 




1868— Byron Bliss. 
1872 — John O. Lockhart. 
1876 — Herman Krause. 
1880— B. D. Weedin. 
1884— B. D. Weedin. 
1888— B. D. Weedin. 

1892 — James K. Gray. 
1896 — James K. Gray. 
1900 — B. D. Weedin. 
1904 — B. D. Weedin. 
1908 — John Walker. 


1868 — John R. Runyon. 
1872 — Moses Chapman. 
1876 — Thomas Standish. 
1880 — Thomas Standish. 
1882— Jo. A. Wilson. 
1884— Jo. A. Wilson. 
1888— S. N. Wilson. 

1892— S. N. Wilson. 
1896— W. J. Howe. 
1898— M. D. Wilson. 
1900 — M. D. Wilson. 
1904 — W. D. Meng. 
1908— W. D. Meng. 


The office of probate judge has gone through several changes in Missouri. 
From 1849 to 1868 it was authorized by special legislation and was not in 
operation in every county, but was in Lafayette. The office became an elective 
office in 1868 and in 1878 the law was so changed that every county within 
the state had a probate judge elected at the general election with the other 
county officers. The following have served as probate judges in Lafayette 
county : 

In 1850 Ed. Stratton was appointed; he was succeeded by W. H. Small- 
wood about the commencement of the Civil war. In 1862 Eldridge Burden 
was appointed in July, served until 1865 and was at that time commissioned 
by the governor and in 1868 (when the law was changed) was elected for a 
term of six years, which brought it down to 1874, when William T. Gammon 
was elected, serving until the election of James B. Hord, who died in office 
after a short time. In 1882 Xenophon Ryland was elected and served until 
1890. In the last named year, William Young was elected and served until 
1898. Following him came J. P. Chinn, who served from the close of Judge 
Young's term until January 1, 1907, when the present incumbent, Thomas A. 
Walker, was sworn into office. 




1872 — William A. Gordon. 
1874 — William A. Gordon. 
1876 — P. S. Fulkerson. 
1 878— P. S. Fulkerson. 
1880 — George M. Mount joy. 
1882 — George M. Mount joy. 
1884 — James W. Harrison. 
1886 — James W. Harrison. 
1888 — John G. Worthington. 

1890 — John G. Worthington. 
1892 — Thomas A. Catron. 
1894 — Thomas A. Catron. 
1896 — George W. Bates. 
1898 — George W. Bates. 
1900 — J. J. Fulkerson. 
1902 — J. J. Fulkerson. 
1904— George B. Gordon. 
1906 — George B. Gordon. 


1872 — A. J. Hall (County Attorney). 

1876 — William Young (County At- 

1874 — Alexander Graves (now called 
prosecuting attorney). 

1878— John S. Blackwell. 

1880— John S. Blackwell. 

1882— John S. Blackwell. 

1884 — James S. Blackwell. 

1886— William B. Wilson. 

1888— William B. Wilson. 

1890 — William Aull. 
1892 — William Aull. 
1894 — William Aull. 
1896 — C. Vivion. 
1898 — C. Vivion. 
1900 — H. F. Blackwell. 
1902 — H. F. Blackwell. 
1904 — N. M. Houx. 
1906 — N. M. Houx. 
1908— C. A. Keith. 


1866 — Jesse Scofield. • 

N. W. Letton. 

W. S. Thomas. 
1868 — George H. Ambrose. 
1878— I. A. Prather. 

J. W. Harrison. 

Robert Barnett. 
1882 — Robert A. Barnett. 

John A. Lockhart. 

J. W. Harrison. 
1884— Robert Hale. 

H. H. Elling. 
1886— R. H. Benton. 

H. H. Elling. 

John F. Smith. 
1888— R. H. Benton. 

C. A. Catron. 
1890 — R. S. Andrews. 

J. F. Smith. 

William Young. 

H. H. Elling. 
1892 — R. S. Andrews. 

George Chamblin. 
1894 — William F. McCausland. 

Thomas E. Chinn. 

George A. Chamblin. 


1896— Thomas E. Chinn. P. W. Osborn. 

G. A. Chamblin. 1904 — J- S. Klingenberg. 
1898— P. W. Osborn. E. S. Butt. 

J. H. Green. 1906— J. B. Hagood. 

Chris Temple. E. M. Thomas. 

1900 — J. H. Green. J. S. Klingenberg. 

Jo. R. Hagood. 1908 — J. S. Klingenberg. 
1902 — William A. Redd. E. M. Thomas. 


The state law provided for a superintendent of schools from 1866 to 
1873 an d then lapsed back to the old school commissioner system, which left 
the counties without a superintendent of their public schools until the new 
law was passed (mentioned in the Educational chapter), which was in 1909, 
since which time all counties may have their regular county school superin- 
tendents. The superintendents in the early years were as follows: 1866, 
A. Chinn; 1868, George K. Smith; 1870, George M. Catron, who served 
until 1873, when the law was repealed that created such a school office in the 
counties of the state. The first to be elected to this office under the new 
school law of 1908-9, in this county, was Homer T. Phillips, the present effi- 
cient and highly practical educator. 


While the election returns are by no means complete in the county offices 
of Lafayette county, it is possible to give the reader a fair idea of the political 
complexion of the county at critical dates in its history, as seen in the sub- 
joined : 


1840 — William Henry Harrison (Whig) 75 

1844 — Henry Clay (Whig) 480 

1848 — Lewis Cass (Democrat) 500 

1852 — Winfield Scott (Whig) large 

1856 — Millard Fillmore (Know-Nothing) large 

i860— John Bell (Old-line Whig) 476 

1864 — George B. McClellan (Democrat) 50 

1868 — Horatio Seymour (Democrat) 106 

1872 — Horace Greeley (Democrat) 1,481 

1876 — Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat) 1,451 

1880 — W. S. Hancock (Democrat) 1,341 


1884 — Grover Cleveland (Democrat) 1,112 

1888 — Grover Cleveland (Democrat) 1,046 

1892 — Grover Cleveland (Democrat) 

i%g6 — W. J. Bryan (Democrat) 1,088 

1900 — W. J. Bryan (Democrat) 903 

1904 — Alton B. Parker (Democrat) (plurality) 66 

1908 — W. J. Bryan (Democrat) 94 


For the vote on tile state constitution of 1865, the following is the true 
record : 

For Constitution. Against Constitution. 

Lexington 170 271 

Clay township 2 132 

Freedom township 124 not given 

Sniabar township 2 55 

Davis township 3 101 

Middleton township 1 113 

Washington township 3 42 

Dover township not given 102 

Totals 295 816 

The above-referred-to state constitution was voted upon by the people 
of the state with the limitation, or restriction, provided for in the following 
oath, hence was never a popular constitution, for in fact only a portion of the 
people of Missouri had any voice in making it : 

"That I will bear true faith, loyalty and allegiance to the United States, 
and will not directly or indirectly give aid, or comfort, or countenance, to the 
enemies or opposers thereof, or of the provisional government of the state of 
Missouri, any ordinance, law, or resolution of any state convention or legis- 
lature, or of any order or organization, secret, or otherwise, to the contrary 
notwithstanding; and that I do this with a full and honest determination, 
pledge and purpose, faithfully to keep and perform the same, without any men- 
tal reservation or evasion whatever. And I do solemnly swear, that I have 
not since the 17th day of December, 1861, wilfully taken up arms, or levied 
war against the United States, or against the provisional government of the 
state of Missouri, so help me God." 


This oath naturally disfranchised many of the men who would otherwise 
have a chance to vote on the adoption of a new constitution. The constitution 
was adopted by about one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two majority in 
the state. 


Hon. Henry C. Wallace, of Lexington, was state senator and represented 
Lafayette county at the convention which framed this constitution and the vote 
on the adoption, in this county, stood as follows : 

For Against 

Mount Hope precinct 83 19 

West Sniabar 49 3 

Aullville 113 11 

Concordia 47 93 

East Lexington 91 30 

West Lexington t>72> 1i 5 

Dover 137 1 

Page City 61 

North Washington 89 

South Washington 38 1 

Wellington 137 2 

Napoleon 57 8 

Greenton 84 1 

Coffee's Schoolhouse ^y 

Higginsville 125 

Middleton 257 3 

Total 1,778 287 

This constitution went into effect November 30, 1875, and is the present 

It may be observed that the disfranchising clause and oath had been re- 
moved when the vote was taken on this Constitution. 


In April, 1908, at the local option election the vote stood : "Dry," 2,084; 
"Wet," 2.865 ; majority for saloons, 781. 

At the election on this issue in 1887-88, the vote stood, 1,697 majority 
for the saloons. 



Wherever men have lived and developed into communities, states and na- 
tions, there have been, from the difference of human understandings, bloody 
wars, of greater or less magnitude. Some wars have been for conquest solely, 
while others have been from principle and for the securing of human rights. 
The part that Missouri has had in the great wars of America began with the 
Mexican war of 1846-48. The next conflict was known as the Rebellion, or 
Civil war, fought between April, 1861, and May, 1865, between the Federal 
and Confederate forces, in which the former was successful. By it the slaves 
of the country were set free by President Lincoln. The next war was that be- 
tween the United States and Spain, growing out of the inhuman treatment of 
the latter toward their subjects on the island of Cuba, the immediate cause 
being the sinking of the American warship "Maine" in Havana harbor, Cuba, 
in April, 1898. In this the American forces were successful, as they have 
been in all the wars in which they have participated, including the Revolution, 
beginning in 1776, when the British yoke was thrown off. 

It will be the object of this chapter to inform the reader of a purely local 
history as to the special part taken by the citizens of Lafayette county, Mis- 
souri, in the last three wars — war with Mexico, the Civil war and the Spanish- 
American war ; also the Kansas border war. 


Without going into the details of what brought on the war between this 
country and Mexico, it may be said that Lafayette county did her share in 
the short, but decisive, conflict. This war was fought between 1846 and 1848 
and in May. 1846, a company was formed at Lexington to join Colonel Doni- 
phan's regiment, and was mustered as Company B. The men who served 
from Lafayette county were for the most part as follows, together with their 
whereabouts in 1880: 

Captain William Walton, deceased ; first lieutenant, Booth Barnett, de- 
ceased ; second lieutenant, Kirkpatrick, killed ; first sergeant, Thomas Hinkle ; 


H. J. Mallory, Dover township; G. W. Vivion, Davis township; Baxter D. 
Kavanangh, Ray county; Isaac Braden, Clay township; George King, de- 
ceased; Jacob Ridge, deceased; William Osborne, deceased; W. B. Coffee, 
deceased ; John Ridge, deceased ; William Cromwell, Ft. Worth, Texas ; Up- 
ton Winsor, deceased; Jere Bear, Kansas City; John Music, deceased; 
W. B. Tyrce, deceased; H. M. Bledsoe, Cass county, Missouri (commander 
of "Bledsoe's Battery" in the Civil war) ; William Nelson, Carroll county, 
Missouri; Joseph Chinn, jailor at Lexington; Buck Chinn, deceased; Alex- 
ander Green, Saline county ; Daniel Horn, deceased ; Thomas Hughes, de- 
ceased ; John McDougal, Dover township ; William Hale, Lexington ; William 
Chancellor, Lexington. The balance were not residents of this county. 

Colonel Doniphan's command consisted of one thousand men, all 
mounted. They marched overland from Fort Leavenworth, by the way of 
the old Santa Fe trail, to Santa Fe and from there over into Old Mexico city. 
They took with them a large number of cattle and sheep, and the Indians, who 
kept harassing them to get possession of this stock, succeeded in capturing 
one thousand of their sheep. They were pursued by the soldiers three days, 
but the stock was not recovered. This regiment participated at the battle of 
Bracito and also at Sacramento, with numerous lesser engagements on the line 
of march. At the battle of Sacramento, Major Campbell, of Lafayette county, 
was with them, though not a member of the regular command. He was in 
Mexico on some trading expedition. Colonel Doniphan's regiment received 
very high praise from Gen. Zachariah Taylor, as well as from General Wool, 
for its gallant action and signal success at Sacramento, a part of which glory, 
of course, belonged to the men from Lafayette county. 

"old sac." 

Colonel Doniphan captured a cannon at Sacramento which was 
given by the United States to Missouri and the state, in turn, gave it to 
Lafayette county. It was of amalgam brass, copper, silver, etc., and was at 
first a nine-pounder. It laid at Lexington for a long time, being used only 
on Fourth of July occasions for firing the national salutes. The boys of the 
city used to ram it half full of powder and brick bats and then it made a 
thundering noise, to the delight of all celebrators of Independence Day. At 
Morrison's foundry, in Lexington, it was bored out, making it a twelve- 
pounder. It was imperfectly bored at the breech and hence could not be of 
practical field service. It was familiarly known as "Old Sac," and later was 
pressed into service and did excellent work for the Southern cause in the Civil 


war. It proved itself true on the battlefields of Wilson's Creek, Elkhorn, and 
at famous Pea Ridge, as was testified to by the Federal forces. At Memphis 
it was condemned and at last was placed in the Confederate navy yard at 
Mobile, Alabama. Hence the cannon served well its purpose in two American 


Just prior to the Civil war, in 1856, occurred what is commonly desig- 
nated the Border war, or Kansas trouble. This marked a special epoch in the 
history of Lafayette county. It was brought about by the now historic Kan- 
sas-Nebraska bill. It was in the month of August of that year that flaming 
hand-bills appeared in Lexington headed "War in Kansas!'' This called at- 
tention to the rash, bad things the abolition party were reported to have com- 
mitted in Kansas. The bill made a strong appeal for volunteers. A part of 
the long bill read as follows : 

"Now, men of Lafayette, what will you do? Will you stand still and see 
the enemy approach, step by step, until he stands on your door-sill and finds 
you unarmed, or will you go out to meet him, and drive him from your soil? 
We have stood still long enough. The time has come when you must do some- 
thing to protect your firesides. We must have men to go to the territory at 
once, or it will all be lost. The intention of the abolitionist is to drive us 
from the territory and carry the next election and get possession of the govern- 
ment reins. This we must not submit to. If we do, Kansas is lost to the 
South forever, and our slaves in upper Missouri will be useless to us, and our 
homes must be given up to the abolition enemy. Come, then, to the rescue! 
Up men of Lafayette! Meet at Lexington on Wednesday, at 12 o'clock, 
August 20th. Bring your horses with you, your guns and clothing — all ready 
to go on to Kansas. We want two to three hundred men from this county. 
Jackson, Johnson, Platte, Clay, Ray, Saline, Carroll and other counties are 
now acting in this matter. All of them will send up a company of men, and 
there will be a concert of action. New Santa Fe, in Jackson county, will be 
the place of rendezvous for the whole crowd, and our motto this time will be 
'no quarters,' etc." 

This bill was signed by twelve well known citizens. The meeting was 
held and the company was sent. This action, as seen in the light of subse- 
quent events, had its historic phase, showing as it does the opinion of the citi- 
zens of Lafayette county and Lexington. Of this meeting and the company 



formed such great authority as "The Lost Cause," by Pollard; Greeley's 
"American Conflict." and Colonel Benton's "Thirty Years in the United 
States Senate," all make mention. 

The result of this border war, the John Brown raid, backed by the aboli- 
tion party at the North, only fanned the fire already kindled over the question 
of slavery being extended into more western territory. The culmination was 
the Civil war, which, however, did not come until much blood had been spilled 
along the Missouri and Kansas borders. Property and human life were sacri- 
ficed on both sides by self-constituted forces of slavery and anti-slavery ele- 
ments, both of which had their allies from far north and south. 


Missouri was greatly exercised over the agitation of the question of 
slavery as early as 1818-19 and 1820, which finally resulted in the "Missouri 
Compromise," which act of Congress was passed in 1820 and by which it was 
agreed that Missouri territory should be admitted into the Union as a slave- 
holding state, but that slavery should not be extended and should forever be 
excluded from any states which might thereafter be formed out of new terri- 
tory west of the western boundary of Missouri and north of the thirty-sixth 
degree of latitude north, which line practically corresponded to the southern 
boundary of Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado and Utah as 
now constituted. 

In 1854 Congress passed a bill organizing the territories of Kansas and 
Nebraska, in which it was declared that the "Missouri Compromise" of 1820 
did not apply to them. This opened up the flood-gates of angry debate and 
strife. The issue of all elections then hinged on this great and all-absorbing 
question. This brought on a border war and both sides did many rash acts 
to carry their point. The free-state party, however, carried the day and this 
really brought on the Civil war, of which the world has seen no greater strife. 
From that time on war was inevitable. In April, 1861, the climax came when 
Fort Sumter was fired upon in South Carolina, by those who had seen fit to 
take the side of "State's Rights," i. e., letting each state and territory settle 
these questions for itself. 

Missouri finally took sides with the South and resisted federal authority. 
The state troops were mostly under command of Gen. Sterling Price, backed 
by the governor of Missouri, C. F. Jackson, while the federal troops were 
under command of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, by authority of President Lincoln. 

When the war broke out there were but few — not more than two score — 


Lincoln Republicans residing in Lafayette county. The election returns show- 
but twenty-four votes cast for Lincoln and Hamlin, the Republican candidates 
for President and Vice-President, in November, i860. Yet there were many 
more who in heart were of that political belief, but dared not express their 
opinion at the polls. But a large per cent of the voters were not for war. 
They were, regardless of party ties, not caring to take sides, but preferred to 
remain neutral, believing that to protect their home and firesides from invasion 
of either army was all they should be called upon to do. 


The first military company in Lafayette county was raised in Lexington, 
and commanded by Capt. John Tyler. This company was composed of all 
shades of men, mostly of ripe years. It was intended for home protection 
only and to compel a sort of "armed neutrality." It was neither for the 
North nor for the South, but for peace and protection of person and property 
as against any invading foe, whether Confederate or Union. But soon, after 
drilling a short time, the company disbanded, not finding harmony within its 
ranks. Captain Tyler subsequently entered the Federal army. 

When the report reached Lafayette county that General Lyon, of the 
Federal forces, had, on May 10, 1861, fired upon citizens of St. Louis, intense 
excitement prevailed throughout the entire county. Public meetings were 
held and measures taken at once to organize military companies to assist in 
defending the state against encroachments of Federal troops. These meetings 
were headed by men who had seen service in Mexican war days and elsewhere. 

The real Union men in this county were few in numbers, and the men 
who were opposed to war — conditional secessionists — became bold and some- 
what defiant toward the small minority of their neighbors, with whom they 
had no patience for the belief they entertained and their conduct. The Union 
men held a meeting in the courthouse at Lexington, about the middle of May, 
1861, John Fleming was chairman and Dr. J. F. Atkinson acted as secretary. 
From the chairman's seat was unfurled the "stars and stripes." The meeting 
had not progressed far, when the secessionists present, to the number of fifty 
or more, began violent interruptions, and at last, under the leadership of one 
Charles Martin, a desperate character, silenced the speaker, tore the flag from 
the hands of the secretary, breaking off the staff" in his effort, and bearing it 
triumphantly from the room. Nicholas Haerle, a stanch Union man (a Ger- 
man), attempted to take the flag from Martin and his men, as they were leav- 
ing the room, but was shot in the leg by Martin himself and fell to the floor. 


From that date on the element supporting the Federalists were less seen and 
heard in public capacities in Lafayette county, for some time. The flag above 
mentioned is now (1910) in the hands of Nicholas Haerle, who resides in 


On April 29, 1861, a petition was made to the county court, signed by 
Thomas W. Shields, R. M. Henderson, John P. Bowman and others, asking 
for an appropriation "to arm and equip at least one thousand men." The court 
declined to do so until first the Legislature and governor had made the order 
possible by a special act, which was finally effected and on May. 14th the court 
appropriated ten thousand dollars, "or so much thereof as may be needed, for 
the purpose of arming and equipping the volunteer militia of said county for 
the necessary defense of the county and state as the court may deem proper." 

Charles S. Tarlton, one of the judges, was appointed agent to disburse 
this fund. The bonds on which this money was raised were made payable in 
one, two and three years, at ten per cent interest. It may be said, however, 
that only one thousand dollars was ever used from this fund — one warrant 
drawn for five hundred dollars May 17, 1861, and another of the same amount, 
signed June 20th, of that year. 


About June 1, 1861, a company of United States dragoons from Fort 
Leavenworth, under command of Captain S. D. Sturgis, afterward a major- 
general, had an encounter with some of the Jackson county militia under 
Captain Holloway, who had been lately connected with the regular army, but 
had resigned and offered his services to Missouri. This skirmish took place 
on Rock creek, a branch of the Big Blue, and there Captain Holloway and 
Lieutenant McClenahan, of the Jackson county troops, were killed. Capt. 
J. O. Shelby, of Waverly, this county, had raised a company of cavalry and 
was in Jackson county when this encounter took place. Holloway was in com- 
mand of all the Jackson county men as their colonel. He was an active, brave 
man and only a few days before this fight had been in Lexington recruiting 
men for the state service and home protection. 

As soon as the news of this fight was brought to Lexington, several com- 
panies of Lafayette county men were formed and marched to the relief of their 
Jackson county friends. Among such men were those in the company of 
Capt. Ben Elliott, from near Chapel Hill ; those in the company of Capt. J. M. 


Withers, from near Mt. Hebron ; Seth Mason's company, from Davis town- 
ship; Captain Webb's company, from Denver, and that of Captain Whiting, 
from that vicinity; Doctor Hassell and Captain Graves had companies from 
Lexington. There was also an artillery company composed of Lexington 
men and those from outlying townships, commanded by Capt. H. M. Bledsoe. 

The Lafayette men soon reached the scene of the trouble and pitched 
camp on the Blue river, naming the camp, in honor of their late friend, Captain 
Holloway, "Camp Holloway." After remaining in that section a week or so, 
they returned home. 

In the outset, the militia, or state guards as they were later termed, were 
armed, uniformed and equipped by themselves. The infantry and cavalry 
carried arms of almost every conceivable description, the favorite weapon, 
however, being the double-barreled shot-gun. They also had some squirrel 
rifles, revolvers, pistols and other fire-arms, while a still lesser number carried 
bowie knives. 

Bledsoe's Battery at first consisted of two pieces of artillery. One of his 
guns had been captured by Colonel Doniphan in the Mexican war, at Sacra- 
mento, given to Missouri, and by the state transferred to Lafayette county. 
It was known as "Old Sac" and is referred to elsewhere in this chapter. The 
other gun was an iron six-pounder, cast at the Morrison foundry in Lexing- 
ton. Its mate, cast at the same time, was never mounted, but left in front of 
the Masonic College upon the retreat of the state troops from Lexington. 
Later it formed a part of the battery commanded by Pirner, under Colonel 
Mulligan, at the battle of Lexington. 

Fortunately for Missouri, it lacked not in powder, as Governor Jackson 
sent to Saline county ten thousand pounds of Laflin's and "Dupont's Best," 
which was later distributed among the friends of the Southern Confederacy for 
safe keeping. A portion of this powder was captured in December, 1861, by 
General Halleck at Glasgow, where he found it secreted in kegs on a farm. 
Some of it was hidden away in hay lofts, under bridges, buried in orchards, 
while it was claimed by the knowing ones, as late as 1880, that several kegs 
were hidden in lofts in the city of Lexington. 


On June 12, 1861, Governor Jackson by proclamation called into active 
service fifty thousand state militiamen, "for the purpose of repelling invasion, 
and for the protection of the lives, liberty and property of the citizens of this 


Lexington was designated as one of the places of rendezvous, and here 
were marshalled those who desired to obey the order of their governor. The 
Masonic College and adjacent campus was chosen as headquarters, and there 
(where now stands the Methodist Female Seminary) were congregated a 
thousand men, mostly from Lafayette county. A full regiment of men was 
formed of Lafayette men, of which John T. Graves was chosen colonel, Cave 
Kirtley, lieutenant-colonel, with Major Brazier and Captains Withers, Whit- 
ing, Percival, Webb and Ferguson in command of the various companies. It 
was here that Bledsoe's Battery was fully organized, with Hiram M. Bledsoe 
as captain ; Curtis O. Wallace, first lieutenant ; Charles Higgins, second lieu- 
tenant, and Frank S. Trigg, third lieutenant. 

The first battle of Boonville was fought June 17, 1861, between eight 
hundred State troops, under Col. John S. Marmaduke, of Saline county, and 
about the same number of Federal troops under Gen. Nathaniel Lyon. The 
superior equipment and drilling of the Federals caused them to be victorious, 
but in this fight there were but two killed on each side and a few wounded. 

The next move was the coming of the State troops to the rendezvous at 
Lexington, where they united with the other State men there assembled. 
Major-Gen. Sterling Price had been commissioned by Governor Jackson as 
general-in-chief of the State army, at Lexington. Learning that the Federal 
General Lyon was still moving up the river, and being unprepared to meet him, 
General Price resolved to retreat to the southwestern part of the state. Ac- 
cording to a statement made many years after the war by a citizen of Lexing- 
ton, C. M. Pirner, the sudden flight of Price's army from Lexington happened 
on this wise : 

"A young fellow named Brown, who was a printer in the Lexington Ex- 
positor office, suggested a plan to have some fun, but the affair was never 
known only to Pirner, Brown, James Curry, and a young telegraph operator, 
whose name I cannot now recall. The joke as carried out was as follows : 
The telegraph operator had a pocket instrument of his own. The telegraph 
at that time went eastward by Waverly. He, Pirner and the operator went 
out a little ways east of the Old Town, after it was quite dark and quiet for 
the night, and managed to reach a telegraph wire and hitch on the pocket 
instrument. The Lexington office was informed "The Federals have left 
Marshall for Lexington; may arrive any minute." The young wags then 
went back to the city to watch the effect; and sure enough by the time they 
got up onto Main street in the vicinity of Laurel street, there were horsemen 
riding rapidly to and fro, between the college grounds and different parts of 



the city. The jokers didn't dare ask any questions for fear of some suspicion 
arising, which would have been sure death. But in the early morning the 
State troops were gone. Several war histories speak of the sudden and rapid 
retreat from Lexington, but no one has before (1880) given the secret of its 
mysterious suddenness. It is believed that this was the first 'grapevine dis- 
patch' sent during the civil conflict, and Mr. Pirner was anxious that Lexing- 
ton have the proper credit for the same." 

So, about June 25, 1861, the troops left Lexington for the southwest, 
most of the Lafayette county men being in Graves' regiment or Bledsoe's bat- 
tery. Governor Jackson, General Rains and General Parsons commanded. 
The ladies and citizens generally turned out to bid them adieu, to wave fond 
farewells, and to pray for their success and safe return. The force was hard- 
ly an army, since it lacked organization, discipline and experience, but there 
was material in it for an Old Guard or a Light Brigade, as was afterwards 

On July 5th, of that year, occurred the fight between these men and 
Gen. Franz Siegel's command. Bledsoe's Battery was in the fight, but Graves' 
regiment was not actively engaged. 

The famous battle of Wilson's Creek was fought August 10, 1861, and 
in that engagement Federal General Lyon fell. Graves' regiment was com- 
manded by Benjamin Elliott. At the time of his promotion by General Mc- 
Culloch he was serving as a private in the regiment, but had been a captain at 
Camp Holloway. 


Both the Federal and Confederate elements had not been idle in making 
preparation Tor the long war that ensued. Lines were soon sharply drawn. 
Early in the season a number of the Union men had left the county for the 
purpose of enlisting at Kansas City or in the state of Kansas, where they 
joined the Union Militia or other military organizations destined to serve be- 
neath the stars and stripes. The Germans of Freedom township, under leader- 
ship of Captain Becker, were well organized and only waiting for arms and an 
order to go to the seat of war. Be it recorded here, that the German popula- 
tion in Lafayette county, as was true all over Missouri, rallied to the support 
of the Union cause, almost to a man. 

lafayette's first prisoner of war. 

William G. McCausland, of Lexington, became the first prisoner of war 
captured in this county. It came about in the following manner : After the 
fight at Boonville, General Lyon, of the United army, sent a regiment of men 


up the river on the steamer "White Cloud," landing at Lexington, July 9th, a 
few days after General Price, of the State forces, had left. The arrival of these 
Union men caused no little excitement at Lexington. As they marched up 
the wharf, from the boat, the angered secessionists shouted to them not in the 
most friendly manner. As they passed the residence of William G. McCaus- 
land, they noticed a small secession flag floating in the dooryard and demanded 
that it be taken down. Mrs. McCausland told them that if they wanted it 
taken down that they must do it themselves — she would not do it. Mean- 
while, Mr. McCausland, looking up the street from his store, saw the soldiers 
in front of his house. He grasped an old shotgun and ran to drive the in- 
vaders away from his premises, but was promptly arrested, being the first 
prisoner captured on Lafayette county soil by Federal troops. He was held 
about two weeks, and then paroled. It may be added, in passing, that Mrs. 
McCausland was one of the most refined, intelligent and liberally educated 
ladies of Lexington, and would have made sacrifices to minister to the wants 
of a sick Union as quickly as for a Confederate soldier. It was one of the 
thousands of unfortunate circumstances growing out of that long, bitter civil 

The regiment above named was commanded by Col. Charles Stifel (pro- 
nounced "Steefel"). It was entirely a German regiment and was the one 
formed in St. Louis. 

A dozen or more prisoners were taken besides the one already mentioned. 
These were taken to the boat "White Cloud." One of the number, James 
Lightner, was shot dead by his guard, Henry Hoefel, of Company A, while 
trying to make his escape. The guard claimed he shot in self-defense, as 
Lightner was attacking him with a chair. The balance of the few prisoners 
were either released on parole or taken to St. Louis on the return of the regi- 

During the time that Colonel Stifel was stationed at Lexington, a de- 
tachment was sent out through the country, one of which went up the river 
to destroy all boats, so as to prevent the crossing and re-crossing of any re- 
enforcements to General Price. At Blue Mills landing this detachment was 
fired upon, one man killed and twelve were wounded. Two hundred pack- 
ages of the gunpowder before referred to were also found by another detach- 
ment. A detachment for re-enforcement was brought down from Fort Leaven- 
worth and left at Lexington. Two other companies of Union soldiers were 
organized, armed and placed in the newly constructed fort. One of these was 
Becker's company, and the other a company raised in Lexington, first com- 
manded by Gustave Pirner and later by Henry Emde. Each company num- 


bered about fifty men. The first comprised the Germans from Freedom town- 
ship, with some from Pettis county; the other company was made up largely 
from members of the German Turner organization of Lexington. Another 
company was raised in Lexington by Capt. Fred Neet, the same being com- 
posed largely of Lafayette county Unionists. Another company was com- 
manded by Captain Ridgell, of Ray county. This was composed of men from 
Lafayette, Carroll and Ray counties. 

On July 16, 1861, the three months time for which Stifel's command had 
enlisted expired and the men returned to St. Louis. On the way down the 
Missouri river they were fired upon from Saline county shores and a few men 
were killed and others wounded. In Cooper county the boat landed and three 
of the firing party from the shore were killed by a detachment sent ashore. 
Stifel's regiment was the one that fired on the citizens of St. Louis at the time 
Camp Jackson was captured. 

With the departure of Colonel Stifel's command, Capt. F. W. Becker, of 
the Freedom township company, was left to hold the place. He had three 
companies under him, and assumed the title of major. He had formerly been 
a stage driver from Georgetown to Warrensburg. He had but a limited edu- 
cation, was a man of good judgment, and "felt his oats" to a remarkable de- 
gree. His uniform was of the flashy character and he felt the importance of 
his office, keeping aloof from his men as much as any regular army officer 
ever did. It is related that he drilled his men with much military skill. 

Becker — the "Major" — remained in command at the Old Masonic College 
until August 25th, the first year of the war, the force consisting of Becker's, 
Emde's, Ridgell's, Neet's and Graham's companies. At this time Lieutenant- 
Colonel White, formerly of Stifel's regiment, assumed command. A regi- 
ment in course of organization was to be commanded by White, as its colonel, 
Graham, as lieutenant-colonel, with Becker as major. White had, in addi- 
tion to his infantry forces, four pieces of artillery, two six-pound iron guns, 
and two brass cohorn mortars, or howitzers. Neither of these pieces was of 
much actual value for effective warfare, but made a showing. Graham's com- 
pany was the one sent from Leavenworth and was composed of men from near 
Rock Island, Illinois, many of whom were professional men. 

Lexington had already come to be known as quite a military head- 
quarters for the Federal forces, and by the end of August, 1861, there came 
two battalions of the First Illinois Regiment of cavalry, about five hundred 
men, commanded by Col. T. A. Marshall. They were from St. Louis, coming 
via Sedalia. They were a fine body of men, but armed with only old-fashioned 
single-barreled dragoon pistols and clumsy sabers. Colonel Marshall at once 


assumed command, and on September 8th came Col. James A. Mulligan, with 
the Twenty-third Regiment Illinois Infantry, a regiment composed almost en- 
tirely of Irishmen and styled the "Irish Brigade." They also marched across 
the country from Sedalia. Being the senior officer, Mulligan relieved Mar- 
shall of the command at Lexington post. He had orders from Gen. John C. 
Fremont to fortify and hold the place, with information that he was soon to 
be reinforced. He at once began throwing up additional entrenchments and 
enlarged those already provided. 

Within a day or two there came from Kansas City the Thirteenth Regi- 
ment Missouri Infantry, under Col. Everett Peabody, of St. Joseph, and Major 
R. T. Van Horn's battalion of United States Reserve Corps, of Kansas City. 
These troops were all armed with muskets and bayonets. These men were 
largely from northwestern Missouri, southern Iowa and eastern Kansas. Cap- 
tain Adams was also with them and had two six-pound brass cannon, but was 
poorly supplied with ammunition. 


The month of August was one of great preparation and no little excite- 
ment, both for the Federal and State troops. Neither one seemed to know 
the real situation, or what might be the next move, but during the latter days 
of the month Col. Henry L. Routt, with a body of State troops intended for 
actual service against the Federal side, rendezvoused at the fair grounds at 
Lexington. At first his force numbered about eight hundred men, but, by 
constant, daily recruiting, soon numbered fully twelve hundred. Colonel 
Routt was from Ray county and was not a stranger to war, having served 
in the war with Mexico a dozen years prior to this date. His men were from 
Lafayette, Clay, Jackson, Ray and other counties north of the Missouri river. 

Pickets were kept constantly out by both forces, the distance being about 
a mile between the two encampments. A few shots were exchanged between 
pickets, but no serious damage was done. As has been said, "one side was 
afraid and the other dare not attack their foe." 

Routt had the larger number of men, but the Federals were better equip- 
ped and armed and within a fortification. At last Routt thought to work a 
rather questionable ruse, fair only in times of war, if even then. Sometime 
before this the State troops had captured a number of Unionists, including men 
of such prominence as ex-Governor Austin King, of Ray county, governor 
from 1849 t0 J ^53'y Hon. John F. Ryland, of Lafayette county, who had been 
an honorable citizen of Missouri from 1819 and a judge of the circuit court for 


eighteen years, and later judge of the supreme court; William Fields and Mr. 
Casper. Routt made a demand for the surrender of the troops on College 
Hill, which was refused. He next drew up a paper in which it was stated 
that the forces on the fair grounds was very large, with reinforcements daily 
arriving and heavy artillery coming in from north of the river; that College 
Hill was completely invested, and that the wisest thing Becker could do was 
to surrender. This paper was addressed to the commander of the Federal 
forces, and was first presented to the Union prisoners for their signatures. 
The prisoners, headed by Judge Ryland, positively refused to sign a paper con- 
taining so many flagrant false statements, hence Routt's scheme failed. 

Meanwhile, two brothers named Pirner, who had seen military service in 
the old country, had provided three shells with fuses and wanted to see whether 
they would "go" or not. So the next evening they ran one of the old mortars 
out to the place where later stood Hon. H. C. Wallace's residence, and there 
fired off their three rounds of home-made shells in the direction of the fair 
ground encampment of the State troops. This created a perfect panic among 
the raw troops there and they climbed the fences in hot haste, every man for 
himself, leaving horses, ammunition and prisoners to take care of themselves. 
Judge Ryland afterward remarked that he was as badly frightened as the 
balance, but thought he would be as safe there as to run. After firing the three 
improvised shells, the Pirner brothers withdrew and knew nothing of the effect 
until a negro told them the next day. 

Within a few days — probably three days — scouts reported the advance of 
a large Federal force, known to be in Johnson county, threatening Lexington.. 
The position of Colonel Routt and his men was then serious. It was also re- 
ported that another force was coming from toward Sedalia. Hence Routt 
and his command retreated and formed a junction with the advancing army 
of General Price at Index. The Union citizen prisoners, above referred to, 
were taken along with the men under Routt. 


Like the battle of Lexington — "The Lexington Alarm" — fought in 
Massachusetts, in Revolutionary days, April 19, 1775, the battle of Lexington, 
Missouri, marked an important era in the history of the Rebellion for the 
state of Missouri and county of Lafayette. The latter was fought September 
18, 19 and 20, 1 86 1. In this case, as in most every other battle fought in the 
Civil war, there has been a difference of opinion regarding certain points, but 


nearly all who were in a position to know agree on the general points of the 
engagement, which took place between Gen. Sterling Price, commanding the 
Missouri State Guards at the time, and Col. James A. Mulligan, of the United 
States army. 

Before giving the official reports of both the commanding officers (really 
the best evidence obtainable), the author will briefly outline the immediate 
events that led up to the engagement. 

Early in September, 1861, the military situation in Missouri was this: 
The Federal troops held the Missouri river by a chain of posts stretching 
from St. Louis to St. Joseph, and communication was kept up between the two 
points, the object of this being to prevent the crossing of the river by seces- 
sionists of northern Missouri, who, to the number of five thousand to six thous- 
and, were armed, organized and intending to join General Price's State Troop 
army, then in southwestern Missouri. A portion of these men were of Gen. 
Thomas A. Harris's Second Division of northeast Missourians, including 
Martin E. Green's brigade, which had been defeated in an engagement at 
Athens on August 5, 1861. Harris doubtless had about three thousand men. 
Another body, a part of the Fourth Division, belonged in northwestern Mis- 
souri. All crossing of the Missouri river by secessionists had to be done 
stealthily and in small squads. There is no record where more than a hun- 
dred crossed over at any one time. 

General Price determined on breaking up this blockade. He had been 
laying up and resting on the laurels he had fairly won at Wilson's Creek, and 
was stationed then in and near Springfield. He believed that of the four Fed- 
eral posts in Missouri, — Jefferson City, Boonville. Lexington and Kansas 
City, — that Lexington was the most important and easiest for him to under- 
take to capture. 

Hence, in the last days of August, General Price, with about eight thou- 
sand men and seven pieces of artillery, took up the line of march for Lexing- 
ton. He. however, continued to receive reinforcements all along his route 
northward. He reached Nevada September 2d and there met Colonel Bevier 
with three hundred men from northern Missouri. On September 8th the army 
encountered Lane and Montgomery's Kansas troops at Drywood creek, in Ver- 
non county, brushing them aside, with but a slight loss. It was here that 
Colonel Bledsoe was severely wounded by a bullet in the groin,, and this pre- 
vented his joining his battery for several weeks. 

At Index, in Cass county, the advancing column was met by Routt's and 
Vard Cockrell's forces from Lexington. Here the Lafayette regiment was 


completely reorganized and Col. Benjamin Elliott was chosen colonel and 
Samuel Taylor as major. This regiment lasted until the six months'- service 
of the regiment had expired. At this point other Missourians were met and 
found in good spirits, ready for actual battle service. 


Governor Jackson had, as a war measure, appropriated the school fund of 
Missouri to the arming and equipment of the State troops, and it was proposed 
to make forced loans from certain banks of the state for the same purpose. In 
order to checkmate this plan on the part of the Confederates, Gen. John C. 
Fremont, as he alleged, as commander of the Federal forces, ordered the funds 
of certain banks sent to St. Louis, not for the use of the Federal authorities, 
but to prevent their being used to aid the forces of Governor Jackson and Gen- 
eral Price. In compliance with this order from Fremont, Colonel Marshall 
directed his lieutenant, Col. H. M. Day, to wait upon the officers of the Branch 
Bank of the State, at Lexington, and secure all the funds of that institution, 
give a receipt therefor, and bring them to the fortifications at the college. This 
was done. Colonel Day presenting the following order to the bank : 

"Headquarters at Lexington, Missouri, 

"September 7, 1861. 
"To Colonel Day : You will proceed, without delay, with one company, 
to take possession of the money in the bank at this place and give your receipt 
for it, as also a copy of this order. 

"T. A. Marshall, 
"Colonel Commanding at Lexington. 
"To Lieut-Col. H. M. Day." 

Mr. Morrison, then one of the directors of the bank (later of the Mor- 
rison-Wentworth bank), after the war was ended stated that he had buried the 
funds of the bank, in anticipation that they would be taken, but the Federal 
officers had been informed of their whereabouts and so informed him. They 
were therefore surrendered. The cashier, C. R. Morehead, was afterward 
censured and dismissed from the service of the bank for being the informant, 
but he declared his innocence. 

The funds taken by the federal officer, Colonel Day, amounted to nine 
hundred sixty thousand one hundred and fifty-nine dollars and sixty cents, of 
which one hundred and sixty-five thousand six hundred and fifty-nine dollars 
and sixty cents was in gold. There were seven boxes of gold coin, each 


marked to contain twenty thousand dollars ; one box of foreign and California 
gold, marked to contain ten thousand six hundred and fifty-nine dollars and 
sixty cents ; three bags said to contain five thousand dollars each ; seven cases 
of bank note circulation of the Farmer's Bank of Missouri, at Lexington, the 
total of which amounted to seven hundred ninety-four thousand and five hun- 
dred dollars ; all of this was receipted for by Colonel Day. The bank appointed 
Messrs. S. G. Wentworth and C. R. Morehead, who started with the money 
for St. Louis, via Warrensburg, under convey of Marshall's cavalry. When 
out about twenty miles from Lexington, the expedition confronted the advance 
of Price's army and hurriedly retraced their march to the entrenchments at 
Lexington. The money was then delivered to Colonel Mulligan and buried 
under his tent, by Lieutenant-Colonel Quirk, Major Moore and Captains 
Gleason and Moriarty, the first three named from Chicago, all from Colonel 
Mulligan's Twenty-third Illinois Regiment. 

When General Price caused Colonel Mulligan to surrender in September, 
1861, Price demanded and received every dollar of the bank's gold which had 
been buried under Mulligan's tent within the fortifications. It was claimed 
that fifteen thousand dollars of paper money was short, and such notation was 
made and is now to be seen at the Wentworth-Morrison Bank. The money 
thus recaptured was turned over to the bank, but five days later a demand was 
made by Governor Jackson for a portion of it for the state. The amount of 
about thirty-five thousand dollars in gold was turned over to the state, and 
State of Missouri bonds were given for the same. The cash was put into the 
treasury of the state (under Jackson), but not one dollar was ever returned. 
Then when Governor Gamble, the Union governor, made a like demand for a 
like amount, it too was forthcoming, and, pursuant to the act of March, 1861, 
these bonds were redeemed at their face when due. 

Long after the war closed men believed that a part of the gold hidden in 
the Lexington fortifications was still in hiding in the earth, near an old hack- 
berry tree, and one man came from Kentucky in search of the treasure, but 
of course he found none. 


On September 10, 1861, the advance of Gen. Sterling Price's army 
reached Warrensburg, and the next day the entire army came up and rested 
there that entire day. The soldiers were tired and hungry and the people of 
that city did all in their power to make them comfortable. At midnight, the 
night before, the Federals had abandoned Warrensburg and retreated toward 


Lexington, burning the bridges behind them. The distance between the two 
cities is thirty-four miles, and early in the morning of the 12th Price and his 
command left for Lexington, Colonel Elliott's Lafayette county regiment hav- 
ing the advance. While greatly fatigued, his men, many of whom were in 
sight of their own homes, marched fast and endured the march well. 

At the covered bridge across the Garrison fork of the Tabo creek, five 
miles out from Lexington, a force of Federal soldiers were encountered by 
Price's forces. It consisted of four companies of Home Guards, from Pea- 
body's regiment, with two companies of Illinois cavalry, and had fallen back 
from Warrensburg on Price's approach to that city. The Union troops were 
driven back and another skirmish ensued at another bridge near town. One of 
these bridges was set on fire. At last the Union soldiers were forced back into 
their intrenchments and Price's troops occupied the southern and eastern por- 
tion of the city of Lexington. The artillery was brought forward and the 
fortifications hotly cannonaded for several minutes. Bledsoe's Battery took 
a position near the residence of Judge Tutt, and Guibor's guns were stationed 
in different parts of the city, but all in range of the old Masonic College. A 
portion of Rains' division also got within range of the Unionists and skirmished 
with them some time. As the curtain of night fell, both forces rested and pre- 
pared for further conflict, each side keeping out a strong picket guard. The 
Chicago Post had a correspondent present and he was the authority for the 
statement that the loss to the Union forces was eight killed and fifteen 
wounded, while the estimated loss of the enemy was twenty-five killed and 
wounded. The Union troops were commanded by Major Van Horn, who for 
many years after the war was editor of the Kansas City Journal and served as 
a congressman for four sessions. The troops of General Price were the Lafay- 
ette soldiers and some from Rains' division. 

During that night, councils of war were held by the contending forces. 
Colonel Mulligan sent for his officers and a council was had in the college 
building. The subordinate officers all agreed that under the circumstances, the 
best thing to do was to evacuate the works and the place. Lieutenant-Colonel 
White wished to cross the river on the two steamboats lying near the works. 
Peabody and Marshall wanted to go to Sedalia, Peabody promising to go with 
his men in the advance and clear the way. When all the officers had given 
their opinion, Mulligan spoke: "Gentlemen," said he, "I have heard what 
you have to say, but, begad, we'll fight 'em! That's what we enlisted for, 
and that's what we'll do." 

One account of the next steps taken reads as follows, and the same has 
for years been considered as authority : 


Preparations were instantly begun in accordance with the directions of 
the plucky commander. Colonel Mulligan. The whole force, in details of five 
hundred men. were put at work on the entrenchments and worked night and 
day until they were completed. Mulligan expected reinforcements every day. 
General Lane, on the frontier of Kansas, had two thousand men, and these, 
with a part of Pope's command, under General Sturgis, and a large portion of 
Jeff C. Davis's at Jefferson City, were disposable for the relief of Lexington, 
toward which point they were directed and expected to move as rapidly as pos- 
sible. On the 13th two regiments were ordered from Jefferson City to Lex- 
ington, and word of this reached Mulligan. He accordingly enlarged his 
works to accommodate his expected reinforcements. He refused to have any 
wells or cisterns dug at first, saying that the college cistern would afford suffi- 
cient water for the men and the Missouri river, which his works commanded, 
would furnish enough for Marshall's cavalry horses. Major Moore and 
Captain McNulty, civil engineers, of Mulligan's regiment, laid out the works. 

The same night a conference was held between General Price, Governor 
Jackson and subordinate commanders. One or two of the officers voted for 
an immediate assault, but General Price, with a majority of the others, voted 
that there should be no useless loss of blood ; that the Federals need only be 
surrounded and watched. That Harris' and Green's men, from north of the 
river, as well as Boyd's and Patton's, were on the way and ought to be waited 
for, and that under no circumstances, except for defense or to prevent the 
escape of the Federals, ought offensive or vigorous operation be conducted. 
"We've got 'em, dead sure," said "Old Pap" to his officers. "All we have to 
do is to watch 'em." 

The next morning a small skirmish was had in the vicinity of the fort, 
and the State troops were repulsed. Only about three hundred were engaged 
on either side. The fighting was done on the side of the State troops by the 
Lafayette regiment and sundry volunteers. Conspicuous among the latter for 
gallantry-, and recklessly exposing himself, was Col. John W. Reid, formerly 
of Lexington, then of Jackson county, and a member of the Federal Congress. 
At the close of the fight, the Federals sent a detail which burned the residence 
of Thomas B. Wallace, Esq., a Union man. The house had been occupied by 
some sharpshooters, who were picking off the men from the Union forces con- 
stantly. After this the State troops retired to the fair grounds and the Fed- 
erals to their works, to improve which they instantly begun. 

Major Neet, a Lexington man, says, a well was afterward dug ninety- 
seven feet deep, one or two hundred feet north of the college building, without 


finding water, and the hole was filled with dead horses, then covered with dirt 

In a speech made by Colonel Mulligan at Detroit later on, he speaks as 
follows : "The night of the 19th of September two wells were ordered dug. 
We took a ravine, and expected to reach water in about thirty hours." 

Pages might be printed in regard to various things connected with this 
battle, but the practical, most interesting part is to know the chief points and 
who it was that planned and carried out the battle, as well as what the official 
reports have said concerning it. Hence here the narrative will stop, and these 
reports and stories from a few of the eye witnesses will be inserted, thus giv- 
ing the reader of today an intelligent understanding of the "battle of Lexing- 

At first we will give the official report of Gen. Sterling Price, who com- 
manded the State troops and fought Colonel Mulligan, in command of the 
Union or Federal forces. (The first section of his report has been covered by 
the paragraphs already gone over, from other writers and from public rec- 
ords) : 

"Headquarters Missouri State Guard, 
"Camp Wallace, Lexington, Mo., September 21, 1861. 

"The rain began to fall about the same time. This circumstance, coupled 
with the fact that my men had been fasting for more than twenty-four hours, 
constrained me to abandon the idea of pursuing the enemy that day. My 
infantry and artillery having come up, we encamped at Warrensburg, whose 
citizens vied with each other in feeding my almost famished soldiers. 

"An unusually violent storm delayed our march the next morning (Sep- 
tember 1 2th) until about" ten o'clock. We then pushed forward rapidly, still 
hoping to overtake the enemy. Finding it impossible to do this with my 
infantry, I again ordered a detachment to move forward, and placing myself 
at their head, continued the pursuit to within two and a half miles of Lexing- 
ton, when, having learned that the enemy were already within town, and it 
being late and my men fatigued by a forced march and utterly without pro- 
visions, I halted for the night. 

"About daybreak the next morning (September 13th) a sharp skirmish 
took place between our pickets and the enemy's outposts. This threatened to 
become general. Being unwilling, however, to risk a doubtful engagement, 
when a short delay would make success certain, I fell back two or three miles 
and awaited the arrival of my infantry and artillery. These having come up, 
we advanced upon the town, driving the enemy's pickets until we came within a 



short distance of the city itself. Here the enemy attempted to make a stand, 
but they were speedily driven from every position and forced to take shelter 
within their intrenchments. We then took position within easy range of the 
college, which building they had strongly fortified, and opened upon them a 
brisk fire from Bledsoe's battery, which, in the absence of Captain Bledsoe, 
who had been wounded at Big Dry Wood, was gallantly commanded by Capt. 
Emmett MacDonald, and by Parsons' battery, under the skillful command of 
Captain Guibor. 

"Finding, after sunset, that our ammunition, the most of which had been 
left behind on the march from Springfield, was nearly exhausted, and that my 
men, thousands of whom had not eaten a particle in thirty-six hours, required 
rest and food, I withdrew to the fair ground and encamped there. My ammu- 
nition wagons having been at last brought up, and large re-enforcements having 
been received. I again moved into town on Wednesday, the 18th instant, and 
began the final attack on the enemy's works. 

"Brigadier-General Rains' division occupied a strong position on the east 
and northeast of the fortifications, from which an effective cannonading was 
kept up on the enemy by Bledsoe's battery, under command, except on the 
last day, by Captain Emmett McDonald, and another battery, commanded by 
Captain Churchill Clark, of St. Louis. Both these gentlemen, and the men 
and officers under their command, are deservedly commended in accompanying 
reports of Brigadier-General Rain. General Parsons took a position southwest 
of the works, whence his battery, under command of Captain Guibor, poured 
a steady fire into the enemy. Skirmishers and sharpshooters were also sent 
forward from both of these divisions to harass and fatigue the enemy and to 
cut them off from the water on the north, east and south of the college, and 
did estimable service in the accomplishments of these purposes. 

"Colonel Congreve Jackson's division and a part of General Steele's were 
posted near Generals Rains and Parsons as a reserve, but no occasion occurred 
to call them into action. They were at all times, however, vigilant and ready 
to rush upon the enemy. 

"Shortly after entering the city on the 18th, Colonel Rives, who com- 
manded the Fourth Division, in the absence of General Slack, led his regiment 
and Colonel Hughes' along the river bank to a point immediately beneath and 
west of the fortifications, General McBride's command and a portion of Col- 
onel (General) Harris' having been ordered to reinforce him. Colonel Rives, 
in order to cut off the enemy's means of escape, proceeded down the bank of 
the river, to capture a steamboat, which was lying just under their guns. Just 


at this moment a heavy fire was opened upon him from Colonel Anderson's 
large dwelling house, on the summit of the bluff's, which the enemy was oc- 
cupying as a hospital and upon which a white flag was flying. Several com- 
panies of General Harris' command, and the gallant soldiers of the Fourth 
Division, who have won upon so many battlefields the proud distinction of 
always being among the bravest of the brave, immediately rushed upon and 
took the place. The important position thus secured was within a hundred 
and twenty-five yards of the enemy's intrenchments. A company from Col- 
onel Hughes' regiment then took possession of the boats, one of which was 
richly freighted with valuable stores. 

"Generals McBride and Harris' divisions meanwhile gallantly stormed and 
occupied the bluffs immediately north of Anderson's house. The possession 
of these heights enabled our men to harass the enemy so greatly that, resolv- 
ing to regain them, they made upon the house a successful assault, and one of 
which would have been honorable to them had it not been accompanied by an 
act of savage barbarity, the cold-blooded and cowardly murder of three de- 
fenseless men, who had laid-down their arms and surrendered themselves as 

"The position thus retaken by the enemy was soon regained by the brave 
men who had been driven from it, and was thenceforward held by them to the 
very end of the contest. The heights to the left of Anderson's house, which 
had been taken, as before stated, by Generals McBride and Harris and by part 
of Steele's command, under Colonel Boyd and Major Winston, were rudely 
fortified by our soldiers, who threw up breastworks as well as they could with 
their slender means. 

"On the morning of the 20th instant I caused a number of bales of hemp 
to be transported to the river heights, where movable breastworks were speedily 
constructed out of them by Generals Harris and McBride, Colonel Rives, 
Major Winston and their respective commands. Captain Kelley's battery (at- 
tached to Steel's division) was ordered at the same time to the position occu- 
pied by General Harris' force and quickly opened a very effective fire, under 
the direction of its gallant captain, upon the enemy. These demonstrations, 
and particularly the continued advance of the hempen breastworks, which were 
as efficient as the cotton bales at New Orleans, quickly attracted the attention 
and excited the alarm of the enemy, who made many daring attempts to drive 
us back. They were, however, repulsed in every instance by the unflinching 
courage and fixed determination of our men. 

"In these desperate encounters the veterans of McBride's and Slack's 


divisions fully sustained their proud reputation, with Col. Martin Green and his 
command and Colonel Boyd and Major Winston and their commands, proved 
themselves worthy to fight by the side of the men who had the courage and 
won imperishable honor in the bloody battle at Springfield. 

"After two o'clock in the afternoon of the 20th, and after fifty-two hours 
of continuous firing, a white flag was displayed by the enemy on that part of 
the works nearest to Colonel Green's position, and shortly afterwards another 
was displayed opposite to Colonel Rives'. I immediately ordered a cessation 
of all firing on our part, and sent forward one of my staff officers to ascertain 
the object of the flag and to open negotiations with the enemy if such should 
be their desire. It was finally, after some delay, agreed by Colonel Marshall 
and the officers associated with him for that purpose by Colonel Mulligan, that 
the United States forces should lay down their arms and surrender themselves 
as prisoners of war to this army. These terms having been made known, were 
ratified by me and immediately carried into effect. 

"Our entire loss in this series of engagements amounts to twenty-five 
killed and seventy-two wounded. The enemy's loss was much greater. 

"The visible fruits of this almost bloodless victory are very great — about 
three thousand five hundred prisoners, among whom are Colonels Mulligan, 
Marshall, Peabody, White and Grover, Major Van Horn, and one hundred and 
eighteen other commissioned officers, five pieces of artillery and two mortars, 
over three thousand stands of infantry arms, a large number of sabers, about 
seven hundred and fifty horses, many sets of cavalry equipments, wagons, 
teams, and ammunition, more than one hundred thousand dollars worth of 
commissary stores, and a large amount of other property. In addition to all 
this, I obtained the restoration of the great seal of the state and the public rec- 
ords, which had been stolen from their proper custodian, and about nine hun- 
dred thousand dollars in money, of which the bank at this place -had been 
robbed, and which I have caused to be returned to it. 

"This victory has demonstrated the fitness of our citizen soldiers for the 
tedious operations of a siege as well as for a dashing charge. They lay for 
fifty-two hours in the open air without tents or covering, regardless of the sun 
and rain and in the very presence of a watchful and desperate foe, manfully 
repelling every assault and patiently awaiting any orders to storm the fortifica- 
tions. No general ever commanded a braver or a better army. It is com- 
posed of the best blood and the bravest men of Missouri. 

"Where nearly every one, officers and men, behaved so well, as is known 
to your excellency, who was present with the army during the whole period 


embraced in this report, it is impossible to make special mention of individuals 
without seemingly making invidious distinctions ; but I may be permitted to 
express my personal obligations to my volunteer aides, as well as my staff, for 
their efficient services and prompt attention to all my orders. 

"I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, your excellency's obedi- 
ent servant, 

"Sterling Price, 
"Major-General, Commanding. 
"Hon. C. F. Jackson, Governor of the State of Missouri." 


The following is from Colonel Mulligan's lecture on the battle of Lex- 
ington. His official report seems not to have been preserved in the war de- 
partment : 

"On the 30th of August, 1861, the Irish Brigade, of Chicago, lay en- 
camped just outside of Jefferson City. That night an order came from the 
general at Jefferson City for them to report at headquarters. Upon reaching 
headquarters the commanding officer said that the regiment of Colonel Mar- 
shall, which had left for the southeast some days before, had reached Tipton, 
where they were hemmed in and could neither advance nor return, and that he 
wished me to go to Tipton, join Colonel Marshall, take command of the com- 
bined forces, cut my way through the enemy, return to Lexington, and hold 
it at all hazards. The next morning the Irish Brigade started with one six- 
pounder, forty rounds of ammunition, and three days' rations for each man. 
Thus we marched on for nine days, without meeting an enemy, foraging upon 
the country round about in the meantime for support. 

"We reached Tipton, but found neither Marshall nor the enemy. The 
brigade passed on to a pleasant spot, within two miles of Lexington, 
where we sat down and made preparations to enter the town. We washed our 
faces, burnished up our arms, brushed the travel stain from our uniforms 
and went gaily in with our little six-pounder. Indeed, the trouble was not so 
much in getting into Lexington as in getting out. At Lexington we found 
Colonel Marshall's cavalry regiment and about three hundred and fifty men 
of a regiment of Home Guards. On the 10th we received a letter from 
Colonel Peabody, of the Thirteenth Missouri Regiment, saying that he was re- 
treating from Warrensburg, twenty-five miles distant, and that the rebel gen- 
eral, Price, was in full pursuit, with an army of ten thousand men. 


"A few hours later and Colonel Peabody joined us. There were then 
at this point the Irish. Brigade, Colonel Marshall's Illinois cavalry regiment, 
full, Colonel Peabody's regiment, and a part of the Fourteenth Missouri — in 
all about two thousand seven hundred and eighty men, with one six-pounder, 
forty rounds of ammunition, and but few rations. We then dispatched a 
courier to Jefferson City, informing the commanding officer at that post of 
our condition, and praying for re-inforcements or even rations, when we 
would hold out to the last. 

"At noon of the nth we commenced throwing up entrenchments. We 
had selected College Hill, an eminence overlooking Lexington and the broad 
Missouri. All day long the men worked untiringly with the shovel. That 
evening, but six or eight hours after we had commenced throwing up earth- 
works, our pickets were driven in and intimation given that the enemy were 
upon us. Colonel Peabody was ordered out to meet them, two six-pounders 
were planted in a position to command a covered bridge by which the enemy 
were obliged to enter the town, and so we were prepared. That night the 
enemy, seeing our preparations, remained on the other side of the bridge, 
but it was a night of fearful anxiety. None knew at what moment the enemy 
would be upon our devoted little band, and the hours passed in silence and 
anxious waiting. Thus we waited until morning vigilantly and without sleep, 
when some one rushed in, saying : 'Colonel, the enemy are pushing across 
the bridge in overwhelming force.' 

"With a glass we could see them as they came. General Price upon his 
horse, riding up and down his lines, urging his men on. Two companies of 
the Missouri Thirteenth were ordered out, and with Company K of the Irish 
Brigade quickly checked the enemy, drove them back, burned the bridge, and 
gallantly ended their day's work before breakfast. The enemy made a de- 
tour, and approached the town once more by the Independence road. Six 
companies of the Missouri regiment were ordered out to meet them in the 
Lexington cemetery, just outside the town, and the fight raged furiously over 
the dead. We succeeded in keeping the enemy in check, and in the meantime 
the work with the shovel went bravely on, the diggers sometimes looking up 
from their work to cast anxious looks toward the graveyard where their 
comrades were engaged in deadly strife, and yet the shovel was swiftly 

"This work was continued during the night, our outpost keeping the 
enemy in check, so that in the morning we had thrown up breastworks three 
or four feet in height. At three o'clock in the afternoon of the 12th the 
engagement opened with artillery. A volley of grape was directed from the 


enemy at a group of our officers, who were outside the breastworks, which 
had an amusing effect. Every officer sought the protection of the breast- 
works and gained the inside of the lines of men. But this movement was at- 
tributed by them to the terror of their horses, not from any desire to contem- 
plate the enemy from a less exposed position. Our men had returned the 
volley, and a scene of the wildest confusion commenced. Each man evident- 
ly believed that he who made the most noise was doing the most shooting. 
Those who were not shooting at the moon were shooting above it, into the 
earth or elsewhere at random, in the wildest, most reckless manner. This 
could not continue long, with forty rounds of ammunition, and the men were 
ordered to cease firing and were then arranged in ranks and instructed to fire 
with more precision and care ; and soon everything was in order, and moved 
on as cleverly as a Yankee clock. This contest raged about an hour and a 
half, when we had the satisfaction, by a lucky shot, of knocking over the 
enemy's big gun, exploding a powder caisson, and otherwise creating a vast 
amount of damage, which was received with great shouts by our brave men. 
The fight was continued until dusk, and as the moon arose that great army of 
ten thousand men were in full and precipitate retreat, and Lexington was 
our own again. We resumed the shoveling and worked unceasingly through 
the night. Next morning, General Parsons, with ten thousand men at his 
back, sent in a flag of truce, to a little garrison of two thousand seven hun- 
dred, asking the permission to enter the town to take care of his wounded 
and bury his dead, claiming that when the noblest soldier of them all, the lion- 
hearted Lyon, had fallen, he had granted every privilege to the Federal offi- 
cers who had sought his corpse. 

"It was not necessary to quote any precedent to the Irish Brigade for an 
act of humanity, and friend and foe met above the slain and together per- 
formed the last rites over the fallen. 

"On Friday, though a drenching rain set in, the work of throwing up the 
entrenchments went on, and the men stood almost knee deep in mud and 
water at their work. We had taken the basement of the Masonic College, 
an edifice from which the eminence took its name. A quantity of powder 
was obtained and the men commenced making cartridges. A foundry was 
fitted up, and one hundred and fifty rounds of shot-grape and canister were 
cast for each of our six-pounders. We had found no provisions at Lexington, 
and our two thousand seven hundred men were getting short of rations. 
Sunday had now arrived. Father Butler, our chaplain, celebrated mass upon 
the hillside, and all were considerably strengthened and encouraged by his 
words, and after services were over we went back to the works, actively cast- 


ing shot and stealing provisions from the inhabitants round about. Our 
pickets were all the time skirmishing with the enemy, and we were casting 
shot and making preparations for defense against the enemy's attack, which 
was expected on the morrow. 

"At nine o'clock on the morning of the 18th the enemy was seen ap- 
proaching. His force had been strengthened to twenty-eight thousand men, 
with thirteen pieces of cannon. They came as one dark, moving mass, their 
polished guns gleaming in the sunlight, their banners waving, and their drums 
beating — everywhere, as far as we could see were men, men, men — approach- 
ing grandly. Our earthworks covered an area of about eighteen acres, sur- 
rounded by a ditch, and protected in front by what were called "confusion 
pits," and by mines, to embarrass their approacrj,. Our men stood firm be- 
hind the breastworks, none trembling or pale, and the whole place was solemn 
and silent. As Father Butler went around among them they asked his blessing 
and received it uncovered; then turned and sternly cocked their muskets. The 
enemy came, twenty-eight thousand men, upon my poor, devoted little band, 
and opened a terrible fire with thirteen pieces of cannon, on the right and 
on the left, and in the rear, which we answered with determination and spirit. 
Our spies had brought intelligence, and had all agreed that it was the inten- 
tion of the enemy to make a grand rush, overwhelm us, and bury us in the 
trenches of Lexington. The fight commenced at nine o'clock, and for three 
day they never ceased to pour upon us a deadly fire. At noon word was 
brought that the enemy had taken the hospital. We had not fortified that. 
It was situated outside the entrenchments, and I had supposed that the little 
white flag was a sufficient protection for the wounded soldier who had fin- 
ished his service and who was powerless for harm — our chaplain, our sur- 
geon and one hundred and fifty wounded men. The enemy took it without 
opposition, filled it with their sharpshooters, and from every window and 
from the scuttles on the roof poured right into our trenchments a deadly 
drift of lead. 

"Several companies were ordered to retake the hospital, but failed to do 
so. The Montgomery Guard of the Irish Brigade was ordered to, a com- 
pany which we knew would go through. Their captain admonished them that 
they were called upon to go where the others dared not, and they were im- 
plored to uphold the gallant name which they bore, and the word was given 
to 'charge.' The distance across the plain from the hospital entrenchments 
was about three hundred yards. They started at first quick, then double 
quick, then on the run, then faster — still the deadly drift of lead poured upon 
them, but on they went — a wild line of steel and what is better than steel, 


irresistible human will. They marched up to the hospital, first opened the 
door, without shot or shout, until they encountered the enemy within, whom 
they hurled out and far down the hill beyond. The captain, twice wounded, 
came back with his brave men, through a path strewn with forty-five of the 
eighty lions who had gone out upon the field of death. We were now in 
the most terrible situation. The fire had hesitated for a little while, and 
the rebel commander had at once sent word to us that we must at once sur- 
render, or they would hoist the black flag and show no quarters. Word was 
sent back that it would be time to settle that question when we asked for 
quarters, and then the terrible fire was resumed. Our surgeon was held by 
the enemy, against all the rules of war, and that, too, when v/e had released 
a surgeon of the enemy, on his mere pledge that he was such. It was a ter- 
rible thing to see those brave fellows mangled and wounded, without skillful 
hands to bind their ghastly wounds. Captain Moriarity, of the Irish Brigade, 
who had been in civil life a physician, was ordered to lay aside his sword 
and go into the hospital. He went, and through all the siege worked among 
the wounded with no other instrument than a razor. The suffering in the 
hospital was horrible — the wounded and mangled men dying for thirst, fren- 
ziedly wrestling for water in which the bleeding stumps of mangled limbs had 
been washed, and drinking it with a horrid avidity. 

"On the morning of the 19th the firing was resumed and continued all 
day. The officers had told our men that if we could hold out to the 19th we 
would be reinforced, and all through the day the men watched anxiously for 
the appearance of a friendly flag under which aid was to reach them, and 
listened eagerly for the sound of friendly cannon. But they looked and lis- 
tened in vain, for all day long they fought without water, their parched lips 
cracking, their tongues swollen, and the blood running down their chins 
when they bit their cartridges, and the saltpeter entered their cracked and 
blistered lips, but not a word of murmuring. The morning of the 20th broke, 
but no reinforcements had come; still the men fought on. The Rebels ap- 
peared that day with an artifice that was destined to overreach us and secure 
to them the possession of our entrenchments. They had constructed a mova- 
ble breastwork of hemp bales, rolling them before their lines up the hill, and 
advanced their artillery under this cover. All our efforts could not retard 
the advance of these bales. Round shot and bullets were poured against them, 
but they would only rock a little, and then settle back. Heated shots were 
fired with the hope of setting them on fire, but the enemy had taken the pre- 
caution to soak the bales in the Missouri and they would not burn. Thus for 
hours the fight continued, we striving to knock down or burn their hemp 


bales, and they striving to knock down our breastworks. Finally the rush 
came. The enemy left the protection of their bales and with a wild yell 
swept over our earthworks and against our lines, and a deadly struggle com- 
menced. Many heroic deeds were done in that encounter. Our men were en- 
couraged by being told that if we succeeded in keeping them in check this time 
we had them whipped ; the lines stood firm. At this juncture we ordered up 
Captain Fitzgerald, of the Irish Brigade, with his company, to sustain the 
wavering line. Our cartridges were now nearly used up, many of our brave 
fellows had fallen, and it was evident that the fight must soon cease, when at 
three o'clock an orderly came, saying that the enemy had sent a flag of truce. 
With the flag came a note from General Price asking why the firing had 
ceased. I returned it, with the reply written on the back, saying : 'General, 
I hardly know, unless you have surrendered.' He at once took pains to as- 
sure me that such was not the case. I afterwards discovered what the trouble 
was. A lily-livered man, a major by courtesy, ensconced under the earth- 
works out of sight, had raised a white flag. Twice he had been threatened 
with death if he did not take that cursed thing down; but the third time his 
fears overcame his discretion and made for a moment a brave man of him, 
and he hoisted the flag over the breastworks on a ramrod. 

"The ammunition was about gone, there was no water, we were out of 
rations, and many of the men felt like giving up the post, which it seemed 
impossible to hold any longer. They were ordered back to the earthworks 
and told to use up all their powder, and then defend themselves as best they 
could, but to hold their place. They obeyed, silently and grim. Without a 
murmur they went back and stood at their posts, only praying that the enemy 
would approach so near that they might use the soldier's weapon, when his 
powder fails — the bayonet. Then a council of war was held in the college, 
and the question of surrender put to the officers, and a ballot was taken — 
only two of the six votes were cast in favor of fighting on, and then the flag 
of truce was sent out. With our surrender many of the brave fellows shed 
tears. And so the place was lost. 

"The enemy undertook to haul down our flag, and at first found the hal- 
yard cut; they climbed to the top and found it nailed. Their only resource 
was to cut down the pole, which was done while we turned our faces away. 
Gathering up the prisoners, the colonel in front, we were taken down to their 
camp and brought before a man in authority, who said we must promise not 
to 'run away.' We told him that we had not been in the habit of doing much 
of that business of late. Refusing to give our parole not to 'aid or abet 
the United States,' we were marched off prisoners, with General Price, and 
thus ended the siege of Lexington." 



"Hdqrs. Second Division Missouri. State Guard, 

"September 22, 1861. 

"Sir : I have the honor briefly to report that, in accordance with orders 
received, on the morning of the 18th of September I marched my division, 
consisting of three thousand and fifty-two, rank and file, and two batteries 
of three guns each, to take position on north and east of the Masonic Col- 
lege, in which the enemy was intrenched. After traveling a circuitous route 
to avoid the observation of the enemy, I took position near the residence of 
Mr. Tutt, and opened with four guns upon them. These guns were ably 
served under the command of Capts. Emmett MacDonald and Churchill 
Clark, whose gallantry and efficiency were justly spoken of by all. Here I 
offered a gold medal to any artillerist who would strike down the large flag 
on the southeast corner of the battlements. It was quickly won by Capt. 
Churchill Clark, though closely contended for. 

"About eleven A. M. I closed in and around the college, placing a large 
force in an entirely protected position, about three hundred and fifty yards 
north and about five hundred yards east. I remained there, throwing out 
sharpshooters and skirmishers to annoy the enemy, while at the same time 
the approaches to the water were completely guarded. But one sally was 
made by the enemy on the evening of the 18th, which was quickly repulsed. 

"All the men under my command acted with a patience, courage, and 
endurance worthy only of the cause engaged in, and for more than fifty hours 
they lay there panting like the hounds in summer when they scent the stately 
deer, eager not for revenge, but to teach again the minions of the tyrant that 
Missouri shall be free. 

"The loss in this almost bloodless victory amounts in the Second Division 
to two killed and twenty wounded. Among the latter is Captain Vaughan, of 
the Fourth Infantry. 


"J. S. Rains, 
"Brig.-Gen., Second Division, M. S. G. 

"Col. Thomas L. Snead, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen." 


"Lexington, Mo., March 10, 1903. 
"Mr. John Chamberlain, 

"Secretary Historical Society : 
"Dear Sir: Complying with your request, I submit the following as 


my recollections of the important features of the siege and battle of Lex- 
ington : 

"On September ioth Price moved from Rose Hill to Warrensburg by a 
night march to intercept a force of Federals, who, Price says in his report, 
were going to rob the bank there, as they had the Farmers' Bank of Lexing- 
ton. Others say they were trying to evade Price's army and get to St. Louis 
with the money, something over nine hundred thousand dollars, taken at 
Lexington. However this may be, they were intercepted and driven back 
to Lexington, burning the bridges behind them. On the 12th Price reached 
Lexington, moving from the Warrensburg road through the lane in front of 
General Shields' house, to the old Independence road at Edenview church. 

"Near this place a small party of cavalry were encountered by our ad- 
vance guard and driven to town. A regiment of infantry posted near the 
cemetery gave our advance guard a warm reception, and stood their ground 
until Price sent forward a force of infantry and Bledsoe's Battery. The 
Federals were forced to return to the works around the college. Bledsoe's 
Battery was posted on the ground where Wentworth Military Academy now 
stands, and fired several rounds into the works. We retired to camp at the 
fair grounds, where we remained until the morning, after first expecting that 
we should be led right on to the works. We there remained until the morn- 
ing of Wednesday, September 18th. We were constantly engaged in desul- 
tory skirmishes with pickets and foraging parties, but nothing of a serious 

"Price was constantly receiving reinforcements, until his army num- 
bered about twelve thousand men. An effort was made to reinforce the Fed- 
erals from the north of the river, but a detachment of our army drove them 
back and Mulligan prepared to resist to the utmost the siege he now saw 
would begin. Lie seized large quantities of provisions, clothing and horses 
from the Southern citizens, taking also all private arms and ammunition he 
could find. 

"On the 1 8th of September our army marched out with flying colors and 
a full band of music in front. Before getting in sight of the enemy, how- 
ever, the music was 'side-tracked,' and we marched to our positions as silently 
as possible. Rains' division passed through Mrs. John Aull's meadow, and near 
the ground where now stands the Missouri Pacific depot, through Mrs. Beck's 
(now Capt. Ryland Todhunter's) front yard, thence north back of the old 
Tutt place, and formed with its right resting on the hill where Major Fred 
Neet now lives, its left a little east of north from the Wentworth Military 


"Clark's division was on the left of Rains' and Parson's on Clark's 
left, extended west along Main street, about to the court house. Green's 
and Steen's divisions extended along the west side of Tenth, then Pine 
street, to and across Third street on the bluff west of the gas house. Harris 
and McBricle were on Water street, along the river, and extended up the hill, 
so as to join Rain's right flank. Thus the Federal works were completely 
invested. One column marched down Third street, one along the alley and 
through back yards on the bluff, and one down Water street from the Rock 

"Bledsoe's three-gun battery was posted about one hundred yards south- 
east of Major Neet's residence; two guns of Guibor's battery on the ground 
where now stands the artillery shed and outbuildings of Wentworth Mili- 
tary Academy, and one of Guibor's guns, commanded by Serg. A. A. Lesueur, 
stood were John Major now lives, just behind the Traders' Bank. 

"Guibor lent his fourth gun to Capt. Churchill Clark, who posted it on 
South street, at the end of Sixteenth or College street, where he fired hot 
shot into the front of the college. The first day Clark had two of Guibor's 
guns and opened on the works from the old Tutt place, on the east. 

"Kneisley's battery of four six-pounders was under the hill with Harris' 
division. Price's headquarters were in the Meng building, north side of 
Main, one door west of Tenth street. The first day Harris' men captured 
the steamer 'Sunshine,' just below the levee, with a large quantity of stores, 
especially sugar, of which I remember we had double rations for some time 
after. The first day was mainly devoted to artillery practice, with some skir- 
mishes, but we were too far off to effect much with our shot guns and squir- 
rel rifles, a large number of which were flintlocks. A few companies were 
armed with old fashioned United States muskets and bayonets, captured at 
Wilson's Creek. That night we slept in line of battle without blankets or 

"The second day a column from Parsons' division attempted an assault 
on the works in front, just west of College street, but was repulsed. 

"-On that day, by General Price's orders. Col. Thomas Hinkle, a wagon 
boss, hauled a lot of hemp bales from Wellington and they were dumped all 
along the streets, but not taken to the lines until the third day and last day. 
At the time everybody seemed to give General Price credit for the idea of 
a movable breastworks, and I think it probable that the idea of rolling them 
along was General Price's, even if the whole business was not. Gen. Thomas 
A. Harris, who afterwards became very unfriendly to Price, claimed to have 
originated the matter. Col. C. Franklin wrote to General Price from Little 


Rock, in 1863, that Harris claimed it. Col. Thomas L. Snead, Price's adju- 
tant-general, heard it suggested by a private in the General's bodyguard. Sev- 
eral others claimed it. At first some bales were dipped in the river to protect 
them from hot shot, but after losing some in the water and trying to roll the 
wet bales, which drenched men and guns, they used them 'dry so.' 

"Two or three men would get behind a bale, roll it awhile, then stop 
and shoot awhile. A line would be advanced in this way as close as was 
thought proper, and while the men lay behind and fired, a second line would 
be rolled up and placed on top the first. They were not so extensively used 
as is generally supposed — only in front of the hospital, Anderson's house and 
for about two hundred yards on the north. They were very effective in 
approaching the house, which has heavy brick walls. At Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, Gen. Jo. Johnson used cotton bales. 

"On the third day a party from Harris' division assaulted a small out- 
work, a lunette, which can still be seen on the northwest of the college, which 
contained one gun and a supporting force of infantry. The Federals did 
not wait the attack, but leaped over the parapet and met our men half way. 
After a short conflict they were driven in with considerable loss, and the 
assaulting party withdrew a short distance, but did not retire. A number of 
the Federals were left outside killed and wounded. Soon those inside raised 
a white handkerchief and asked the Confederates to let them bring in their 
wounded. After a short parley, the request was granted. The white flag 
was seen from other parts of the Confederate lines, and the firing, which 
had until now been incessant, suddenly ceased. 

"Soon another white flag appeared in the Home Guard camp, just west 
of the college building. General Price, seeing one or both flags from the 
third story of his headquarters building, sent Col. Thomas L. Snead, acting 
adjutant-general, to the fort to enquire their object. Mulligan, who had 
just been informed of the flag raising, replied: T don't know, unless you 
fellows have surrendered, for I have no idea of giving up,' or words to that 

"This account of the episode was current in the army and generally be- 
lieved, whether true or not. However, negotiations were opened, officers 
from both sides met and arranged terms of capitulation as honorable to the 
vanquished as to the victor. 

"Officers and men, as prisoners of war, gave parole not to take arms 
against the Confederate government until regularly exchanged. Arms were 
stacked within the works and the men marched out and returned to their 
homes under their own officers, retaining private property, such as clothing, 


etc. Officers retained private horses and side arms. All provisions, stores, 
ammunition, tents, wagons, arms and other public property were turned over 
to the victorious army. 

"There were provisions and other stores within the works to last through 
a siege of six months, but water had become very scarce. This was un- 
doubtedly a potent factor in leading to the surrender. 

"Indeed, the Federals claim that they would have held out until relieved, 
but for the want of water. This is, to say the least, doubtful, as they were 
outnumbered nearly four to one and the place could have been taken by storm 
at any time. The Confederates fully expected to storm the works, but Gen- 
eral Price, bold and audacious as he was, yet knew when wariness and pa- 
tience would win. Unwilling to sacrifice the lives of his men without need, 
he sat down before the place, confident in his ability to carry it at any time. 
The Federals numbered about three thousand five hundred men. 

"Col. John Reid, Price's chief commissary, said that he issued rations 
for that number of prisoners. There were not more than ten or twelve thou- 
sand Confederates. Federal writers claim that there were eighteen or twenty 
thousand. They largely overestimate our force. There was a large number 
of unarmd recruits about the camp, and a great crowd of citizens came in 
on the day of the surrender. The citizens mixed with the soldiers, who wore 
no uniforms, and it looked like an immense army. 

"The taking of the Anderson house (hospital) by our men led to a con- 
troversy which was kept up after the war. Federals charged us with per- 
fidy in attacking a hospital. We replied that they had fired from the building 
or under its cover. This they strenuously denied. At a friendly court of 
inquiry, sometime in the seventies, it was proven and admitted that they did 
fire from a point so near the building, if not actually under its cover, as to 
justify our men in the attack. It was also admitted that it was, at least, 
improper to locate the hospital at an important strategic point, just outside 
the works. We first took the hospital when but few armed men were in it. 
The Federals, in strong force, stormed and retook it. We then approached 
it with our rolling breastworks of hemp, captured and held it with a number 
of prisoners. 

"Perhaps the greatest loss, at any point, was in these three attacks. 
General Price reports his casualties at twenty-five killed, seventy-two 
wounded. The Federals had two hundred and fifty to three hundred killed 
and wounded. There were more killed than wounded, which is very un- 
usual, and is accounted for by the good markmenship of our riflemen, 
who could see nothing but the enemies' heads above the works. 


"The Union authorities were at first disposed to disregard the parole 
given by their men at Lexington, Missouri not being out of the Union and 
not recognized by the Confederate government nor Price's army yet in the 
regular Confederate service. Some of them were forced into the service at 
once and were exposed to the death penalty if recaptured. They gave a 
great deal of trouble and some were granted discharges. Mulligan remained 
with our army on its march southward for some time, traveling in his own 
ambulance and camping near Price's headquarters. He was treated as a guest 
rather than a prisoner, and it was the impression among our men that he 
voluntarily remained with us until the status of the paroled men was settled 
by his government. 

"As to the bank matter: General Price restored the money to the direc- 
tors of the bank, but it was short fifteen thousand dollars. That amount had 
been stolen while it was in the Federals' hands, by cutting open one of the 
tin boxes which contained it. Detectives were employed, who traced the 
money to Chicago, where most of Mulligan's men had gone, thence to Mil- 
waukee or Detroit. It was nearly all recovered, converted into gold and 
finally restored to the bank, with the exception of about two thousand dollars, 
which was paid out in expenses, rewards, etc. 

"There was a large number of Union men in Lexington, among them 
several skilled surgeons. These asked General Price's permission to go into 
the works and assist in taking care of the wounded Federals. This was 
granted, and on the second day, about dusk, the doctors were escorted through 
the lines, under a flag, after giving parole not to convey information of a mili- 
tary character. 

"In passing the lines, however, one of them managed to whisper to a 
Federal officer, 'Look out, the Rebels will make an assault on this part of 
your works tonight.' This was at the west sally-port looking toward the 
Anderson house. The hint was taken, the works on that side strengthened, 
and a large quantity of telegraph wire stretched and tangled in front. (Barbed 
wire was then unknown.) The other outworks were already protected by 
'trous de loup,' pits three or four feet deep, with sharp stakes in the bottom, 
and mounds between, disposed in quincunx order. Our men must have dis- 
covered the extra preparations, for no assault was made. 

"Mulligan's famous Irish Brigade, after the capitulation was agreed 
upon, and while its terms were being carried out, made some trouble about 
laying down arms and surrendering their flag. It was the typical harp of 
Erin, gold on a field of green, and was presented to them by some organiza- 
tion of ladies before leaving Chicago. They marched around the inner side 


of the fort, with colors and music, to the great disgust of Captain Bledsoe and 
others, who threatened to resume firing; then, forming in hollow square, 
they stacked arms, furled the flag, and were paroled with the others. Gen- 
eral Price and staff were all this time sitting on their horses in or near the 
outer sally-port, on the south side; the soldiers were swarming over the out- 
works, and had resistance been resumed then, the garrison would have been 
destroyed in a few minutes. 

"I never learned what became of that beautiful flag. It would be an in- 
teresting relic now. 

"Joseph A. Wilson. 

"Lexington, Missouri." 

efforts to relieve the siege. 
(Extracts from the Rebellion Records.) 

Jefferson City, September 12, 1861. 
I have just received the following, latest from Colonel Mulligan, at Lex- 
ington : "Ten or fifteen thousand men, under Price, Jackson & Co., are re- 
ported near Warrensburg, moving on to this post. We will hold out. 
Strengthen us; we will require it." 

Jeff. C. Davis, Colonel, Commanding. 
General Fremont. 

Jefferson City, September 12, 1861. 

Lieutenant Pease, a very intelligent officer, arrived last night with dis- 
patches from Colonel Mulligan, at Lexington, and reports all quiet there. 
They had not heard of Price's advance, but the colonel informed me that he 
had secured the money in the bank at that place and was taking steps to secure 
that of other banks, in obedience to my orders. I also ordered him, imme- 
diately after his arrival, to commence fortifying Lexington, which he informs 
me he is doing. No troops from Kansas, except about three hundred, had 
arrived. Nothing was known there of General Pope's movements. Affairs 
south of this, and in Calloway county, are being vigorously straightened out 
by some detachments I sent out some days ago. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Jeff. C. Davis, Colonel, Commanding. 

Maj. Gen. John C. Fremont, Saint Louis, Missouri. 



Headquarters Western Department, 

Saint Louis, Sept. 14, 1861. 
Reinforcements will be sent you today. The Eighth Indiana left at six 
A. M. this morning for Jefferson City. Other regiments will follow today. 
Sturgis will move forward. We will telegraph you further respecting his 
movements. General Pope, with some force, is at or near Saint Joseph. 

J. C. Fremont, Major-General, Commanding. 
Col. Jefferson C. Davis, Jefferson City. 

St. Louis, September 14, 1861. 
Sir : You are hereby directed to move by way of Utica, with all practica- 
ble speed, to Lexington, on the Missouri river, with your force of infantry 
and artillery. You will send back the three companies of the Fremont Hus- 
sars, under Captain Bloom, to St. Louis. The most practicable route from 
Utica to Lexington for you will be by Austinville, Grove and Morton. 

J. C. Fremont, Major-General, Commanding. 
Brigadier-General Sturgis. 

Jefferson City, September 15, 1861. 
Maj. General Fremont: 

Reliable information from the vicinity of Price's column shows his force 
to be eleven thousand at Warrensburg and four thousand at Georgetown, 
with pickets extending in the direction of Syracuse. Green is making for 

Jeff. C. Davis. 

St. Louis, September 20, 1861. 
Col. Jefferson C. Davis, Jefferson City : 

Concentrate a force strong enough, in your judgment, at Georgetown, 
to push forward to relieve Mulligan. I trust that you can take provisions for 
two days with the means of transportation which you have. Order back your 
boats to Jefferson City, and send provisions and troops by them to Lexington. 
Two hundred wagons will be sent from here tonight to Syracuse, which will 
follow you. Troops are going from here. Answer. 

J. C. Fremont, Major-General, Commanding. 

St. Louis, September 23, 1861. 
I have a telegram from Brookfield that Lexington has fallen into Price's 
hands, he having cut off Mulligan's supply of water. Reinforcements four 


thousand strong, under Sturgis, by capture of ferryboats, had no means of 
crossing the river in time. Lane's forces from the southwest, upwards of 
eleven thousand, could not get there in time. I am taking the field myself, 
and hope to destroy the enemy either before or after the junction of forces 
under McCulloch. Please notify the President immediately. 

J. C. Fremont, Major-General, Commanding. 
Col. E. D. Townsend, 

Asst. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C. 

Hdqrs. U. S. A., Washington, September 2$, 1861. 
John C. Fremont, Maj.-Gen., Commanding, Saint Louis, Missouri: 

Your dispatch of this day is received. The President is glad you are 
hastening to the scene of action. His words are, "He expects you to repair 
the disaster at Lexington without loss of time." 

Win field Scott. 

as seen by col. r. t. van horn. 

The Lexington Historical Society, in 1903, compiled a history of this 
battle, and from an article in it from Colonel Van Horn, of Kansas City, 
who participated in the engagement, we quote these paragraphs (the other 
matters in his article, having been covered in other accounts, will be omitted 
here) : 

"For nine days the investment lasted, with but little respite for those 
within the Union works. The vastly superior numbers of the besiegers ren- 
dered the vigilance of the small force of the besieged constant. Colonel Mul- 
ligan gives the troops under his command at two thousand seven hundred 
and over seven hundred of these were the unarmed cavalry referred to. The 
effective fighting men were not over two thousand. An acquaintance who 
called to see me the morning after the surrender said that to General Price's 
army that day there had been issued thirty thousand rations. Of course 
these were not all efficient soldiers, but as most of the able-bodied men of 
that portion of Missouri were there, and they all had something to shoot with, 
the statement was a very reasonable and, no doubt, truthful one. 

"There were two incidents of the siege that, so far as my observation has 
extended, have not been truly explained — the burning of the Wallace and 
Fleming houses. As I was a witness to both, it may as well be given here. 
The residence of Mr. Wallace was but a short distance in front of the col- 
lege and earthworks and was made a shelter for sharpshooters. A consulta- 


tion of our commanding officers was held and a decision made to burn it. 
A detail of men was ordered to do the work, and I saw them go on their 
errand and return after the fire had been started. In the case of the Fleming 
house, it was farther from the earthworks, with a ravine between, and was 
used for a shelter for men, manning a section of a battery, and was harassing 
the Union garrison very much. The order was given to use red-hot shot 
to set it on fire, and the attempt succeeded. These are the facts as to the two 

"The fact once suggested, is now, in the light of the documentary his- 
tory of the war, conclusive : That had General Fremont and General Lane 
acted with any promptness, or made any effort with the information they 
had, General Price would never have reached Lexington. No military ex- 
perience is needed to see this fact, plain as it is from the record." 


An impartial opinion of the disputed points concerning the battle of 
Lexington is given as follows by a local historian : 

The truth in history in this matter is, without any partisan coloring, 
that when the first capture of the hospital occurred, which was between twelve 
and one o'clock, the Federals did not have an armed man in the building [the 
hospital], but its capture was a necessary incident of any success he might 
have in assaulting that part of the Federal lines. There were Confederate 
sharpshooters lying under the edge of the banks of a dug-down carriage- 
way within eighty feet of the hospital building, and as soon as it became 
known that a charge was going to be made on the hospital front of the 
Federal works, and even before the assaulting column got in motion, some 
of the sharpshooters, probably not belonging to any command, had run 
across that eighty-foot space and up into the building, and commenced firing 
down on the Federals from the upper windows. Three eye witnesses of this 
movement have furnished the information that it was not over thirty seconds 
from the moment they started on the run until they were in the building and 
firing from the windows. It was this firing which was seen by some of the 
Confederate troops as they rushed forward in the regular assaulting column; 
but not knowing anything about the bit of independent and successful strategy 
which the sharpshooters had played on their own hook, these troops in line 
very naturally supposed that the firing from the windows was by the Fed- 
erals, and so reported. This state of things shows plainly enough how it 
happened that such contrary assertions were positively made in regard to 


this matter, and both sides can now afford to accept. the truth of it — that the 
Federals did not perfidiously use a hospital building as a garrison, as Pollard, 
in his history of the Civil war, asserts; and the Confederates did not wantonly 
assault the hospital, as Colonel Mulligan and the Federal writers have claimed. 
The Confederate soldiers who took part in the second affair at the hos- 
pital knew nothing of the firing at the first assault, and were thus misled in 
their ideas about the first firing. 


On the evening of the 18th Doctor Cooley, being on parole, came up 
from the Federal hospital to the entrenchments on an errand. As he passed 
Captain Neet he whispered, "Look out! they'll charge you tonight." Thus a 
rope was stretched out about the place and when the charge was made late in 
the night, the enemy became greatly tangled in the same and their plans were 

Provisions were getting scarce in Mulligan's quarters. There were no 
crackers or "hard tack," and no water with which to prepare flour for bak- 
ing. By some means a little was procured and some "slapjacks" made by 
some of the Irishmen on the night of the 19th. The Federals did not com- 
plain so much at this as at the lack of water to quench their awful thirst. 
Their supply of spring water had been cut off by the State troops. Their 
well-digging had proven a failure, though they went down almost a hundred 

When the Federal transports were taken, the lower decks of one of them 
were protected by hemp bales procured from some of the warehouses on the 
wharf. On the night of the 19th some of Harris' men themselves rolled 
some of these bales part way up the bluff and lay down to sleep behind them. 
After this all the hemp bales in Anderson's, McGrew's and Sedgwick's ware- 
houses were brought forward and used with powerful effect. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon, on Saturday, the Federal forces, hav- 
ing laid down their arms, were marched out of the entrenchments to the 
tune of "Dixie," played by the bands of the State Guard, while great cheers 
went up from Price's soldiers and the friends of the Southern cause. The 
same night the Illinois troops were sworn not to take up arms against Mis- 
souri or the Confederate states, and were sent across the river under an escort 
from Rains' division to Richmond. The next day they reached Hamilton 
station on the Hannibal & St. Joseph railway, and then took the cars for 
Quincy, Illinois. The next day Peabody's regiment and the Home Guards 


were turned adrift, on parole not to take up arms again until regularly ex- 
changed. As some of the Home Guards lived in Lexington, they were soon 
at their homes. General Price even gave some of them up to their families 
the day of the surrender. Price admired the pluck of Mulligan and refused 
to take his sword. The loss of Lexington was a severe one to the Union- 
ists, and Fremont was much chagrined and sought at once to retrieve what 
had been lost. 


When General Price marched south with his army after the first battle 
of Lexington, he left a small force to hold the place and guard the prisoners. 
On October 16, 1861, a force of two hundred and twenty Union cavalrymen, 
called the "First Squadron Prairie Scouts," under Major Frank J. White, 
dashed into Lexington, holding possession for thirty-six hours. They re- 
leased Colonel White, Colonel Grover and twelve other wounded prisoners, 
sending them on a steamboat to St. Louis. Major White's official report 
says : "We made sixty to seventy prisoners ; took sixty stands of arms, twenty- 
five horses, two steam ferryboats, a quantity of flour and provisions, a large 
Rebel flag, and other articles of less value. After administering the oath of 
allegiance to our prisoners we released them." 

Among the articles captured were General Price's ambulance, Colonel 
Mulligan's saddle, and the old national flag taken to Lexington by Governor 
Jackson from the State House in 1861. 

After the command under Major White left Lexington, they went to 
Warrensburg, and the Confederates again took possession of Lexington. 

Again, in 1864, General Price came to the vicinity of Lexington on 
another raid. The city had been occupied by Captain Rathbern and a party 
of recruiting officers sent out by General Shelby. Federal General Lane, com- 
ing in, obliged him to retreat. Price came in and Lane, who came down 
from Leavenworth, occupied Lexington in force, with every indication of 
giving battle. General Pleasanton had organized a large force of Federal 
cavalry to pursue Price, and in his official report says : "I assumed the com- 
mand of this army, and by forced marches from Jefferson City came to Lex- 
ington October 21st, out of which place Price had driven General Curtis' 
troops under General Blunt that morning. I pushed on the next day to the 
Little Blue, engaged Price's troops, captured two pieces of cannon and drove 
them back to the Big Blue, through Independence." 



The famous Confederate guerrilla, Charles Quantrell, made Lafayette 
county his headquarters for several years during the war. Immediately after 
the issuance of the famous "Order No. n" he took up his headquarters upon 
a very secluded spot in the northwest corner of the southwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section number 28, township 50, range 27. This insured 
the peace of that neighborhood, for the leaders of these companies were shrewd 
enough to make no demonstration anywhere near their rendezvous. Before 
this, however, he operated rather extensively in the western part of the county 
and in September, 1862, had a clash with the Federal militia in the little town 
of Wellington, in Clay township. The following is an account of the fight 
written by Charles M. Bowring : 

On the morning of September 18, 1862, a company of thirty-three Federal 
militia under the command of Lieutenant Matt. Reid discovered some of 
Quantrell's bushwhackers encamped on the banks of the Big Sniabar creek in 
the vicinity of where the Chicago & Alton railroad line is now located, just 
east of the residence of Robert Keene. There were but few men in the camp, 
the other members of the band being scattered out among the neighboring 
farmers, Quantrell with one of his men being at Keene's for breakfast. The 
Federals fired upon them and captured their camp. The noise of the firing 
aroused Quantrell's scattered men, who quickly gathered in such force as to 
cause the Union troops to retreat hastily towards Wellington. They came on 
into town, leaving two men, James Crews and Neal Summers, on picket duty 
in the western part of the town. The others on reaching the main part of the 
village scattered in all directions among the citizens, seeking dinner. They 
acted in a very careless manner, many of them even unsaddling their horses 
and turning them into stables or lots. Just at 12:30 P. M. Quantrell at the 
head of a column of about forty men was discovered coming up the Independ- 
ence road at full speed with their hats off, hanging down their backs, sus- 
pended from strings around their necks, their long and disheveled hair stream- 
ing out on the wind, a revolver in each hand and with bridle reins in their 
teeth, forming in all anything but a reassuring picture to the astonished pick- 
ets, who at once fled headlong, shouting "Quant ! Quant ! Quant !" at every 
jump in energetic efforts to spread the alarm, their pursuers coming on with 
eager and terrific haste. Quantrell's men divided just west of the town, 
Quantrell himself with one-half going north with the intention of getting into 
the river road and heading the militia off from Lexington, while the other half 


pressed straight ahead. By some mistake Quantrell took the wrong direction 
and came south up the hill, joining their comrades in the direct pursuit, thus 
leaving a route open for the retreat of the militia. 

The full force thus united pursued the Federals on towards Lexington 
about four miles, the Federals making but one short turn just east of the Big 
Sniabar creek. During this pursuit, the pursuers kept up a constant fire. 
On their return they burnt the bridge over the Big Sniabar creek. Quant- 
rell rounded up his men on the public square, where an investigation revealed 
the fact that but one man had been hit, he receiving only a flesh wound in the 
upper part of the left arm. As to the number of Federals killed in this affray, 
accounts vary. Dr. G. W. Love, the attending physician, then a resident of 
Wellington, says that three were killed outright in town, a fourth mortally 
wounded, who died twenty- four hours later in Lexington. One was killed just 
west of the ferry crossing to Wolf's Island. One, Neal Summers, was killed at 
the lower end of Wolf's island, his body being found in a clump of brush 
several days later. It is safe to estimate the total Federal loss at ten or twelve. 
Only the names of George Williams, Neal Summers, W. and J. Powell and 
James Pointer are known positively. Williams and Pointer were both killed 
at the home of Peter Wolf, where they had stopped for dinner. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon a command of three hundred Federal 
troops, under Major Burnette, reached Wellington from Lexington by way of 
the Warder ford on the Big Sni, who at first made dire threats of vengeance 
against the town and its people, but when they saw how carefully the wounded 
were cared for and the preparations for burial of the dead, relented and went 
on their way west after Quantrell. Conveyances came in from Lexington and 
carried off the dead and wounded and just how many of the wounded subse- 
quently died was never clearly known. 

Several members of the militia company were scattered over the village 
for dinner and were cut off by the furious charge of the bushwhackers through 
the place ; some of these escaped by hiding in the cellars and some by slipping 
into the adjoining fields and hiding in the corn and hemp shocks. Several of 
them did not emerge from their hiding places for two or three days. 


Long lists of names or rosters of soldiers, at this late date, are not inter- 
esting to the average reader of local history. The military publications give 
all of this information more accurately than can be presented in this connec- 


tion, but it may not be without some general interest to note the different com- 
mands, on both the Confederate and Union sides, which went forth from 
Lafayette county to do battle for the right as they were given to see the right 
at that day. 


Bledsoe's Battery was originally a Lafayette county organization, and 
was formed about June 15, 1861, when Governor Jackson called for fifty 
thousand state militia. The officers then were : Hiram M. Bledsoe, captain ; 
Curtiss O. Wallace, first lieutenant ; Charles Higgins, second lieutenant ; Frank 
S. Trigg, third lieutenant. 

This battery was engaged under its original commander (Captain Bled- 
soe, of Lexington) in the battles of Springfield (Wilson's Creek), Elkhorn, 
Dry Fork, Lexington, Carthage, Corinth, Iuka, Franklin, Nashville, Chicka- 
mauga, Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold Gap, 
Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Chickasaw Bayou, Vicksburg, Port Hudson, Jack- 
son, Atlantic, Columbia. No battery won greater laurels on either side during 
the four years' conflict than Bledsoe's Battery, made so famous on many a 
hard-fought battlefield. 

Among the brave men from Lafayette county who served in this battery 
should never be forgotten the following: Capt. H. M. Bledsoe, Lexington; 
First Lieut. Curtiss O. Wallace, Lexington, resigned 1862; Second Lieut. 
Charles Higgins, Lexington ; wounded in hip with grape shot at the battle of 
Carthage ; Third Lieut. Frank S. Trigg, Lexington ; wounded at Pea Ridge. 

At the battle of Wilson's Creek the battery had forty men engaged. 
David Morris was killed; William Young (author of this work), Lexington, 
had his left arm shot off at the shoulder and his right hand, all except the 
thumb and forefinger; H. P. Anderson, shot in the face and breast; horses 
nearly all killed. 

At Dry Forks, Captain Bledsoe was severely wounded, but recovered 
sufficiently to reach Lexington in time to take part in the last day's fight. 

William B. Steele, of Lexington, enlisted 1861, served until the final sur- 
render in 1865. 

J. S. Wheatley, enlisted as lieutenant, 1861 ; wounded at Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi, July 10, 1863; discharged, 1865. 

John Santameyer, Davis township. 

Hezekiah Santameyer, Davis township. 

Amos Anson, Davis township. 

William Summers, Lexington. 


C. L. Bradley, Lexington; enlisted, 1861 ; served till the end. 

Arthur Brown, Mayview. 

Charles Wallace, Lexington ; served till the end. 

F. S. Letton, Lexington ; sergeant throughout the war. 

Thomas Young, Lexington; from 1 861 to the end of the war. 

Hamilton Atterbury, Aullville. 

Benjamin Atterbury, Aullville. 

Lee Boak, Clay township. 

Charles Anderson, Aullville. 

J. R. Martin, Lexington, served all through. 

'Another incident worth mentioning here connected with this famous 
Bledsoe Battery occurred at the battle of Nashville, Tennessee : "The enemy 
came out above Nashville on our left, in strong force, and succeeded in break- 
ing our lines. Our division was ordered to reinforce the left, but the artillery 
was ordered to remain on the right to defend that part of the line should the 
enemy advance. While the fight was progressing on the left, and we were on 
a high elevation anxiously gazing on the scene, someone called out 'look! look! 
here they come !' 'To guns, to guns !' was the order. We were at once ready 
for action, and Captain Bledsoe gave orders to hold fire — not to fire until the 
enemy were within twenty paces. Captain Bledsoe had his own battery, be- 
sides Captain Goldtwait's and Captain Beauregard's, making twelve Napoleon 
guns. Our guns were double charged with canister, awaiting the near ap- 
proach of the enemy. Soon we discovered a line of battle — colored troops 
advancing upon us through the blue grass pastures, and behind them a line of 
white soldiers. We held fire until they were close, when it seemed that every 
gun was fired at the same time, which created great confusion and panic 
among the enemy. We fired as fast as we could ; the enemy were fleeing in 
the greatest disorder; we kept up the fire until they were out of sight. We 
found the field strewn with dead and wounded in our front ; one of our men 
counted sixteen Federal soldiers touching each other, so close were the dead 
lying." This is from a well written article on this battery, by W. B. Steel, 
Esq., an ex-county clerk of Lafayette county, and may be relied upon as 

Other Confederate commands in which many of the men from Lafayette 
county served were : The Second Missouri Artillery ; Collins' Battery ; First 
Missouri Light Battery, Confederate States Army; the Missouri State 
Guards, organized in the spring of 1861 ; General Shelby's men, who num- 
bered many score ; Gordon's Missouri cavalry regiment ; Colonel Elliott's regi- 
ment Missouri cavalry ; with possibly others. 



In 1861 George P. Gordon was a captain in the State Guards; in 1862 
in the Confederate service; in 1863 promoted by General Hindman to the rank 
of major, at the suggestion of General Shelby, and in 1865 was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, by Shelby, as division commandant; was dis- 
charged from the state service in December, 1861, going into the Confederate 
service the following August. He fought at Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Prairie 
Grove, Arkansas, Springfield, Hartsville, Cape Girardeau, Helena, Bayou 
Metre, Shelby's raid, Dardanells, Neosho, Greenfield, Warsaw, Tipton, Mar- 
shall, on Price's raid, Lexington, Westport. He surrendered in June, 1865, 
Shelby's division, to Gen. Frank Herron. 


Lieut. -Col. Benjamin F. Gordon enlisted in the service in 1861 ; was lieu- 
tenant-colonel of Shelby's regiment, afterward colonel and at one time com- 
manded Shelby's brigade ; left the command at Texarkana, went to Old Mexico 
in 1865, returned in 1866. While in the Confederate army he was in the bat- 
tles of Carthage, Springfield, Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge, Cane Hill, New- 
tonia, Prairie Grove, Little Rock, Bayou Metre, Hollman, Mark's Mill, Jenk- 
in's Ferry, Hartsville, and Price's raid to Westport. Was wounded at Wil- 
son's Creek. 


The Union army was represented from Lafayette county by the following 
commands : Pirner's Battery, originally the Lexington Home Guard Bat- 
tery, in charge of Capt. C. M. Pirner. As a result of the battle of Lexington, 
the whole organization was broken up and never reorganized. Every mem- 
ber save two were wounded and all taken prisoners by Price and released on 
parole, sometime in 1864. Nevertheless, Gus Pirner and Charles Probst en- 
listed in another battery ; Probst died in Arkansas, from the result of wounds 
received, probably at the battle of Lexington. Gus Pirner lived through the 
war and was finally in Sherman's army. 

Capt. F. R. Neet's company (F) of the Tenth Regiment Missouri Cavalry 
Volunteers was another which had Lafayette county soldiers who bravely 
fought for the side of the Union. They numbered about sixty men. 



The muster and pay-rolls of Company A, Seventh Missouri Regiment, 
had the following officers : Captain, S. H. Taggart ; first lieutenant, Elisha 
Stillwell; second lieutenant, Joab Worthington ; sergeants, Oscar V. Perdeau, 
William Murphy, William Sanders, John Meyers and James J. Perdeau; cor- 
porals. John R. Smelsor, F. W. Stoosburg, James B. Johnson, James H. Hick- 
man and Uriel Ferrel. 

The killed from this company were : Caleb W. Cole, private, drowned 
in the Missouri, August 15, 1862; William Haggarty, private, killed at Well- 
ington, by bushwhackers ; James L. Pointer, private, killed at Wellington, by 
bushwhackers ; John H. Williams, private, killed at Wellington, by bush- 


Captain, C. H. Ehlers ; first lieutenant, J. W. Pauling ; second lieutenant, 
August Brockhoff; orderly sergeant, Henry Miller; second sergeant, William 
Oelschleger; third sergeant, Henry Bodenstale ; corporals, Peter Meyer, H. C. 
Meyer, Henry Holtcamp, Henry Bredshoef. 

Henry Steinbrink, sergeant, was killed at Wellington while scouting. 


Captain, John F. Enburg ; first lieutenant, Xenophon Ryland ; second lieu- 
tenant, E. C. Holmes ; sergeants, William C. Long, Thomas Adamson, Adam 
Walk, Robert McFarland, Edward W. Carpenter, John W. Yeiler; corporals, 
Simon B. Ryland, James H. Gaston, Christian Schafermeyer, Richard B. 
Vaughn, James McCormick, Andrew P. Benson, Lewis Schneider, John 

The following scouts were killed near Greenton, August 28, 1862 : Evans 
P. Phillips, William Iddings, David W. King, Charles F. Meyers. 


Captain, G. W. Sumner ; first lieutenant, Mathias Reed ; second lieutenant, 
Robert Taylor; sergeants, Milton Smith, Isaac Sumers, G. S. Kesterson, 
James Hutchinson; corporals, W. T. Worley, S. P. Courtney, Robert Bu- 
chanan, James Starr, J. H. Hitchings. There were deaths or killed in action 


— J. W. Baker died of smallpox, December 21, 1862; Cornelius Summers, 
killed in action, at Wellington ; Joseph Whittsitt, killed in action in Saline 
county, October 11, 1862. 


This was an early and important military command on the Union side. 
Among the men who served in this regiment from Lafayette county were 
James J. Perdue, Charles Bergman, Frederick Meyer, John B. Jones, Oscar V. 
Perdue, William H. Perdue, E. N. Waggoner, August Brockman, Henry Deke, 
George Brockman, C. H. Uphaus, J. R. Taggert, Jacob Worthington, Uriah 
Farrell, P. Whitworth, Thomas Welsh, W. A. D. Mayer, George K. Smith. 


Emil Ninas, sergeant, Company D, enlisted May, 1861 ; transferred to 
Company E, September, 1861. Fought at Pea Ridge, Corinth, Perry ville, 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, with Sherman to the sea, Franklin, 
Nashville; wounded at Chickamauga. Discharged, September, 1865. 


Henry W. Theiman, corporal, Company E, enlisted 1864; discharged 
1865. In 1861 enlisted in Colonel Grover's regiment, "Horse Guards." Cap- 
tured and paroled at Lexington. 


W. T. Worley, private, enlisted in fall of 1862; engaged in battles of 
Jefferson City, Big Blue, Mines Creek. Discharged June 4, 1865. 


Moses Welborn, private, Company B, enlisted in 1862; fought at Inde- 
pendence, Blues, Westport, Mines Creek, Marshall. Discharged in 1865. 

Dr. E. A. Taylor, surgeon. Company B, transferred from Colonel 
Stieffle's regiment, Company A ; engaged in battle of Lexington ; was there 
captured and paroled. Re-enlisted in 1862. Acted as hospital surgeon until 
discharged in 1865. 

W. F. Walkenhorst, private, Company B, enlisted 1861 ; fought in battle 
of Lexington, Blues, Independence, Westport, Mines Creek, Marshall. Dis- 
charged July 9, 1865. 


John D. Kuester, private, Company B, enlisted in 1862; discharged 1865. 

Henry Fiene, private, Company B, enlisted in 1862 ; fought at Jefferson 
City, California, Blues, Westport, Mines Creek; taken prisoner in southwest- 
ern Missouri, and escaped. Mustered out 1865. 


Ben. H. Wilson, captain, then major, enlisted in Company F, Seventy- 
first Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia; was in twenty or thirty skirmishes 
with guerrillas. 

Harmon Brand, private, enlisted in 1861, in Captain Becker's company, 
under Colonel Mulligan; was in the battle of Lexington; surrendered, was 
paroled, and then went home. 

J. L. Youngs, Jr., second lieutenant, Company K, Fourteenth Missouri, 
under Colonel White, enlisted in 186 1 ; fought at Lexington with Mulligan, 
Mines Creek, Newtonia, Blues and Independence ; was taken prisoner at Lex- 
ington ; paroled and sent south. 

W. K. Saunders, fourth sergeant, Company C, Seventy-first Regiment 
Enrolled Militia, enlisted August 16, 1862 ; was in the fight at Wellington. . 

Mordecai Gladdish, first lieutenant, enlisted July, 1861, under Colonel 
White, United States Volunteers, and was at the battle of Lexington, was 
taken prisoner, and paroled at the same place. 

David McClure, private, enlisted July, 1863, First Regiment Missouri 
State Militia, Company G; was stationed at Lexington. Discharged in 1865. 

Cornelius Summers, private, enlisted in 1861, Company I, First Regiment 
Missouri State Militia; killed at Wellington. 

Isaac Summers, sergeant, enlisted 1861, Company I, First Regiment Mis- 
souri State Militia; discharged in 1865. 

Fritz Storberg, enlisted 1861, Company C, Twenty-sixth Missouri In- 
fantry ; was in the battles of Springfield, Mark's Mills, where he was captured 
and held prisoner for three months, and exchanged ; re-enlisted in Company 
C, Seventh Regiment; afterward consolidated with the First Missouri State 
Militia; discharged 1865. 

August Bruens, private, enlisted 1862, in Seventh Regiment Missouri 
State Militia; died March, 1862. 

Claus Halstien, private, enlisted 1862, in Company K, Eighth Regiment 
Missouri State Militia; the battles in which he fought were Independence, Jef- 
ferson City, Blue Mills, Westport, Newtonia, and discharged 1865. 

W. H. Littlejohn, private, Company F, enlisted 1862; was at Lexington, 


Newtonia, Pineville, Fayetteville, Cassville, Prairie De Anna, Cove Creek, 
Little Rock, Springfield, Hartsville, Clarenden, Du Val's Bluff, Prairie de 
Rone, Boonville, Jefferson City, Marshall, Blue Mills, Independence, West- 
port, Marias, des Cygne, Warrensburg, Batesville ; wounded at Prairie de 
Rone; surrendered at Lexington. 

Lewis W. Wernway, second lieutenant, Company C, enlisted 1861, Graves' 
regiment; was at Carthage, Oak Hills, Pea Ridge, Lexington, Corinth; dis- 
charged in 1863. 

Henry Boderstab, sergeant, enlisted 1862, Captain Ebler's company, En- 
rolled Missouri Militia ; was in service four months. 

Henry Wehrs, corporal, enlisted 1862, Seventy-first Regiment Enrolled 
Missouri Militia, six months' service. 

Henry Miller, orderly, enlisted August, 1862; served four months, 
Seventy-third Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia. 

Z. T. Alkire, private, enlisted March, 1863, Company B, Seventh Regi- 
ment Missouri State Militia ; fought at Big Blue, Little Rock, Springfield, 
Greenfield; discharged in 1865. 

George F. King, private, enlisted August, 1861, Tenth Missouri Volunteer 
Cavalry; fought at Tuscumbia, Greentown, Lexington, Greensboro, Knox- 
ville, Meridan, Selma, Columbus, Montgomery, Baton Rouge, Jackson, Cor- 
inth, etc. ; discharged 1865. 

William Boothman, private, enlisted September, 1861, First Missouri 
Cavalry Volunteers, and in 1864 in Seventh Missouri State Militia; partici- 
pated in engagements of Lexington, Lone Jack, Prairie Grove, etc. ; captured 
twice, Lexington and Prairie Grove. 

H. F. Utt, private, enlisted in the Federal army, in Company F, Seventh 
Regiment Missouri Volunteers, under Colonel Huston, August 22, 1861 ; was 
at the battle of Lone Jack and discharged December, 1863, on surgeon's cer- 

Lewis S. Stout, enlisted in 1862, in Company B, Seventh Regiment Mis- 
souri State Militia ; was blacksmith for his company, and discharged at St. 
Louis, in 1865. 

Joseph Waring, corporal, enlisted, 1861, in Company D, Seventh Regi- 
ment Missouri State Militia ; was discharged in 1865 ; engaged at Lexington, 
Independence. Blue, Westport and Drywood. 


The Civil war was noted for lawless bands of men, known as bushwhack- 
ers and guerrillas, who did not enter either army, but kept up a constant annoy- 
ance by their semi-organized efforts and general sympathy and aid to the Con- 


federacy. Among these bands were men wthout patriotism or character, and 
who devastated the country, killing innocent people, and burning the houses 
and farm buildings largely for plunder. Not that all the bad men in this 
section of Missouri belonged on that side, by any means, for many of the acts 
of the stay-at-home Unionists were subject to much condemnation. This was 
a perilous time in our country's history, and only those who lived in a border 
state can understand all that the people had to contend with. Foes within 
one's own household are usually the bitterest, most dangerous and hardest to 
manage. It would take a good sized volume to mention the many operations 
and bloody crimes perpetuated by the bushwhackers in Missouri, and it will 
not be attempted here to even narrate much concerning these lawless bands, 
even in Lafayette county, other than to mention how the United States govern- 
ment looked upon them and how they were handled when captured by the 

On June 23, 1862, General Schofield, the Union commander, issued the 
following general order No. 2, a part of which read as follows : 

"The sum of five thousand dollars for every soldier or union citizen 
killed ; from one thousand dollars to five thousand dollars for every wounded 
person; and the full value of all property destroyed or stolen by guerrillas, 
will be assessed and collected from the rebel sympathizers residing in the vicin- 
ity of the place where the act is committed." 

This military order provided that the money collected in such cases should 
be paid to the legal heirs, or else the person suffering injury or loss thereby. 
Also that the division commanders should appoint a civil board in each county, 
to consist "of not less than three members, who will be selected from the most 
respectable and reliable citizens of the county, who will take an oath to dis- 
charge faithfully and impartially all the duties required of them by this order." 
That each board must "proceed to enroll all the residents and property-hold- 
ers of the county who have actively aided or encouraged the present rebellion." 
If the assessment was not paid within the time specified by such board, then the 
property of such persons* was to be seized and sold till the amount was realized. 

Another paragraph of this order read : "In making an assessment of 
damages, the board will be governed by the wealth of the individual, and his 
known activity in aiding the rebellion — particularly in countenancing and en- 
couraging guerrillas, robbers and plunderers of the loyal people. Each county 
board will keep an accurate account of its proceedings, and will send a duly 
certified copy of each case to district headquarters." 

Not much more than one month after this order was issued by General 
Schofield its enforcement was commenced in Lafayette county. The following 


named had been selected as the board: R. C. Vaughan, William Spratt, 
Eldredge Burden, John F. Neill and John F. Eneberg. They met at Lexing- 
ton to organize for business. All the officers and soldiers, whether United 
States army men or State Militia, were ordered to "render said board protec- 
tion and assistance in the execution of their duties, whenever and wherever 
called upon to do so." 

At the time, Col. Daniel Huston, Jr., was in command of Lexington post 
and on August 8th, he issued his general order No. 13, saying: "All persons 
in the county of Lafayette who have suffered any loss of property or injury 
to person, since the death of General Schofield's order No. 3, or may hereafter 
sustain injury or loss of property, are hereby notified to report the circum- 
stances of their several cases to these headquarters, in order that assessments 
may be made to indemnify them." 

The next day, August 9, 1862, the board published a card with their 
names attached thereto, announcing that they intended to "promptly and fear- 
lessly discharge their duty without favor or affection." 

On May 6, 1862, Capt. N. Cole, then commanding Lexington post, is- 
sued a circular, made up largely from orders given out by his superior, Gen- 
eral Halleck, from which we here quote : 

"Treasonable language is to be punished upon trial and sentence, by a 
military commission, under the charge of encouraging the rebellion against the 
government of the United States, while enjoying its protection. Neither sex 
nor age (after the age of legal responsibility) will be overlooked. All must 
be taught to obey and respect the laws of the land, or submit to punishment 
for their disloyalty, whether it consist of word, act or deed. Any who had 
been in arms under General Price are required to surrender themselves to the 
military authority and give bonds for their future loyal conduct, or they will 
be arrested and tried as spies, being within the lines of our army and in cit- 
izen's dress." 

On June 18, 1862, Col. Daniel Huston, Jr., commander of Lexington 
post, issued his general order No. 9, in which he notified all who had been in 
arms against the United States government to report themselves to the provost 
marshal and take oath of loyalty and give bonds for their future good con- 
duct, or "they will be considered as spies." 

No. 3 of these orders said : "All bushwhackers or guerrillas taken with 
arms in their hands or without arms, will be shot upon the spot they are 
found. Commanding officers are strictly enjoined to enforce this order rigor- 
ously." This was from General Schofield's general order No. 18, of May 29, 



The devilish work of the detestable bushwhackers had been carried on 
with impunity, until it had become absolutely necessary for the government 
authorities to outlaw them and the soldiers to hunt them down. And a 
knowledge of the above and similar official orders is necessary to an under- 
standing of many things done by the state militia which are even to this day 
matters of bitter contention and sad remembrance in Lafayette county. 

The "Enrolled Militia" (organized local police), under the military laws 
of Missouri, for prompt and severe action against the bushwhackers and guer- 
rillas, was set to work by Order No. 19, issued July 22, 1862. This order 
read as follows : 

"An immediate organization of all the militia of Missouri is hereby 
ordered for the purpose of exterminating the guerrillas that infest the state." 
Every man subject to military duty was required to report himself, bringing 
whatever arms he had or could procure and be enrolled. And it was ordered, 
"that all arms and ammunition of whatever kind, and wherever found, not 
in the hands of the loyal militia, will be taken possession of by the latter, and 
used for the public defense. Those who have no arms, and cannot procure 
them in the above manner, will be supplied as quickly as possible, by the 
ordnance department." 

After the war cloud has been forever swept away," the true animus of 
these military orders, sanctioned by Governor Gamble, seem almost unthink- 
able, and it is little wonder that such a terrible reign ensued here as is recorded 
for Lafayette county in those days that tried men's souls. At that day, not 
one-third of the population of this county was on the side of the Union cause, 
and the workings of the above orders in such a community can scarcely be 
imagined. At every man's door stood glaring and scowling grim-visaged 


"To the Honorable County Court of Lafayette County : 

"We, the undersigned citizens of Lafayette county, most respectfully ask 
your honorable court to appropriate a reasonable sum out of any money of the 
country treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purchasing of suitable 
clothing, blankets, etc.. for the militia, who have, or may, enroll themselves as 
militiamen in Lafayette county, under the late order of Governor Gamble. 

"William Spratt, Franklin Winkler, Edgar Youngs, C. B. Shelton, J. J. 
Perdur, Hillory Simcox, Jerry Goodwin, W. S. Payne, D. G. Prigmore, 
James B. Johnson, Benj. Pointer, Henry Brockman, W. C. Long, Samuel 
Norris, Samuel Vanhook, James Ware, Gilbert Pointer, B. Whitworth, I. 


M. Hickman, D. Wotthington, William Cain, B. H. Wilson, W. H. Wert, 
H. N. Simcock, J. M. Gain, William Lake, Uriah Farrell, J. B. Taggett, S. 
G. Wentworth, R. M. Henderson, H. F. Coolege, John F. Neille, James L. 
Pointer, Samuel J. Drysdale, William Meinecke, Fred Bruns, G. Brockmann, 
L. Shinkle, S. S. Earl, W. L. Hickman, David Tevis, David L. Wellborn, J. 
W. Zeiler, G. Clayton, John E. Bascom, R. C. Vaughan, A. Perciver, S. F. 
Curry, Harrison Smith, John R. Runyon, Street Hale, James Hays, J. A. 
Price, Charles Bergmaster, John E. Ryland, C. A. Bussen, William H. Davis, 
M. Morrison, Thomas Adamson, Thomas B. Claggett, John B. Alexander, 
P. W. Whittlesey, J. H. Delap, A. Hoffeth, E. Burden, William Spratt, John 
F. Neille, Alex. Mitchell, C. H. McPheeters, Henry Turner, W. H. Bowen, 
Oscar V. Purdue, J. J. McConicks, W. B. Waddell, John Peffer, E. Windsor, 
Thomas Wernwee, Henry A. Self, D. Leny, John B. Fleming, E. Stratton, 
Strather Renick, E. W. Carpenter, W. D. Wainright, S. T. Wentworth, G. 
M. Jacques, S. H. Graham, Frederick Zeigler, John Kirkpatrick, Washington 
Johnson, D. W. B. Lewis, William H. Davis, J. A. Price, F. Coolege, James 
W. Waddell, Jr." 

This instrument was filed August 6, 1862, and Hon. J. F. Ryland was 
judge of the circuit court, and he marked on the back of the petition the fol- 
lowing note : "Wait, and see how much can be spared, and is needed. Not 
to exceed two thousand dollars now." 

On August 26, 1862, the county court passed an order to issue five thou- 
sand dollars of county bonds at ten per cent interest, "to be expended for the 
purchase of blankets, clothing, tents, etc., for the militia companies raised and 
to be raised in the said county of Lafayette, for the purpose of putting down 
and suppressing the inhuman guerrilla warfare in our county and state." 

Judge Scofield sold the bonds at par and the full amount had been ex- 
pended. by early in 1863. 

In April, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel King, with one hundred soldiers 
from Lexington post, killed four bushwhackers, named Joe Fickel, Wagoner 
and two named Wingate, near the house of William Holmes, fifteen miles 
southwest of Lexington, on the road to Chapel Hill. Others of the gang 

On September 9, 1863, a man named Carlyle, one of Quantrell's band, 
who had been captured after the massacre at Lawrence, Kansas, was executed 
by military authority at Lexington, Col. B. F. Lazear commanding. 

In 1863, Dr. J. F. Atkison was post surgeon, and his report of Novem- 
ber showed forty sick and wounded at the hospital, then known as the "Ander- 
son House," but later the property of Tilton Davis, Esq. 



There were many clashes between the Federal soldiers stationed in Lafay- 
ette county and the Southern guerrillas, or bushwhackers, during the war. 
Of course it is impossible to give any of the details of all of these incidents. 
The following account of the killing of Jeff Wilhite and Alvis Estes by a de- 
tachment of Federal troops at the old Warder church, on the banks of the 
Big Sniabar creek, will give the reader a good idea of the times and sur- 
roundings of that memorable period. It was recently written by Thomas 
E. Austin, who was born and reared in Lafayette county and lived here for 
forty years and more, and who shortly after the fight at the church joined 
the Southern army at the age of sixteen years and was as brave and true 
a soldier as ever wore the grey, and now resides at Willow Springs, Missouri. 
His account of the church skirmish is as follows : 

"The old Warder church house was filled full. The Big Sni creek 
was also filled full (back water from the river). A number of us boys 
were sitting outside the building when a man (Sewell) who lived above 
town at Wellington, on a horse rode up to us and asked if he could ford the 
creek ; we told him no, that if he wished to cross he must go up to the bridge. 
He then went. That Sunday morning seven or eight bushwhackers also came. 
They were led by Greene Austin. Among the number were Messrs. Jeff. 
Wilhite, Alvis Estes and John Prock. Prock had previously been shot in 
the hip (so said) and was lame. He entered the building to rest, and no 
doubt to gaze upon the pretty girls. He left his horse immediately in front 
of the door. Wilhite was acting rudely on the outside, so much so that old 
brother Renick came out and reprimanded him. Wilhite ordered him back 
into the house, but the old brother 'sasses' him back, repeating his reproval. 
About this moment the man who had made inquiries regarding the creek re- 
turned hastily and close upon his heels came a troop of Federal cavalry in a 
rush over the bridge. Austin called to his men, they formed quickly across 
the road some fifty feet in front of the church ; revolvers popped savagely, 
the horse of Estes was shot down and he climbed up behind Wilhite. The 
advance of the Federals, about twenty, had been checked ; but something like 
fifty men came rushing across the bridge, some of them flanking the seven 
men. While the scrap was most interesting, Prock had emerged from the 
church, but could not mount owing to his lameness ; our old friend who had 
reproved Wilhite took hold of Prock, while I held the horse, and shoved him 
into his saddle. As Prock's right foot swung over the saddle, a Federal 


with pistol in hand, eyes on Austin and others, passed within three feet of 
Prock, riding- ahead. Prock followed with pistol at the fellow's back, in 
which position they moved fifty feet or more. Prock did not fire, but pulled 
off to the left into the brush and escaped unnoticed. 

"Expecting to see Prock shoot his man, my eyes were riveted to the little 
scene, wondering why he did not shoot ; but I saw the wisdom of his move as 
he glided off out of sight into safety. Turning to the melee in the road, men 
and horses seemed to be mixing — some of the bushwhackers were racing 
across the open field. Wilhite, with Estes behind, was making a black streak 
up the road on his powerful black mare, and was clearly outdistancing his 
pursuers. Estes jumped off, thinking to make it afoot to the bushes, but was 
cut off; he turned to the creek, as a last resort for safety, jumped in and 
swims part of the way over, but turned back towards the enemy, who 
killed him on the very bank of the stream. Wilhite, who was at a safe dis- 
tance, flourished his revolver in the air ; a volley from rifles brings down the 
big black mare and so he was left afoot. Circumstances brings him back to 
the Warder home and towards the creek ; his leg is broken ; he empties his re- 
volver, cutting the bridge of one man's nose, breaking the foot of a second and 
shot the pistol out of the hand of a third man, but is finally shot through the 

"The Federal command came down to the church and told the citizens 
to bury them. There was screaming and old-time terror among all on the 
grounds for a while. Miss Nettie Dean would have cleaned out the whole 
batch (one at a time) if she could have induced them to fight single-handed. 

"This is as I saw it at the age of fifteen years. While the actual killing of 
the two men was up near the Warder home, some of us saw that. I gath- 
ered the names and data from the Federals themselves, as they talked, and I 
saw the men who were shot in the foot and nose ; also the man who claimed 
to have shot Wilhite last." 

On September 14, 1863, an order was sent out for a commutation tax 
on all who had refused to serve in the "Enrolled Missouri Militia," and this 
order said : "The district commander shall cause each of such persons to be 
arrested without delay, and require them to perform military duty until said 
tax is fully discharged." Brig.-Gen. R. C. Vaughan, of Lexington, was then 
commanding the fifth military district of the Enrolled Militia of Missouri, 
which included Lafayette county, with M. Chapman as his adjutant. 



On February 22, 1864, two Union soldiers, going home on furlough, 
stopped for the night at Arthur G. Young's house, five miles out of Lexing- 
ton on the Sedalia road. At ten o'clock that night five bushwhackers came in 
and captured the two soldiers, tied their hands behind them, took them into a 
field and shot them. One was a sick, old man, whose name and residence 
were not made known, for his murderers took away all his money and pri- 
vate papers, if any he happened to have on his person. They had shot him 
over the eye. The other man was Elzy Sanders, of Independence, who had 
enlisted in the Sixth Kansas Volunteers, at Westport, Missouri, in May, 1863. 
The two bodies were brought to Lexington and buried by the military. 


To keep the record straight (not so much to dwell on unpleasant sub- 
jects), the following incident speaks for itself, and shows how affairs went 
in the heated days of the Civil war : 
"To Commander of Post, Lexington : 

"We, and , commanding Confederate forces, demand an 

immediate surrender of the city, in the name of the Confederacy. If the 
surrender is made, citizens and their property will be respected and all soldiers 
paroled. If it is not made, we will burn the town, and kill the men who fire 
upon us. 


" and ." 

This demand was signed by two well-known citizens of Lafayette county. 
They were not, however, Confederate soldiers in the true sense of that term, 
but only bushwhackers, hence Lieutenant Shumate, then in command of the 
post, made no official reply, but told the alarmed citizens to "Let them come 
on; we're ready for them!" The note asking the surrender was brought into 
town by Lewis Smallwood, through compulsion. Alarm bells were imme- 
diately rung and the Home Guards mustered promptly at the call. The bush- 
whackers came up Franklin as far as Oak street, but were met and driven 
back by a few men under command of Sergeant Stone of Company M, First 
Missouri Militia. One bushwhacker was shot through the shoulder and an- 
other had his horse killed. They robbed the store of Mr. Kellerman, in Old 
Town, and took Mr. Smallwood's horse from him, and made their escape. 



By turning to the files of the Lexington Union of February 27, 1864, the 
following bloody incident is published, and very naturally finds a place in the 
military chapter of the history of Lafayette county : 

"It will be remembered by our readers that some time in December, last, 
Otho Hinton, a noted guerrilla and robber, was captured at Mrs. Neills', 
twelve miles from this city, on the Sedalia road. Hinton was kept closely 
guarded with ball-and-chain attached, until last Monday night, when he was 
killed by his guard. The facts are as follows : 

"Blount, the captain of the band of guerrillas to which Hinton belonged, 
entered into a conspiracy with Miss Anna Fickel, daughter of Helvy Fickel, 
near Greenton, Mrs. Ann Reid, of this city, and a soldier whom they believed 
they had bribed, to kill the guard and rescue the prisoner. The soldier was to 
have it so arranged that the prisoner, at precisely seven o'clock on Monday 
evening, would be at Mrs. Reid's house, which is near the house where the 
prisoners are kept, under the pretext of getting his supper, the soldier, of 
course, to be ignorant of what was going on. The time rolled round prompt 
to the moment. Hinton, under the guard, Sergeant Kinkead, walked down 
to Mrs. Reid's, where everything was arranged as had been preconcerted, and 
as their supposed accomplice had stated it would be. 

"The signal to commence and plan to carry out the conspiracy was as 
follows : At precisely seven o'clock, Mrs. Reid was to step into another room, 
when Hinton was to gather up his ball and chain and propose to his guard to 
return to the guard house, and at the same time to advance to the door, open 
it, and step leisurely out and to one side, and as the guard came out he was to 
be met and killed by Blount, the guerrilla, and John Burns, a member of 
Company I, Fifth Provisional Regiment of the Enrolled Missouri Militia. 
They were to cut the guard's throat if possible, otherwise to shoot him, then 
remove Hinton's shackles and take him away. Mrs. Reid, at the appointed 
time, stepped into the adjoining room. Hinton gathered his ball and chain, 
and proposed to return and advanced to the door, but no sooner had he placed 
his hand on the latch than Sergeant Kinkead fired and killed him. 

"The soldier who disclosed the whole plan to Lieutenant Kessinger, the 
commander of the post, was the lieutenant and Captain Johnson, who with a 
dozen men were laying in ambush one hundred yards from Mrs. Reid's house, 
waiting for the approach of the guerrillas. In a few minutes after Hinton 
was killed, Burns and Blount came walking up, instead of being on horse- 
back, as was expected they would, and the officers, supposing them to be 


soldiers and ignorant of what was going on, halted them. Burns answered, 
'I am a friend.' Lieutenant Kessinger replied, 'Advance, friend, and give 
the countersign.' Burns advanced boldly; Blount kept his position 
while Burns approached. Billie Savins, the noble boy, whom they 
had attempted with women and money to bribe, recognized Burns (he 
had served in the same company with him) and at the top of his voice cried 
out : 'Blount and Burns ; shoot !' Burns was instantly killed, but Blount 
turned and ran. Volley after volley was fired after him, but without effect. 
He ran through gardens, over ravines, and was pursued by cavalry. He 
jumped Judge Tutt's high paling fence, and young Asher, of Company H, 
rode to him, but before he could fire, Blount turned and shot him dead. Then 
he ran through Judge Tutt's garden into the woods, and made good his 
escape. Mrs. Reid is seventy-eight years old and Miss Fickel is not twenty. 
These women will be sent to Warrensburg, where they will be tried by mili- 
tary commission." 

The above occurred on Monday evening. The next Wednesday night 
Mrs. Reid's house was burned to the ground by Dennis Gaughan, for which 
he was promptly arrested by Lieutenant Kissenger and delivered to Jacob A. 
Price, the sheriff, for trial by the civil authorities. 

Miss Anna Fickel was sent to the penitentiary by the military court, but 
on February 4, 1865, she was pardoned by President Lincoln, and was after- 
wards sent into the Confederate lines. 


In the month of May, 1865, Maj. B. K. Davis was in command of Lex- 
ington post, and on the nth of the month he received the following san- 
guinary notice: 

"Major Davis : Sir — This is to notify you that I will give you until 
Friday morning, 10 o'clock A. M., May 12th, 1865, to surrender the town of 
Lexington. If you surrender, we will treat you and all taken as prisoners of 
war. If we have to take it by storm we will burn the town and kill the sol- 
diery. We have the force and are determined to take it. 
"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

"I have made Mr. Carter bear this Arch Clements. 

message. His failure to do so will 
be punished by death. A. Clements." 

Major Davis did not surrender, and the bushwhacking cutthroats did not 
attack the town. 


The Lafayette Advertiser of May 24, 1865, published a list of seventy- 
six ex-Confederate soldiers, or claimed to be, although most of them were 
only bushwhackers, who had come in and surrendered themselves, taken the 
oath of loyalty to the state and United States government and been dismissed. 


It was also in May, 1865, that ex-County Judge Schofield and his col- 
league, ex-County Judge Tetton, were arrested by negro militia and put in 
jail for abstracting the keys of the county clerk's vaults. This was a part of 
the contest as to the legality of the new county officers appointed by Governor 
Fletcher, under the state convention ordinance, vacating the civil offices of 
Missouri. The newly-appointed county officers were : Thomas Adamson, 
sheriff; William H. Bowen, county clerk; S. F. Curry, circuit clerk. The 
resisters were, J. A. Price, sheriff; R. C. Vaughan, circuit clerk. 
In July, 1865, an item appeared in the Advertiser, as follows: 
"A number of horses surrendered here recently by the bushwhackers 
were sold at the rate of twenty-five and thirty dollars per head. One man 
bought nine at these rates." 


The last military company organized in the days of the Civil war in 
Lafayette county was a cavalry organization, formed as a sort of police in 
1865, by Lieut. R. W. P. Mooney. They did not seem to belong to any state 
or national body of troops. On August 14, 1865, the county court ordered 
them to be paid, some sixty-five dollars and others forty-five dollars, accord- 
ing to their time of service, and county warrants were issued accordingly. 
The total amount thus paid by this county was six thousand four hundred 
and twenty-five dollars. On pages 94 and 95, of Book No. 10, County Rec- 
ords, appear the names of the members composing this company. They are 
as follows : Lieut. R. W. Mooney, William A. Kincaide, James L. Cox, Wil- 
liam J. Hutchison, Samuel E. Durgin, James E. Huchison, George W. Wag- 
oner, James M. Van Dyke, Henry Olslager, Samuel Boothman, Robert Bu- 
chanan, William Borcher, William L. Etherton, Green C. Davidson, Charles 
Duck, Peter Ferguson, Christ G. Gaston, Joseph Ganter, Absolem Harris, 
George Helm, Thomas Hutchins, B. Johnson, J. Kesterson, Patrick Keary, 
Charles Latham, Augustus H. Lynch, Samuel P. Mansel, William Martin, 
James C. Mooney, Asa McDowell, Isaac N. Moon, James H. Devill, Oldam 


Owen, John R. Owen, Richard Owen, Leander T. Buchanan, Lemuel F. 
Ruckman, James W. Scott, Erastus Lisson, Peter M. Starr, John Thompson, 
Nathan Talbott, Henry J. Utt, William W. Ashford, William Copse, George 
Ehlers, Barney Eagen, Samuel Githons, James Gillispie, Thomas H. Hill, 
John Harthusen, John Miller, Charles Powling, Frank Remelius, Lawrence 
Riley, George W. Silver, Joseph Stevens, Henry Stimple, Lewis B. Thomas, 
Henry Teppencamp. 

The Lexington Union said July 8, 1865 : "For the first time since Janu- 
ary, 1862, Lexington is without the presence of soldiers." 


In this war, as in all others, Lafayette county did her share in furnish- 
ing men. Through the kindness of Capt. J. J. Fulkerson, the author is en- 
abled to give the following roster and other facts concerning the men who 
served in this war from Lafayette county as seen on the muster and pay-rolls. 
The men were all members of Company K, Fifth Regiment Missouri Volun- 
teer Infantry : 


Captain, Jacob J. Fulkerson ; first lieutenant, Kenneth W. Carter ; second 
lieutenant, James S. Carter; first sergeant, Anselm J. Hargrave; quartermas- 
ter sergeant, George B. Steele; sergeants, William W. Young, Eugene P. 
Wayman, Thomas R. Corse, Thomas P. Jones; corporals, Claude T. St. 
Clair, Robert L. Harwood, George W. Parker, Samuel P. Sawyer, William 
S. McGee, James N. Warren ; musicians, John A. Mosby, James H. Guard ; 
artillery, John R. Graves ; wagoner, Charles A. Mills. 


William A. Adams, William H. Brewer, Thomas C. Bentley, James 
Beer, Charles H. Burt, Charles E. Butler, James H. Barnes, Russell B. 
Crouch, John E. Clarke, Henry A. Carder, DeWitt A. Clary, Levi Cubine, 
Jesse Bunkerly, William K. Davis, Warren P. Dameron, William F. Drum- 
mond, Jefferson C. Dennis, Clarence A. Eaton, Francis E. Euart, George L. 
Forbis, James Fortner, Lester F. Foulds, Hugh Graham, James Goring, Wil- 
liam N. Griffing, Homer B. Grimmett, James E. Green, William A. Gibbons, 
William M. Gray, Boney Gray, James T. Hammer, Alexander B. Hall, Mel- 
vin Hudler, Rufus A. Hornbuckle, Joseph W. Johnson, Anton F. Klein, 


James E. Lawrence, Frank S. Lawrence, Olaf J. Lindstrom, Edwin C. Lee, 
John G. Leary, Ernest W. McBride, William T. S. Mills, Michael J. Morris, 
Frank H. Pool, Adam Page, Louis Peachee, Sterling P. Peacock, William 
A. Robertson, Elihue R. Rutherford, William H. Rollins, Steve Snyder, 
Charles P. Salyer, John H. Stuedle, Herbert H. Shull, Charles M. Shuck, 
William Thein, Edward A. Thomas, Chris Weber, Charles J. Wegner, Sam- 
uel H. Winn, Michael S. Waskoski, John C. Yates. 

These men all reported for duty April 27, 1898; were enrolled May 4, 
1898, and mustered in May 18, 1898. The company was mustered out of 
service in November, 1898. But few of these volunteers were sent out of 
the United States, though they held themselves in readiness at their camp in 
the South. 


This institution, which is located at Higginsville, this county, originated 
in the earnest efforts of a number of charitable men and women of Missouri 
who began the commendable work of providing a home for old, infirm and 
dependent Confederate soldiers, their wives, widows and orphans. A large 
and excellent tract of land was purchased near Higginsville, and a number of 
frame cottages, a church building and a large, commodious two-story brick 
structure erected thereon. This land and the original buildings cost about 
sixty-eight thousand dollars. 

By act of the General Assembly of 1897, the home was declared to be 
one of the charitable institutions of Missouri, and the commonwealth assumed 
the support of the institution for twenty years. The then executive com- 
mittee of the home conveyed the property to the state. The main building 
accommodates eighty men, besides which there are fourteen cottages, sol- 
diers' quarters, hospitals No. 1 and No. 2, a power house and electric plant, 
machine shop, laundry, barns, cribs, etc. 

The cost of support and maintenance for the last biennial period per 
capita per diem was thirty-nine cents. The number of inmates cared for in 
the years 1907-08 was three hundred and eighty-seven; number died, forty- 
nine; number discharged, nineteen; number inmates at close of 1909, three 
hundred and eleven. 

Men of proper qualifications as to citizenship and service, no matter from 
what state enlisted nor what state the command served in, may be admitted 
upon proper proof as to eligibility. 

Wives (first wives) over fifty years of age, with children under four- 
teen years, are admitted, the latter to remain only until fourteen years of 


By Prof. Andrew Baepler. 

[That the religious element has always obtained in the various townships 
within Lafayette county is emphasized in the fact of the many church organ- 
izations supported here. The Lutheran denomination, while not the strong- 
est or earliest, will here be spoken of, at some length, the story coming from 
the pen of Prof. Andrew Baepler, of Concordia, whose able article will be 
read with much interest, as well as one from him on the college connected 
with this denomination — St. Paul's, at Concordia — which appears under the 
heading of Schools and Colleges in this volume. — Editor.] 

st. Paul's congregation, concordia. 

The vicinity of Concordia is the cradle of the Lutheran church of La- 
fayette county, Missouri. A number of Lutheran families from northern 
Germany settled in the eastern part of Lafayette county before 1840. Luther- 
an clergyman were rare in Missouri at that time, and the settlers knew of 
none. One of the settlers, however, Henry Chr. Liever, had been a Lutheran 
schoolmaster in Germany. As the settlers did not wish to pass their lives 
altogether without having the Word preached to them, they requested Mr. 
Liever to conduct what were called divine "reading services." In these serv- 
ices hymns were sung, prayers were said, and a sermon was read from a 
postil. In the absence of a regular ordained minister of the gospel, Mr. 
Liever, at the settlers' request, also baptized their infants. The first child was 
baptized in 1840. It was a girl, who is still living in Concordia as a respected 

In order +o have a permanent meeting place, the settlers, in 1844, resolved 
to build a church. John Henry Bruns donated an acre of ground for the 
purpose, and in the same year the settlers built a log church on it. The 



church stood where the Lutheran cemetery is now, north of Concordia. It 
was dedicated to the service of God on the second Sunday after Easter, 1844, 
by Mr. Liever, and was recorded as "St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran 

In this church Mr. Liever contracted to conduct "reading services'' and 
to baptize children until 1847. 1° January of that year the congregation se- 
cured the services of its first ordained minister, in the person of A. G. G. 
Franke, a graduate of a northern Germany university. He had come to the 
United States for the purpose of preaching the Word of God to German 
Lutherans. Before taking up his work in Lafayette county, he had, on De- 
cember 26, 1846, been ordained to the ministry in the Lutheran church of 
St. Louis, by the first president of the Lutheran synod of Missouri, Ohio and 
Other States, the Rev. C. F. W. Walther. 

Pastor Franke did not deem it beneath his dignity to open a day school 
for the children of his church members. Besides preaching and teaching, he 
also organized a class of catechumens, whom he confirmed at Easter, 1847. 
There were nine members of this class, some of them quite young men, one 
of whom, F. A. Brackmann, is still a resident of Concordia. Pastor Franke 
had a hard time of it, for books were scarce, and he was obliged to write out 
for the children what he wished them to study at home. Nevertheless, he 
instructed them thoroughly. , 

Mr. Franke remained in charge of St. Paul's congregation until April 
27, 1 85 1, on which day he installed his successor, Martin Quast, and then 
left for his new field of labor, Buffalo, New York. The climate of Buffalo 
did not agree with him, and he became so sick that he found himself obliged 
to give up all work. He came back to Lafayette county to live with his rela- 
tives until his health was restored. Pastor Quast became dissatisfied with 
his work, and resigned as pastor of St. Paul's. When Mr. Franke had again 
become strong enough to go to work, the congregation again called him as 
its pastor. He accepted the call July 24, 1853, and was installed by Messrs. 
Wege and Johannes, two Lutheran clergymen of Benton county, Missouri. 
They, like Franke and Quast, were members of the Lutheran Missouri synod, 
already mentioned. 

Pastor Franke remained in charge till the summer of 1857, when he ac- 
cepted a call to the Lutheran congregation of Addison, DuPage county, Illi- 
nois, where he remained to the day of his death, in 1879. 

During Mr. Franke's second pastorate a number of members of the con- 
gregation adopted religious views that antagonized those of the Lutheran 
church. The result was that they left St. Paul's congregation and organized 
the St. John's Evangelical congregation, east of Concordia. 


It was not before June 20, 1858, that Pastor Franke's successor was in- 
stalled. This was the Rev. N. Volkert. who was also a member of the Mis- 
souri synod. He came to Concordia from Cook county, Illinois, and was 
inducted into his office as pastor of St. Paul's by the Rev. J. M. Hahn, of 
Benton county. 

It has always been a principle of the Lutheran church that the children 
of a congregation must be instructed as thoroughly in Bible doctrine as in 
the ordinary branches of a common school. To attain this end, the congrega- 
tion organizes a parochial school, in which the Bible is a regular subject of 
daily instruction. Having attended the parochial school till they are thirteen 
or fourteen years old, the children are supposed to take a special half year's 
course in the pastor's catechumen class, preparatory for confirmation. The 
success of the Lutheran church in the United States, and especially the nota- 
ble fact that it retains an unusually large percentage of boys and young men, 
is largely due to this provision for the religious instruction of its children. 

Should a congregation be financially unable to engage a regular teacher 
for its school, the pastor performs the duties of a school teacher as well as 
those of a pastor. 

This was also done in St. Paul's congregation. Its pastors taught its 
day school as long as there was no school teacher at hand to do this work for 
them. During the early years of St. Paul's history there were but few men 
in the United States competent to take charge of a German church school. 
But while Rev. Volkert preached at St. Paul's, the congregation succeeded 
in finding a man who was able and willing to do so. This was M. Broening. 
He was a graduate of the normal school founded by the Missouri synod at 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, for the education of teachers of Lutheran schools. 
This normal school was afterwards located at Addison, Illinois, where Pas- 
tor Franke's congregation had donated sufficient ground for the purpose. 

The old log church had in the course of time become too small for the con- 
gregation, and during Rev. Volkert's term of service a movement was started 
to build a new church. It was to be a brick church. A Mr. Johannes, of 
Benton county, was engaged to come to Concordia and make the necessary 
bricks, as Concordia was, at that time, much too far away from any ship- 
ping point to buy bricks made anywhere else. The timber required for the 
building that could not be sawed in the neighborhood was hauled from Syra- 
cuse. The hauling and much of the work about the church was done by the 
members of the congregation. 

While the building of the "brick church" was in fair progress, Pastor 
Volkert resigned, September 25, 1859. This, of course, caused an interrup- 


tion of the congregation's undertaking. The first thing needed now was a 
minister. It took some time before a competent man was found. Finally, 
however, on. April 29, i860, the new pastor, the Rev. F. Julius Biltz, of Cum- 
berland, Maryland, was installed as pastor of St. Paul's by Pastor Hahn of 
Benton county. 

The Rev. Francis Julius Biltz was born in Frohna, Saxony, July 24, 
1825. His parents were taken from him while he was yet a boy, and he lived 
with an uncle until he was thirteen years old. At that time a company of 
laymen, schoolmasters, theological candidates, and pastors organized a com- 
pany to emigrate to Missouri, because they felt themselves hampered in their 
religious life by the disadvantages arising from the close connection of the 
church and the state in their native country. Young Biltz joined this com- 
pany, and arrived in St. Louis in January, 1839. The greater part of the emi- 
grants soon left St. Louis and settled in Perry county, Missouri. Among 
them was Biltz. As soon as the settlers had built rude homes for them- 
selves they not only erected a church and a parochial school, but also founded 
a college which they hoped finally to develop into a fully appointed German 
university. Biltz entered this college, and after finishing its curriculum 
became a student in the theological seminary which the settlers founded as 
soon as they had young men prepared to enter it. March 12, 1848, he was 
ordained as pastor of a Lutheran congregation in Cape Girardeau county, 
Missouri. Five years after, in 1853, he became minister of a congregation 
in Cumberland, Missouri, from which place he came to Concordia in i860. 
Pastor Biltz served St. Paul's congregation till 1901, when he gave up the 
active ministry. He continued to live in the parsonage as pastor emeritus 
until his death, November 19, 1908. 

The new church was finished soon after the beginning of Pastor Biltz's 
ministry in Concordia and was dedicated to the service of the Lord in August, 
i860. In this year the congregation was reported to synod as consisting of 
three hundred twenty-five souls, among whom there were sixty-one male 
adults who had signed the constitution. Only male adults who have signed 
the constitution of the congregation are allowed to vote at the business 
meetings. The congregation reported a school of seventy-six pupils and one 
regular teacher, Mr. Browning. 

The war of 1861-1865 did not pass over the congregation unnoticed. 
Quite a number of graves in St. Paul's cemetery contain the dust of mem- 
bers of the church who lost their lives in that dreadful struggle. 

In April, 1862, one of the teachers resigned his position and went to 
New York. His place was filled in September of the same year by Joseph 


Gruber, a graduate of the Ft. Wayne Normal School, who served until 1865. 
He was succeeded in the fall of 1866 by H. Hamm, who had received his edu- 
cation at a German normal school. 

In 1866 the congregation added twenty acres to its property for the use 
of the pastor and teacher. This land cost thirty dollars per acre. The same 
time the congregation resolved to build a new school opposite the church. 
The members of the church did the hauling and whatever other work they 
could. This was also the case when, in the following year, 1867, a new 
dwelling was built for the teacher. 

In August, 1867, the congregation celebrated its first mission festival. It 
lasted two days. The Lutheran congregations of Benton county were invited 
to take part in it, the visitors being entertained by the Concordia congrega- 
tion. The festival was held in a grove, the congregation providing dinner 
for all present. Six hundred pounds of flour for bread and cake, fifty 
pounds of coffee and eighty pounds of sugar w r ere given by the members 
of the church for this purpose. This annual mission festival has become a 
feature of the Lutheran congregations of the county, though it is now usually 
held only one day, and circumstances have made it necessary to drop the 
free dinner. 

In order to improve the congregational singing, a cabinet organ was 
bought in July, 1868. It was, at it seems, in this year that the congregation 
began to hold its Christmas services for children, providing a Christmas tree 
and gifts for the children, who sing Christmas hymns and are catechized on 
the history of the birth of our Savior. These services have been continued 
to the present time in all Lutheran churches of the county. 

As the congregation had grown and spread, it was found necessary, in 
1869, to make provision for the instruction of the children of such members 
as lived too far from the church to send their children to the school at Con- 
cordia. Accordingly, a school was established near Blackwater creek in 
1869. In 1871 the two-story parsonage in which the Rev. F. J. Biltz lived 
and died, was built. 

While thus providing for itself, the congregation did not neglect its 
brethren at a distance. A collection was taken up every Sunday ; but, ex- 
cept in special cases, these collections were not applied to the wants of the 
congregation, but to those of the church at large. Needy churches as far off 
as New York and Philadelphia were assisted ; students preparing for the uni- 
versity, but without means of their own to pay their way through college 
and seminary, were supported ; orphans' asylums were given help. Above 




all, the congregation devoted some of its pecuniary means to defraying the 
expenses of the synod to which it belonged and of the synod's various insti- 
tutions of learning. All Lutheran churches of this county now take part 
in these branches of church work. 

All the pastors and teachers of the congregation were members of the 
German Evangelical synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States since 1848, 
and the congregation itself became a member in 1854. The first lay dele- 
gate to represent the congregation on the floor of the synod was Charles 
Bergmann, in 1854. In 1875 the congregation for the first time had the 
privilege of entertaining the Western District synod, and since that time 
the Western District has met in Concordia every sixth year. The congre- 
gation had the distinguished honor of seeing its pastor, the Rev. J. F. 
Biltz, serve the synod as its president for seventeen years. 

As early as 1875 the brick church at times hardly afforded enough 
room for all that came to attend divine service, and the question of enlarg- 
ing it began to be agitated. In September, 1880, the enlarged church was 
rededicated. A fine bell had been presented to the congregation in 1879, 
and it now found a place in the tower of the church. A fine pipe organ, 
probably the largest in Lafayette county at the time, was also placed in the 
church. It is still in use. Messrs. Boecher, Paar, Marr and Kramer had 
served the congregation as teachers in the outlying districts for some time. 
In 1887 these teachers had accepted calls to other congregations, and as 
some of the members that lived at a distance had joined sister congrega- 
tions that had been organized, and others had moved away, the congrega- 
tion resolved to build a second school in Concordia, have two teachers here, 
and provide the outlying districts with schools to be taught for a limited 
number of months by students from one of the synodical seminaries, accord- 
ingly W. Wilk, of Wisconsin, arrived in June, 1887, and took charge of the 
town school, opposite the present church, while Mr. Hamm kept the school 
opposite the cemetery. 

Mr. Wilk organized the first brass band in Concordia, and by his in- 
defatigable labor succeeded in making it one of the best amateur bands in 
the state. 

Rudolph Peters, who had temporarily taught the congregational school 
north of Davis Creek, was definitely called as regular teacher for that school 
in January, 1888. Two years later a new school and a dwelling for the 
teacher was built northwest of Concordia and north of Davis. As the mem- 
bers south of the creek could not send their children to the North Davis 
school, as Mrs. Peters' school was called, the congregation provided them 


with six months' school each year by a temporary teacher. " This school 
was called the South Davis school. It is now known as the Jacksonville 

In 1890. fifty years after the first child of the congregation had been 
baptized by Mr. Liever. the congregation had one church and parsonage, a 
school opposite the church with a dwelling for the teacher, a school and 
teacher's residence in town, a school and house for the teacher northwest of 
town and north of Davis creek, a school west of town and south of Davis 
creek, the creek at that time making it impossible to supply the school needs 
of that part of the congregation by one school. There were in the employ 
of the church one pastor, assisted by one of the professors of St. Paul's 
college, three permanent teachers and one temporary teacher. 

The school at the church and that in town were really parts of one 
school, the higher, classes of which attended the town school, while the 
lower classes remained at the church. Beginning with 1892 Miss Meta 
Hamm was from time to time engaged to assist her father in teaching his 
youngest pupils. In 1897 tne number of younger pupils had become so 
large that it was necessary to teach them in a separate room. This was 
furnished by St. Paul's College for a while, but in 1898 the congregation 
built an addition to Mr. Wilk's school in town. It accommodated Miss Meta 
Hamm's infant class and the pastor's class of catechumens. 

In 1898 fifty years had elapsed since the congregation's venerable 
pastor, the Rev. J. F. Biltz, had been ordained in Cape Girardeau county, 
Missouri. The event was celebrated by St. Paul's church and the neighbor- 
ing Lutheran churches, all of which were children of the Concordia church. 

Having faithfully served the congregation thirty-three years as one of 
its school teachers, H. Hamm, in 1900, resigned his office and took up his 
residence in Sweet Springs, Missouri, where he died. His body was brought 
to Concordia and buried in St. Paul's churchyard. 

R. Peters, of the Davis school, took Mr. Hamm's place, and Joseph 
Wukash, a great-grandson of one of those early settlers of Perry county, 
Missouri, with whom Pastor Biltz had emigrated from Germany, was put in 
charge of the Davis school. As Miss Meta Hamm had accompanied her 
father to Sweet Springs, her class was taught by Miss Mary Wilk. 

On September 1, 1901, the venerable pastor of St. Paul's, the Rev. J. 
F. Biltz, resigned his office. He had served the congregation for more than 
forty-one years, was now more than seventy-six years old, and felt that the 
infirmities of old age would no longer permit him to do the work of a pastor 


as he thought it ought to be done. The congregation accepted his resigna- 
tion and passed the following resolutions : That the congregation would 
provide for its old pastor's needs as long as he lived ; that he was to occupy 
the parsonage until death called him away. 

On the third Sunday in Advent, 1901, Pastor Biltz's successor, the Rev. 
F. Brust, of Illinois, was installed as pastor of St. Paul's congregation. 
Pastor Brust, a graduate of Concordia College, Fort Wayne, Indiana, and 
of Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri, was ordained to the ministry 
in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1881. He was then pastor of a Lutheran congrega- 
tion near Red Bud, Randolph county, Illinois, from which place he came 
to Concordia, where he is still in charge of St. Paul's church. 

R. Peters, in charge of the school near the church, resigned February 
9, 1902, and he left Concordia to take charge of a Lutheran parochial 
school in West Point, Nebraska, and later held a similar place in Cleveland, 
Ohio, where he is still serving the church. His school was given to J. 
Wukash, of the Davis school, and J. F. Lindoefer was called to succeed him. 

For a number of years a pressing want of more room in the church 
had been felt, and everybody admitted that a new church must be built. 
But it was hard to decide where to build. A number of the members were 
of the opinion that the church should be in town instead of in the country. 
After many meetings and much debating the resolution was finally passed, 
on the 20th of December, 1903, to build a new church in town, opposite the 
congregation's school, on a piece of ground presented to the congregation 
by the members living in town. A building committee was appointed, which 
engaged J. Riedel, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, as architect. Mr. Riedel pre- 
pared a plan for the church, which was accepted. H. Bererfoerden, a con- 
tractor of Kansas City, Missouri, was chosen to build the church. The sum- 
mer of 1904 had come before work on the new building could begin. Ground 
was broken on the 20th of June, 1904, but delays in getting the building 
material, attributable to poor railroad service, made it impossible to finish 
the church before May, 1905. On the 14th of that month it was dedicated 
to the service of God. The outside measurement of the church is : Length, 
one hundred and three feet seven inches ; breadth, eighty-eight feet ; height 
of side walls, twenty-eight feet ; height of steeple, one hundred and fifty-five 
feet. The church, when finished, cost thirty-six thousand, four hundred and 
nine dollars and eighty-seven cents, and it is paid for. What a contrast be- 
tween the log church and this church. At the time of the dedication the 
congregation numbered one thousand, four hundred and fifty souls, of whom 
nine hundred and fifty were communicant members, while two hundred and 


twenty-four were male members over twenty-one years of age, who had 
signed the constitution, and were therefore privileged to vote at the busi- 
ness meetings of the congregation. The four schools contained two hundred 
and forty-five pupils, who received daily instruction not only in the ordinary 
branches of a common school, but also in religion and in the German lan- 
guage. The latter gives the children access to one of the greatest literatures 
of the world. 

Mr. Wilk's health had been failing for some time and he finally found 
himself incapacitated for school work. He therefore resigned, August 28, 
1904, and was succeeded by J. Wukash, who was followed by J. Sagehorn, 
of Hampton, Nebraska, in March, 1905. Mr. Wilk died in March, 1906, 
and was buried in St. Paul's cemetery. 

Mr. Linderfer, of the Davis school, resigned in October, 1906, having 
accepted a call to the Lutheran school at Forest Green, Missouri. He was 
succeeded in September, 1907, by E. Hedemann, who was a graduate of Addi- 
son, Illinois. He served till March, 1910, resigning to go to Illinois. P. 
Meyer, of Seward, Nebraska, followed him here, beginning his work in 
September, 19 10. 

Miss Mary Wilk having left Concordia after the death of her father, 
Miss Louise Baepler was appointed as teacher of the lowest class of the 
town school. 

On the 19th of November, 1908, the Rev. J. F. Biltz breathed his last. 
His body found a resting place in St. Paul's cemetery. The obsequies were 
attended by a great concourse of people, most of whom had at one time sat 
under his pulpit. 

The old parsonage having now lost its occupant, it was sold for three 
thousand, eight hundred dollars, and a house next to the church, which had 
been rented for the Rev. F. Brust, was bought for five thousand dollars, 
to serve as a parsonage. 

This brings the history of the congregation down to date. The last 
report of the pastor contained the following statistics : Baptized members, 
including infants, one thousand four hundred and eighty-six; members con- 
firmed and privileged to take part in the Lord's Supper, ten hundred and 
twenty-four; male members over twenty-one years of age who have signed 
the constitution and may vote at the business meetings, two hundred and 
fourteen ; four schools with five teachers ; children at school, two hundred 
and sixty ; Sunday collections for charitable purposes, besides special col- 


lections, for the year 1909, nine hundred and eighty-five dollars and fifty- 
three cents. 

A number of congregations have, in the course of time, grown out of 
St. Paul's congregation. A sketch of their history will now be given. 


The church of the congregation of Holy Cross lies four miles directly 
east of Concordia. It was organized December 26, 1864, with seven families, 
by Rev. J. F. Biltz. Its membership increased so rapidly that a log building for 
school and church purposes was built in the spring of 1865. Pastor Biltz 
was its pastor, the Concordia church having consented for him to act as 
such. As he could not teach the school, the congregation called Charles H. 
Brase as its teacher. The log building soon became too small for the con- 
gregation, so a frame structure was erected in the fall of 1867. By 1871 
the congregation felt strong enough to support a resident pastor besides its 
teacher, and Henry Bartens, of the Lutheran Seminary of St. Louis, was 
called. He was ordained and installed by Pastor Biltz in August, 1871. 

In this year, 1871, it became necessary to increase the capacity of the 
schoolhouse. So the log building was taken down and a larger frame school 
took its place. 

As Mr. Brase accepted a call to Crete, Illinois, in 1873, Mr. Lohmeyer 
became the teacher of the school, in which position he served till 1875, when 
he was succeeded by A. H. C. Hafemeister. Mr. Hafemeister died March 
25, 1909, having had charge of the Holy Cross school nearly thirty-four 
years. His work was continued by M. C. Merz, who began his labors in the 
school in August, 1909. Mr. Hafemeister had the pleasure of seeing the 
school in which he had begun to teach replaced by a fine new school build- 
ing in 1905. The house contains a special room for the pastor's catechu- 
men class. 

In 1874 Pastor Bartens resigned as minister and entered the medical 
profession. He was succeeded in September of the same year by the Rev. 
H. Ph. Wille, of California, Missouri. In August, 1886, Pastor Wille ac- 
cepted a call to Geneseo, Illinois, and was succeeded on the 12th of Decem- 
ber of the same year by the Rev. C. H. Demetrio, of Perryville, Missouri, 
the present incumbent. 

The congregation's second church became too small for the number of 
worshipers that gathered in it every Sunday, and so a new one had to be 
built. It was dedicated to the service of God September 14, 1890. 


On the 1st of January, 1910, the pastor reported that the congregation 
consisted of four hundred and thirty-four members, all told, two hundred 
and eighty communicant members and sixty-nine voting members, with sev- 
enty-three children at school. 

In the course of its history the congregation dismissed a number of its 
members to help found the Lutheran congregations at Sweet Springs, Black- 
burn, Flora and Dunksburg. 

Soon after its organization the congregation became a member of the 
Lutheran synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States, and has always been 
zealous in supporting the synod's educational, missionary and charitable 
work. This may be said of all the Lutheran congregations of the county. 


A number of the members of St. Paul's church had settled in the 
Waverly prairie, north of Concordia. Other Lutherans from Illinois and 
Indiana also made that part of Lafayette county their home. On January 
2, 1875, they organized the Evangelical Lutheran Trinity congregation. 
They elected the Rev. J. F. Biltz, of Concordia, their pastor, and he gave 
"them the use of the time he could spare from his work in Concordia. Their 
services were at first held in the Hazel Knob district school house, then 
situated on the Salt Fork creek, one and one-half miles northwest of Alma. 
In 1877 a piece of ground, comprising four acres, northwest of Alma, was 
bought, and a house built which, for a time, served as school and as church. 

In 1879 ^e membership of the congregation had so increased that it 
resolved to call a resident pastor. They chose the Rev. Frederick Rohlfing, 
who had just graduated at the Lutheran seminary in St. Louis. He was 
ordained and installed as pastor August 22, 1879, and is still serving the 
congregation. Besides his duties as pastor, Mr. Rohlfing assumed those of 
a teacher of the congregation's children, serving in that capacity for five 
years. He was relieved of school work August 19, 1884, when Q. Eich- 
mann, who had been educated at the Lutheran Normal School of Addison, 
Illinois, took charge of the school. Mr. Eichmann still holds his position 

The church having grown too small for the number of people who at- 
tended the services, an addition was built to it, which doubled its seating 
capacity. This was in 1887. 

As the number of school children in the course of time made it impos- 
sible for them to be successfully taught in one school, a second school was 
built three miles south of Alma, and, in 1892, C. Topel began to teach there. 


In 1895 the church northwest of Alma no longer gave satisfaction. A 
new house of worship was therefore built in the town of Alma at a cost of 
fifteen thousand dollars. Friends of the movement presented two blocks of 
town lots for the purpose. When Mr. Topel resigned as teacher of the 
south school, in 1900, the school was moved to one of the congregation's 
lots in town. E. Wendt, the present teacher of this school, took charge in 
September. 1907. 

The Lutheran Trinity congregation of Alma has, at the present time, 
one church, two school houses, one parsonage, one teacher's dwelling. 
January 1, 19 10, the pastor reported five hundred and forty-eight members, 
old and young, three hundred and thirty communicants, one hundred and 
three voting members, two schools, with ninety-two pupils. 

Trinity church is the mother of a number of Lutheran congregations. 
With former members of the Alma congregation, the pastor founded the 
Lutheran congregation at Little Rock, Missouri, in 1885, that of Corder 
in 1887, that of Hazel Hill, near Waverly, and that of Blackburn, in 1896, 
and, finally, together with the churches of Concordia and Emma, that of 
Flora, in 1899. 

Pastor Rohlfing conducts divine services in the English as well as in 
the German language. German and English are taught in both schools. 


This congregation was organized by the Rev. F. Rohlfing, March 24, 
1889. There were nine families, members of Trinity, at Alma, to begin 
with. Pastor Rohlfing served the congregation for several months, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. William Tuegel, who was ordained and installed 
in the. fall of 1889. Owing to the precarious state of his health Pastor 
Tuegel was obliged to relinquish his labors at Corder before he had been 
there a year. He was succeeded, in 1890, by the Rev. Fr. Markworth. 
After serving the congregation for three years Pastor Markworth was in- 
capacitated for further work in Corder by throat disease, and was compelled 
to seek a more congenial climate. He was succeeded by the Rev. F. Jesse, 
of Texas, who was installed as pastor of Zion church of Corder in the fore- 
noon of the twenty-third Sunday after Trinity, 1893, and as pastor of the 
Lutheran congregation in Higginsville in the afternoon of the same day. 
In 1898 Pastor Jesse fell sick and died. His son, the Rev. F. W. C. Jesse, 
-accepted the congregation's call to take his father's place. He was ordained 


to the ministry on the thirteenth Sunday after Trinity, 1898, and 
installed as pastor of Zion congregation. In the spring of 1903 Pastor F. 
W. C. Jesse accepted a call to an English Lutheran mission church in De- 
troit, Michigan, thus again creating a vacancy in the Corder church. This 
vacancy was filled in December, 1903, by the Rev. George Moeller, of Benton 
county, Missouri, the present pastor of the church. 

Being an offshoot of the Alma congregation, and, more remotely, of 
St. Paul's, it goes without saying that the pastors of Zion considered it their 
duty to organize a parochial school. This they conducted themselves, be- 
sides doing pastoral work. But in 1904 the congregation resolved to relieve 
the pastor of his school duties, and called E. G. Warmann to take charge of 
the instruction of the children. In January, 1907, Mr. Warmann accepted 
a call to a school in Illinois, and in September of the same year R. L. George 
became the teacher of Zion school. He still holds that office. 

The congregation at Corder dedicated its first church to the Lord's 
service in March, 1889. When this became too small a new church, with a 
seating capacity of five hundred, was built, and dedicated on the 9th of 
September, 1900. Besides its church, the congregation owns a school house, 
a parsonage and a dwelling for its parochial teacher. 

On January 1, 19 10, the congregation numbered three hundred and 
twenty-four members, old and young, two hundred and nine communicant 
members, fifty-four voting members, and forty-four school children. 

Pastor F. W. C. Jesse began to preach in the English language besides 
the German. The present pastor has continued the practice. Instruction 
is also given in both languages in the school. 


The Rev. F. Markworth, of Corder, Missouri, was the first Lutheran 
minister to preach to the Lutherans of Higginsville, Missouri. This was in 
1891. On the nth of October of the same year seven Lutheran men signed 
the constitution, thus organizing a congregation. Three ladies also joined 
the church at the same time. On the 18th of October of the same year the 
congregation resolved to buy two lots at the corner of Green street and 
Lipper avenue, and to build a church on them. The resolution was imme- 
diately carried out, at a cost of one thousand, four hundred and sixteen dol- 
lars. The following year a cabinet organ, costing one hundred and fifteen 
dollars, and a bell were placed in the church. In 1901 a house was bought 
opposite the church, to serve as a parsonage. It cost seven hundred dollars. 




As Pastor Markworth could not serve the congregation regularly, Prof. 
J. H. C. Kaeppel, of St. Paul's College, Concordia, served as a supply until 
the Rev. F. Jesse took charge of it in the fall of 1893. In 1895 the Rev. 
G. F. Waugerin became resident pastor of Immanuel church, in which office 
he remained till he accepted a call to St. Clair, Michigan, in 1898. Prof. 
E. A. Pankow, also of St. Paul's College, supplied the pulpit of the congre- 
gation till the Rev. A. Wihlborg was installed, in July, 1899. Pastor Wihl- 
borg still holds his position. 

Two of the members who first signed the constitution are still with the 
church, as are also the three ladies. On January 1, 19 10, the pastor reported 
one hundred and twenty-seven members, old and young, seventy-one com- 
municants and sixteen voting members. 

In the course of its life the congregation has had many members, but 
most of them left Higginsville and took up their residence at other places, 
where they were better able to make a living. But they remained members 
of the Lutheran church. 

Pastor Wihlborg regularly preaches to a small number of Lutherans at 
Lexington, and gives their children religious instruction. At Higginsville 
he conducts the congregation's parochial school. 


Although the church and parsonage of this congregation are in Saline 
county, several hundred yards from the Lafayette county line, a part of its 
membership lives in Lafayette county, and it is, therefore, properly men- 
tioned in this place. 

Rev. Rahlfing, of Alma, began to preach to the Lutherans of Black- 
burn in the Advent season of 1895. They had been members of his church 
at Alma. On June 13, 1897, they organized with eight voting members and 
their families. Their first pastor was the Rev. F. A. Mehl, now of St. Joseph, 
Missouri, who was ordained and installed in August, 1897. October 23, 
1898, the congregation had the pleasure of dedicating its first church to the 
service of God. As the pastor had also organized a parochial school, the 
church was used as a school room during the week. In the summer of 1899 
a parsonage was bought for the use of the pastor. Pastor Mehl resigned 
in 1907, and in March of the same year the Rev. E. Runge, of St. Mat- 
thew's church, Lafayette county, became his successor. He is still pastor of 
the Blackburn Lutheran church. 


On January I, 19 10, Pastor Runge reported two hundred and forty- 
six members, old and young, one hundred and thirty-two communicants, 
forty-two voting members and forty-six school children. The congregation 
has not yet been able to call a special teacher for its school, and the pastor 
continues to instruct the children. The pastor of Blackburn also preaches 
to a small number of Lutherans at Marshall. 


In the Advent season of 1895 Pastor F. Rohlfing, of Alma, began to 
preach to members of his congregation who lived near Waverly. These 
people, in 1897, bought a church of a Methodist congregation, and on the 
3d of October organized a congregation with thirteen voting members and 
one lady, and their families. 

On August 20, 1899, Otto Luessenhop was ordained and installed as 
pastor of Immanuel church. He resigned February 17, 1901, to take charge 
of the mission field of Colorado Springs. It was not before September, 
1902, that another pastor was secured. At this time William Schierbaum 
was ordained and installed. In the spring of 1907 he accepted a call to 
Michigan, and was succeeded, October 27, 1907, by the Rev. J. T. Roschke, 
of Billings, Missouri, who is still Immanuel's pastor. 

In 1903 a parsonage was built. The congregation has a parochial 
school, which is conducted by the pastor, the church not yet being strong 
enough to support a teacher besides its pastor. Services are conducted in 
the English language as well as in the German. 

The congregation, on January 1, 1910, numbered one hundred and five 
members, old and young, sixty-seven communicant members and twenty- 
seven voting members. 

st. Matthew's congregation, near concordia. 

St. Matthew's was organized by eighteen voting members and their 
families, January 6, 1899. All of these were members of St. Paul's at Con- 
cordia, but lived too far from the church to attend regularly. The congre- 
gation bought forty acres of land that joined the Johnson county line, but 
afterward sold twenty-two acres to Ernest Worm. Mr. Worm opened a 
general merchandise store near the church and the place was called Ernest- 
ville in his honor. 


The church built by the congregation was dedicated May 12, 1899, and 
H. W. Hoemann was engaged to open a parochial school in it. August 20, 
1899, the first pastor was ordained and installed. This was the Rev. Ernest 
Runge, now at Blackburn, Missouri. In the spring of 190 1 a parsonage 
was built for his use. 

In February, 1907, Pastor Runge moved to Blackburn, and on the 25th 
of August of the same year August E. Brauer, of the St. Louis Seminary, 
was ordained and installed as his successor at St. Matthew's. Since May, 
1909, Pastor Brauer also serves a small congregation at Dunksburg, preach- 
ing there every second Sunday afternoon in German and English. There 
are regular English services once a month at St. Matthew's. 

The parochial school began by Mr. Hoemann was continued by Pastor 
Runge, and is now taught by Pastor Brauer. April 10, 1910, a school house 
was erected at a cost of seven hundred dollars, and the first building is used 
for church purposes only. 

St. Matthew's has two hundred and twelve members, old and young, 
one hundred and twelve communicants, thirty-seven voting members and 
forty-two school children. Many of its members live in Johnson county. 
Dunksburg church numbers forty-five souls and twenty-four communicants. 
Part of these live in Johnson county. 


St. Peter's congregation was organized May 22, 1900, by Pastor F. 
Rohlfing, of Alma, with members of the Lutheran congregations of Alma, 
Concordia and Emma. Twenty heads of families signed the constitution. 
Steps were at once taken to provide a house of worship. Aug. Schmidt, 
Sr., recently deceased, donated three acres of ground for the purpose. The 
church was built and dedicated in the summer of 1900. 

In September, 1900, Theo. von Schlichten, of the St. Louis Lutheran 
Seminary, was ordained and installed as pastor. Besides preaching and 
doing other pastoral work, he immediately organized a parochial school. 
The church was, at first, also used as a school, but on the 7th of April, 1901, 
the congregation resolved to build a school house. This resolution was car- 
ried out in the course of the summer. A cabinet organ was also purchased 
for the church. 

On September 7, 1902, it was resolved to build a parsonage for the 
pastor. The house was finished in the course of the winter. 


St. Peter's congregation had joined the Evangelical Lutheran synod 
of Missouri, Ohio and Other States, to which the congregations belonged, 
out of which its members had been drawn. On February 6, 1910, Pastor 
von Schlichten told the congregation that he no longer agreed with synod 
on all points of doctrine and would therefore resign his membership in it. 
As the congregation refused to join him in this he resigned as its pastor and 
accepted a call to a congregation in Ohio, where, he thought, his surround- 
ings would be more congenial. The congregation is now without a pastor. 

On January 1, 19 10. Pastor Schlichten reported to synod seven hun- 
dred and eighty-one members, old and young, ninety-nine communicant 
members, thirty-two voters, male members over twenty-one years of age 
who had signed the constitution, and thirty-one school children. 

As has been stated above, all the congregations here mentioned, and 
their pastors and teachers, are members of the Evangelical Lutheran synod 
of Missouri, Ohio and Other States, and actively supports its work. 


The history of the Catholic church in Lafayette county can be traced 
backward for a period of over sixty years. The Rev. Bernard Donnelly, 
the pioneer priest of northern Missouri, made occasional trips to this county 
from his home in Independence, Jackson county, to administer the sacra- 
ments to people of his faith. The church records of that time testify to his 
having baptized a considerable number of persons in Lafayette county from 
1845 on f° r a ^ ew years. He continued until about 1853, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. James Murphy as regular pastor in charge of the Catholic 
church at Lexington. The Lexington parish included all Catholics in La- 
fayette county, as well as the adjoining counties. The first year of Father 
Murphy's pastorate saw the erection of the first Catholic church in Lexing- 
ton. It was a small brick building, erected at a cost of three thousand dol- 
lars, dedicated by Archbishop Kendrick, of St. Louis. Father Murphy was 
succeeded by Rev. Eugene O'Hea in 1857, and in March, 1859, Rev. Edward 
Hamill became pastor at Lexington. Father Hamill's pastorate from 1859 
to 1868 saw the dark days of the Civil war, and as Lexington was somewhat 
of a storm center during that awful period, reminiscences of Father Hamill 
are still fresh in the memory of many of the citizens. Many are the tales 

♦The history of the Catholic church at Lexington, here given, is the work of 
Father George B. Curry, while that of the remainder of the Catholic churches in Lafay- 
ette county was written by Rev. Kilian Roth. O. F. M., of Higginsville. 


related of him as from time to time he essayed to minister to soldiers of both 
armies without show of partizanship. On one occasion the Union general, 
Mulligan, called, for the purpose of confession, at the house at which Father 
Hamill was staying, at the very moment Father Hamill was entertaining 
General Price of the Confederate army, who, it seems, he somewhat sym- 
pathized with. He realized instantly that as hostilities were in full blast, it 
might not be well to bring the contending generals together, so by a quickly 
planned strategy he managed to speed a distinguished and much-admired 
guest at one door, turning round to extend the glad hand to a no less dis- 
tinguished caller at another. An incident of the war in which Father Hamill 
was personally identified may be recalled with interest as tending to show the 
spirit of the community during these stormy days: 


Father Hamill was made notorious in more than one way during the 
never-to-be-forgotten Civil war period. He acted as priest for both Union 
and Confederate soldiers and stood for what he considered right on all 
occasions, let it cost what it might. The following, which is copied from the 
church record made by Father Hamill himself, is another instance in which 
the good father manifested his independent spirit : 

"The following correspondence took place under the following circum- 
stances : The Rev. T. W. Hopkins, chaplain of the First Missouri State 
Militia, indicated to a brother preacher his desire to preach in his church (the 
Campbellite church). Upon being informed that it would not be acceptable 
to his flock, as the greater portion of them had Southern feelings, and par- 
ticularly the females, hearing this, anger filled his breast, and he only 
sought an. opportunity for revenge. Accordingly, the following Sunday, the 
15th of February, during service, at his solicitation, some of the soldiers 
held two flags over the gateway of the church to impel the worshipers to 
walk under the stars and stripes — some unconcernedly passed on, while 
others refused and climbed over the fence. Colonel McFerran, hearing of 
the transaction, ordered the flags to be pulled down, which order being re- 
fused, he ordered a company under arms to take down the flags and arrest 
the perpetrators of so nefarious a deed. They refused, stating that they 
were sworn to maintain and protect the flag, and that they would not pull 
it down. On the following Tuesday, the Union Club League, at a meeting, 
declared Colonel McFerran to be a traitor and a rebel, and that they would 
have him dismissed from the service if he would not give public satisfaction 


by causing a flag to be raised on every church, store, school and dwelling 
on the following Sunday. 

"The Colonel hearkened to the dictates of the Union Club League and 
issued the following order, which was generally complied with, more 
through fear than respect. The undersigned resolutely resisted the order, 
even with the threats of getting ten days' notice to leave the city, and was 
finally victorious. 

"The difficulty was increased by the citizens of both parties betting on 
the outcome of the matter. The bets ranging from five hundred dollars to 
a glass of lager beer. A few days after, I was going to Marshall, and being 
asked by the guard if I was a Union man, I said 'Why not?' Then another 

said to his comrade, 'G d , you're not that old priest who refused 

to raise the flag the other day, are you?' I said 'Yes.' Being asked the 
reason why, and seeing them leeward, said I preferred trying a jug of whisky 
to a yard of calico, as I was fond of my bitters. They treated me kindly, 
gave me my bitters and promised me protection. 

"Edward Hamill." 

Because Father Hamill refused to display the stars and stripes upon his 
church in Lexington it was believed that he should be stopped from preach- 
ing and his church locked up. Then came a "special order" that read as 
follows : 

"Headquarters, First Cavalry Missouri State Militia. 

"Lexington, Mo., February 20, 1863. 
"That no doubt may exist as to the loyal character of this city, and 
the many ties that bind every loyal American to the blood-stained banner 
of his country, the memory of which will nerve to nobler and braver deeds 
in defense of peace, home and happiness ; that banner at once the ensign of 
our country's power and of liberty, regulated by law, and of republican gov- 
ernment throughout the world ; and of the patriot's hope and the patriotic 
pride, whose every star is empire, and whose every fiber is bleached with 
tears for the brave who have fallen in its defense. And in justice to the 
devotion of the loyal men, at the request of many citizens, it is ordered : 
That, over all churches, schools, and places of business now in use, the 
American flag be displayed during the day of the 22d of February, in honor 
of Washington, the father of his country, who is first in war, first in peace 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen. Also on public days thereafter. 

"By order 
(Signed) "James McFarran, 

"Colonel First Cavalry M. S. M., Comdg. Post." 


Father Hamill's reply was: 

"Lexington, Mo., February 18, 1863. 

"Sir: Believing that none of the many citizens requesting the national 
flag to be displayed on the Catholic church on the 22d were Catholics; not 
that Catholics are wanting in loyalty, or valiant deeds of arms, as the many 
battlefields of our country testify. On our church we revere the cross — the 
emblem of man's redemption, the oldest banner in the land. Elsewhere we 
honor and respect our country's flag. We do not consider the church the 
proper place for displaying the national emblems. 

"You, sir, being clothed with authority, can display the American flag 
on the Catholic church, if you deem it meet. 

"Your humble servant, 

"Edward Hamill, Catholic Priest. 

"James McFarran, Esq., 

"Colonel First Cavalry, M. S. M., Commanding Post." 

Father Hamill's successor was Rev. O. I. S. Hoog, a very energetic 
young priest. His pastorate dates from 1868. Shortly after assuming 
charge, realizing the necessity for a larger church, he directed his attention 
towards securing it. Two lots were purchased on Third street, near Broad- 
way. The corner stone of the new church was laid July 4, 1870, by Rev. 
Henry Muhlseepen, of St. Louis, and others. This church was completed 
in 1873, and on September 20, 1874, was dedicated by Bishop Ryan, now 
archbishop of Philadelphia. All went well for a time, but it was evident 
after a few years that the building was defective, and on April 16, 1880, 
the entire building collapsed, entailing a loss of twenty thousand dollars on 
the struggling congregation. In the meantime Father Hoog was transferred 
to Jefferson City and Father Thomas Cooney became pastor in 1876, remain- 
ing in charge for two years, and in the fall of 1878 Rev. John I. Lilly was 
placed in charge. After the collapse of the church Father Lilly and con- 
gregation resumed services in the old building on Third street. 

In May, 1882, a church for the German-speaking people of the church 
was established in East Lexington, but its congregation, being rather small, 
after a few years deemed it inadvisable to maintain a separate house of wor- 
ship. Father Lilly remained pastor of the Lexington church for nearly 
fifteen years, and in October, 1893, Rev. Daniel M. Castelloe was appointed 
to the parish. Shortly after assuming charge the last-named pastor com- 
menced to solicit subscriptions for the erection of a new church, and was 
meeting with good success when his health broke down and his successor was 


church some thirty thousand dollars. His heirs contested the will and a pro- 
longed litigation followed. A compromise was agreed upon in 1897, the 
appointed, Rev. M. I. Reilly. In the meantime a Mr. Tobien had willed the 
church receiving ten thousand dollars. A portion of that amount became 
immediately available and, with the subscriptions already raised, the work 
of erecting a new church commenced. Two lots were purchased on the 
corner of Eighteenth and Main streets. Rev. Father Fitzgerald, of Inde- 
pendence, drew the plans for the new church and supervised its construction, 
Father Reilly, the pastor, attending to the financiering of the project. The 
corner stone was laid in 1897 and the building was dedicated the following 
year by Bishop Glennon, now archbishop of St. Louis. Father Castelloe's 
health having been partially restored, he was returned as pastor in 1900. 
Again his health failed and he died in April, 1905, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. George B. Curry, the present pastor. 


Many years before the present church building for Catholics in and 
around Corder was erected there were many Catholic people. Among these 
were the Summers, Boyles, Sullivans, Kearney, Desmond and Schumaker 
families. Services were conducted at private houses and at the section 
house in Corder. Rev. Michael J. Ryan organized these families into a 
congregation in 1885, and a church was erected that year. Father Ryan 
soon left the congregation in charge of Father Norbert Groth, who, like 
Father Ryan, lived at Higginsville, but in 1888 moved to Corder, when the 
church at Higginsville had been burnt. The Corder congregation soon 
greatly increased by the addition of German farmers and coal miners. The 
church at Corder was dedicated to St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany. 
After about one year Father Groth resigned and the Franciscans from Kan- 
sas City took charge in 1892. Among those serving the congregation to 
this date are Reverends Niehous, Centner, Long, Wissler, de Sales Stern- 
berg. The latter remained nearly five years, up to August. 1899. The 
church is now in charge of Rev. Father Roth, of Higginsville, who is also 
of the Franciscan order. 

In the spring of 1904, after a severe hailstorm, the church was remod- 
eled, also in 1908. While many families have associated themselves with the 
churches at Concordia and Dover, still the work is in a good condition at 



Both prior to and subsequent to the Civil war period many Catholic peo- 
ple settled in and around where Higginsville now stands. Among the earliest 
were James and Patrick Lillis, Timothy Noonan, Jerry Kelley, Martin Kelley, 
Mr. Mulhearn, Peter Maher and Andrew Bonkoski. About 1875 a small 
Catholic congregation was formed, and as more Catholics settled the church 
grew stronger. During these years several priests passed through this county 
to Saline county. The first to visit here, however, was beyond doubt Rev- 
erend Hamill, of Lexington. Services were then held at private houses. 
The second pastor was Rev. Otto Hoog, now vicar-general at St. Louis. 
The congregation was served by the pastors residing at Lexington, already 
mentioned in the history of that congregation. About 1877 a small church 
was erected on Boggs and Washburn streets. Soon after this Rev. Father 
Francis Curran was appointed pastor, who was soon followed by Rev. Michael 
J. Ryan, who came from Westport, and he erected a small church in Odessa 
in 1884, the same being destroyed by a cyclone in 1885. He also built a 
small church in Corder and did excellent work in many parts of this and 
other counties. Following Father Ryan came Reverend Groth, of Sedalia. 
After about three years' pastorate work the church building at Higginsville 
was burned, which was a hard blow to the church. The school was also 
thus destroyed, too. After this for a number of years the congregation 
had no regular services or pastor, save those who came from other points. 
The Rt. Rev. J. J. Hogan. of Kansas City, was implored to help these people 
out, but, having no priests to spare, he finally induced the Franciscan Fathers 
to take charge of the congregation of Higginsville and its mission stations, 
which was brought about in August, 1892. Soon a new site for a church 
was sought and procured in the south part of town where several lots were 
bought. The foundation for the new church was begun in 1892, the super- 
structure being dedicated in November, 1893. This edifice is forty-two by 
ninety feet and has a steeple almost one hundred feet high. A large school 
is run in conjunction with the church. Father Lawrence was followed by 
Reverend Wissler. O. F. M., Francis de Sales Sternburg, and August 20, 
1899, came Rev. Kilian Roth, O. F. M. In July, 1904. the concrete founda- 
tion for a new school building was laid to the east of the church; in 1905 
a two-story building was completed and other improvements made in the 
church property. Father Roth now has an assistant. The first sent to aid 
him in his noble work was Reverend Mertens, who built the Odessa Catholic 
church and was drowned at Lake Vinton in 1908. The next assistant was 


Rev. Cyprian Sauer, O. F. M., who remained one year and was followed 
by Rev. Mercelline Schroeder, O. F. M., who came in August, 1909. 

St. Anthony's Catholic church of Odessa was really the outgrowth of 
an organization perfected in that community more than thirty years ago, but 
which society's building was burned and was never rebuilt. Services were 
held from time to time in private homes until the present church building 
was erected in the winter of 1906-07. It is a neat frame structure, twenty- 
four by fifty-four feet, costing one thousand eight hundred dollars. It was 
erected under the administration of Father Candidus Martens, O. F. M. This 
devoted pastor only lived a short time after the last date named, being acci- 
dentally drowned in Lake Vinton, July 26, 1908. His death was mourned by 
the entire community, regardless of church relations, for he was a truly 
good man. He was buried in his old home in Streeter, Illinois. 

Following him came Father Cyprian Sauer, O. F. M., who remained 
one year and was then transferred to Kansas City. He was succeeded by 
the present pastor. Rev. Father Marcelline Schroeder, O. F. M., who holds 
services here the second and fourth Sundays of each month. The congre- 
gation is composed of seventeen families and three single persons, and a 
majority of the membership are farmers. 

It may be said in passing that the first church here of this denomina- 
tion was erected of frame in 1885 and it was destroyed by the cyclone soon 
afterwards, and that part of the lumber not ruined w r as sent to be stored 
in and near the Catholic church at Higginsville, and when that church was 
burned this lumber went along with the rest. After this for a number of 
years this church was cared for by the visiting fathers of the Franciscan 
order at Higginsville, until the date of reorganization as above indicated, 


This is the youngest of all Catholic churches in Lafayette county. The 
members who formed this parish originally worshiped at Lexington, Corder 
and Higginsville. For a number of years they intended to purchase the old 
Presbyterian church at Dover, which they did in the spring of 1905. This 
church was erected in 1858, a plain, solid structure with a slender steeple, 
through which a cannon ball had been shot during the Civil war. When 
the Catholic people secured this building they were at once placed under 
charge of Rev. Candidus Martens, O. F. M. The Rt. Rev. Lillis, of Kansas 
City, dedicated anew this church, when it was given the name of St. John 


the Baptist. After the sudden death of their pastor, Reverend Mertens, 
Reverend Saner, O. F. M., became the pastor for a year, when he was 
followed by Marcelline Schroeder, O. F. M., who is still in charge of the 


Father Hoog, of Lexington, was perhaps the first to administer to 
the wants of the Catholics in the vicinity of Concordia, the number of 
whom up to the days of railroads was quite limited in this portion of the 
county. Father Ryan was the first priest to say mass there, he coming out 
from Higginsville. Following him came Reverend Groth and the various 
Franciscan Fathers since 1892. In the autumn of 1900 the town Catholics 
collected a sufficient sum to pay for a half acre of ground opposite the 
Methodist cemetery to be used as a burial ground, and in March, 1901, 
encouraged by this first step, over five hundred dollars was raised for the 
purpose of building a church. Finally they purchased the old Lutheran 
church of the Iowa synod for one thousand dollars ; the interior was re- 
modeled and in June, 1901, it was ready to be dedicated and was named 
St. Joseph's church. After the Franciscan Fathers were established at Hig- 
ginsville in 1905, Reverend Mertens, of that order, began his labors here, 
serving them twice each month. Father Candidus collected a sufficient amount 
to clear off the debt of the church and make fine improvements about the 
church and grounds. He was succeeded by Rev. Cyprian Saner, O. F. M., 
who served one year and was followed by Rev. Marcelline Schroeder, who is 
still serving as pastor. 


This church was organized May 12, 1839, by a commission from the 
Missouri presbytery, and was composed of twenty-two members. Messrs. 
James Aull, John Bray, Lewis Green and A. G. Young were elected elders, 
though Mr. Young was not installed until one year later. 

In August, 1 84 1, the Rev. J. L. Yantis became stated supply, and served 
the church as such until the summer of 1847. Under his ministry the church 
grew steadily. In 1844 the original church building was erected, the walls 
of which in part now enter into the present structure, which was completed 
in 1893. The membership increased to one hundred and seventy-five, and 
Messrs S. G. Wentworth and William Hunter were elected deacons, and 
Messrs. Jesse M. Thompson, Charles E. Mills, H. M. Garim, W. Van Doren, 


Alex. L. Slayback, W. T. Wood and Edwin Stratton were elected elders. 
In 1849 fifty-four persons were dismissed to form the Prairie Presby- 
terian church. During that year the Rev. A. V. C. Schneck, of New York, 
became stated supply. He thus served until 1850, when he became pastor. 
He remained until November, 1853. During his ministry Messrs. Alex. H. 
McFadden, William Hunter and H. S. McClure were elected elders, and 
John Williams and Isaac McGirk, deacons. 

In 1854 the Rev. B. M. Hobson became pastor. In 1857 Messrs. 
Thomas H. Allen and George Wilson were elected elders, and Augustus 
Bailey, deacon. About this time the Dover Presbyterian church was organ- 
ized and seven members from the Lexington church were dismissed to 
join it. 

During Mr. Hobson's pastorate the Elizabeth Aull Seminary was founded 
on the liberality of Miss Elizabeth Aull, who by her will contributed property 
valued at ten thousand dollars, supplemented by a like sum raised by the 

During the Confederate war Mr. Hobson returned to Kentucky and the 
church was pastorless. 

In August, 1865. Messrs. W. G. McCausland and Patrick Ballard were 
elected elders. Later in that year the Rev. J. A. Quarles became stated 
supply and in 1866 pastor. Messrs. John R. Ford and Rufus W. Finley 
were elected elders, and Messrs. Hugh T. Wilson and B. R. Ireland, deacons. 

During the years of the civil strife the ecclesiastical relations of the 
church had not been disturbed, but in July, 1866, a series of resolutions were 
passed by the session committing it to the principles advocated by the "Decla- 
ration and Testimony" men, who in Kentucky and Missouri had protested 
against certain action of the general assembly touching rebellion and slav- 
ery. The outcome was a division of the church. Some twenty-five members, 
under the leadership of Messrs. McFadden and Ballard, organized a new 
church which adhered to the general assembly. The large part of the old 
church adhered to what became known as the Old School synod of Missouri, 
that remained for some time independent of the general assembly. 

Notwithstanding these ecclesiastical controversies, the church grew rap- 
idly under Doctor Quarles' vigorous pastorate. In 1867 Judge W. T. Wood 
and Dr. P. H. Chambers were elected elders. In 1869 Messrs. Ethan Allen 
and Xenophon Ryland were elected deacons. Property rights between the 
seceding and the mother church were amicably settled. In 1872 Messrs. S. 
G. Wentworth, Xenophon Ryland and A. W. Hutchins were elected elders. 
In 1873 George Hutchinson was elected deacon. In 1874 the church followed 
its presbytery and synod into what is known as the Southern Presbyterian 


church. That year the Rev. R. P. Kerr became pastor. The next year 
Judge Richard Field was elected elder. 

Mr. Kerr resigned his pastorate in 1877 and was succeeded the next year 
by the Rev. G. L. Leyburn, D. D. His was also a notable pastorate. There 
was a thorough revision of the roll of communicants. In 1880 the other 
church was dissolved and the old church was strengthened by the addition 
of a number* of valuable accessions from it; among these was Robert 
Taylor, who was made an elder and served the church very efficiently. Capt. 
S. J. Andrew also became an elder and Messrs. S. S. Reeder and W. B. 
Wilson, deacons. During Dr. Leyburn's pastorate the congregation contrib- 
uted liberally to add to the equipment of Elizabeth Aull Seminary. 

In 1888 Doctor Leyburn was succeeded as pastor by the Rev. E. C. 
Gordon, D. D., who served the church until 1892, when he was removed 
to Westminster College. During his pastorate the church took the lead in the 
synod in the home missionary work. Ten thousand dollars were raised by the 
synod, several evangelists were employed and substantial advance was made. 
Near the close of this pastorate Edward Aull was elected deacon. Plans 
were made for enlarging the church building. These plans were carried 
out during the pastorate of the Rev. A. S. Moffatt, D. D., who succeeded 
Doctor Gordon in the summer of 1893. During Doctor Moffatt's pastorate 
Messrs. Sanford Sellers, J. R. Morehead and John P. Gordon were elected 
elders and Messrs. A. G. Young and E. B. Vaughan, deacons. There was 
also a large growth of the Sunday school and an increase in contributions 
for foreign missions. Doctor Moffatt retired in 1897, and Doctor Gordon 
was again elected pastor. He began to preach regularly in January, 1898, 
and was installed pastor the following May. In 1902, the session reported 
three hundred members, the highest number ever carried on the church rolls. 
That year Messrs. George Vaughan and A. G. Young were elected elders 
and Messrs. T. C. Sawyer and U. G. Phetzing, deacons. 

In 1903 the officers, teachers and pupils in the Sunday school numbered 
three hundred and sixty-one, and the congregation subscribed one thousand 
and four hundred dollars to the foreign missionary work of the church. 
Recently Col. W. M. Hoge has been elected elder, and Messrs. James Aull, 
Charles L. Glasscock and Felix G. Young, deacons. The installment of the 
officers gives the present organization of the church as follows : Pastor, 
E. C. Gordon; foreign pastor, R. A. McAlpine; elders, W. G. McCausland, 
S. J. Andrew, J. R. Morehead, Sanford Sellers, George Vaughan, Albert G. 
Young, William M. Hoge; deacons, B. R. Ireland, George Hutchinson, Wil- 
liam B. Wilson, Edward Aull, E. B. Vaughan, T. C. Sawyer, U. G. Phetzing, 
James Aull, Charles L. Glasscock, Felix G. Young. 



This church was first known as the Tabo church, which was organized 
June 19, 1842, in the vicinity of Davis' school house, Lafayette county. A 
sermon was preached by Rev. G. M. Crawford, after which it was resolved 
to organize a church. Dandridge Morrow and William D. Lathim were then 
ordained ruling elders, and the new society placed under the care of the 
Presbyterian church at Lexington. The charter members were Dandridge 
Morrow, Mrs. Elizabeth Morrow, Miss Mary A. Morrow, William D. 
Lathim, Mrs. Elizabeth Lathim, Mrs. Mary Neal, Mrs. Elizabeth Crawford. 

On July 28, 1843, twelve were added to the church; in August of that 
year eighteen more were added. Reverend Crawford served as minister 
in charge until November. 1849, an d was followed by John Stuart, who re- 
mained until 1 85 1. The first church building was erected in a suitable man- 
ner, of brick, and stood about two miles west of the present site of Hig- 
ginsville. On September 13, 1874, the session and members of the church, 
by petition duly signed, were presented to the Lafayette presbytery and were 
duly received as the Presbyterian church of Higginsville, Missouri, to be 
known as the "Tabo Presbyterian church, now located at Higginsville." 
Harvey J. Higgins was enrolled as the elder, taking his seat in the presbytery. 
Thus this society became attached to the Southern Presbyterian church, as 
distinguished from the general assembly of the Presbyterian church in the 
United States of America, properly known as the "Northern Presbyterian 

In the autumn of 1872 the Tabo church was torn down and the house 
of worship was erected in Higginsville, on lot No. 7, block M, McMeekin's 
addition. There was erected a neat brick structure, dedicated July 19, 1874. 
The sermon was preached by Rev. F. R. Gray, from Exodus 20 134. While 
this edifice was being completed services were held in the Beatie school house, 
west of town. Again it became necessary to enlarge or build. Hence the 
new house was built on lots 11 and 12 and north half of 13 and 14, in block 
9, Asbury's addition to Higginsville. This building was dedicated June 15, 
1884, Rev. John Montgomery preaching the sermon, from Matthew 6:10. 
The entire cost of this church was nine thousand dollars, including furnish- 
ing. In March, 1904, this building was damaged by a hail storm of note. 
A new roof, electric lights, stained windows, etc., were added at a cost of 
two thousand dollars. 

The church now enjoys a membership of one hundred and eighty-two. 

The pastors who have served this church are as follows: After the 


ones already named in preceding paragraphs came Rev. Robert Glenn; Rev. 
F. R. Gray remained from about 1859 to 1878, twenty-five years; then 
came Rev. S. T. Ruffner, continuing until 1888. He was succeeded by Rev. 

B. H. Dupuy, serving until 1893. In November, that year, came Rev. A. W. 
Milster, D. D., the well-known evangelist, who continued until 1900. He 
was followed by Rev. W. E. Beattie, who served from October, 1900, to 
September, 1903. On the first Sabbath of December, 1903, the present 
pastor, Rev. Xenophon Ryland, formerly known as "Judge Ryland," became 
the settled pastor. He is a native of the county, was at one time an excellent 
lawyer, held offices of trust and is universally respected in the county and 
beloved by his faithful people over whom he has charge. 

The elders of this church have been as follows, with the date of their 
ordination: Dandridge Morrow, June 19, 1842; William D. Lathim, 1842; 
Stephen T. Neil, 1843 5 William McCausland, 1843 ! J onn Bear, 1845 ; Harvey 
J. Higgins, 1845; William C. Beatie, 1872; John P. Bear, 1879; Frank Bear, 
1892; J. Craig Fulkner, 1892; John W. Branch, 1894; Charles H. Vandiver, 
1894; W. C. Kopp, 1897; John K. Lyon, 1897; Orlando B. Beatie, 1897; 
Weedin G. Sharp, 1909. The deacons have been: W. C. Beatie, 1861 ; F. 

C. T. Brightwell, 1861 ; C. W. Sharp, 1879; James H. Burns, 1879; George 
Schooling, 1889; Frank Bear, 1889; Augustus Bear, 1891 ; Lewis H. Lake, 
1891; C. W. Seeber, 1897; Charles N. Bear, 1898; W. H. Jennings, 1898; 
James H. Gray, 1907; N. Carter Sharp, 1907; John E. Lyon, 1909. 

It appears from the names of the membership of this church that its 
list has included some of the most worthy and historic characters from the 
families of Lafayette county. These family names are still represented 
in the church of today. 

The total contributions of this church for the year ending March 31, 
1910, amounted to two thousand three hundred and eleven dollars, an aver- 
age of almost ten dollars per member. 

In the early history of this church, the slaves of its members were re- 
ceived into full communion and fellowship of the church, with their owners. 
At its very organization, "Patrick," a colored man, was enrolled. This is 
extracted from the record book of the church : 

"The following colored persons were received on examination into the 
membership of this church : 

"Levi, of the household of Mrs. Clyne. 

"Andrew, of the household of James Young. 

"Albert, of the household of J. McCausland. 

"Joseph, of the household of B. Potell. 


"Maria, of the household of S. T. Neill. 

"Charlotte, of the household of William McCausland. 

"These were all baptized. 

(Signed) "John Stewart, Moderator. 
"H. J. Higgins, Clerk." 
How peaceful and happy the relation of master and slave, as compared 
with the criticism of a higher civilization. 

Two of the sons of this church have been ordained as ministers in the 
Presbyterian church, Rev. William L. Hickman and Rev. A. Y. Beatie. 


Prairie Presbyterian church was organized February 10, 1849, w ' tn 
about forty members, nearly all from the First Presbyterian church of Lex- 
ington. The names of the charter members were Dr. Y. B. Alexander, Eliz- 
abeth Alexander, Carmellus Barnett, Martha Barnett, Elizabeth Barnett, Mary 
C. Barnett, Elizabeth Bledsoe, Nathaniel Carter, Caroline Carter, Lewis 
Green, Elizabeth P. Green, Margarett Green, Judeth L. Green, Elizabeth H. 
B. Lee, Edward L. Green, Charles E. Mills, Elizabeth Mills, Elizabeth Mills, 
Elizabeth Mills, Nathaniel Maxwell, Rebecca Maxwell, Luticia Morrell, Cath- 
erine Morrell, Rachell Shannon, Singleton Shannon, Samuel B. Shannon, 
Elizabeth Shannon, Robert J. Smith, John B. Taylor, Adaline Taylor, Arthur 
G. Young, James Young, Elizabeth Young, Lena Young, Rufus Young, 
Thomas M. Young, John N. Young, Robert T. Young, Mary C. Young. 

As to the houses worshiped in by this people, it may be stated that prob- 
ably the first meeting house was early in 1840, in a frame building, twenty 
by thirty feet, and soon thereafter was built a large open shed, twenty by 
thirty feet, from the west side of the building, and this was seated and was 
used when large congregations were in attendance. In 1845 a young licenti- 
ate and his wife came on from Kentucky; his name was T. A. Bracken, who 
served the church until March 24, 1855, and in 1857 a new church was 
erected of brick. It was thirty-eight by fifty-two feet, and is in good repair 
today; its cost was about four thousand dollars. It stands where stood the 
first house of worship. Dr. David Coulter was the second pastor, serving 
until 1 86 1. 

Rufus Young, now about eighty-five years of age, and his brother, Rev. 
J. N. Young, of Eureka, Arkansas, are the only surviving charter members. 
The church roll now contains seventy-eight names. The church is in a 
prosperous condition, and is making substantial contributions to all boards of 


the church. It has paid one thousand and four hundred dollars during the 
last year. This church unites with Sweet Springs church in the support of 
a pastor, and the two churches have undertaken the support of a foreign 


T. A. Bracken, 1849 to 1855 ; T. A. Bracken, supply, 1855 to 1856; David 
Coulter, 1857 to 1863; F. R. Gray, 1867 to 1874; J. A. Quarles, 1875 to 
1876; J. L. Yantis, 1877 to 1882; E. M. Yantis, 1882 to 1883; J. H. Gauss, 
1883 to 1884; H. B. Barks, 1885 to 1889; N. H. McCain, 1891 to 1901 ; 
C. H. Morton, 1902 to 1905 ; a supply three months; John Crockett (student), 
one year; S. F. Shiffler, present pastor, came in 1908. 


This society, which is located at Odessa, was organized September 14, 
1850, with the original membership as follows: John H. Allison, Eliza Bled- 
soe, Sarah Bullard, C. D. Copp, S. S. Cornwell, Nancy Davidson, John Jack- 
son, James M. Keith, Thomas Lee, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Lee, Ann Mary Lee, 
Elizabeth Keith, Nathaniel C. and Adaline Taylor, H. and Lena Young. 

The first church building was erected in 1854 at the village of Mt. Hope. 
During the Civil war it was burned, but rebuilt in 1867. In 1880 it was 
taken down and removed to Odessa. Among the pastors there may be 
named Revs. Thomas A. Bracken, David Coulter, William A. Bagley, Joseph 
W. Wallace, James Morton, J. E. Latham, B. N. Hobson and Samuel T. 
Kuffner. J. H. Gauss was another who served faithfully. In 1889 Rev. H. 
B. Barks was called and preached until 1894, then the pulpit was vacant most 
of the time for two years, after which Rev. Frank Mitchell was engaged, and 
remained until about 1901 and was succeeded by Rev. H. B. Barks, who 
served two years, and was followed by Rev. N. H. McCain, who remained 
until about 1908. The name Hopewell was changed about the year 1880 to 
Odessa Presbyterian church, for it was at that time moved from old Hope- 
well site to the town of Odessa. 


By J. L. Marshall. 

From the best authentic records we find the first organization of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian church in Lafayette county, Missouri, and the 
building of a church house was May 9, 1835, about four miles south of Lex- 


ington. A substantial brick building, ever afterward known as "The Brick 
Church," was built upon land owned by Chatham Ewing, containing fifty 
acres deeded by said Ewing to said church for its sole use and benefit, the 
three trustees being George Houx, William Jack and Chatham Ewing. 

The early pioneer preachers of this congregation, organized and known 
as the Lexington congregation of the Cumberland Presbyterian church, were 
Finis Ewing, one of the three organizers of the church, the others being 
McAdow and Finis King. Other early preachers in this congregation were 
Robert Morrow, John Morrow, Robert Sloan, Henry Renick, Robert Renick, 
Horn, J. B. Logan, Pinkney Henderson, Benjamin Thomas. 

In January, 1839, the first church house, a frame building, built in Lex- 
ington on lot No. 73, original town of Lexington. The deed of con- 
veyance for said lot is dated January 17, 1839, and the church was built 
jointly by the Presbyterian church and the Cumberland Presbyterian church. 
The deed of conveyance was by George Houx to Lewis Green, William Smith 
and James Aull, trustees on the part of the Presbyterian church, and Finis 
Ewing, William Houx and George Houx, on the part of Cumberland Pres- 
byterian church; consideration for lot, fifty dollars. 

The Lexington congregation then abandoned the "Brick church" and 
occupied this house as their place of worship. 

The fifty acres of land upon which the "Brick church" was built reverted 
to the trustees of the congregation and was sold to several parties in small 
tracts by George Houx, William Jack and Chatham Ewing, the dates of 
sales being 1868, 1871, 1871 and 1873 — f° ur deeds — thus we find upon the 
county records, from which it seems the land was sold to four parties. 

The church in Lexington was occupied and used to about 1845, when the 
Cumberland Presbyterians built a substantial brick church in New Lexington, 
so called, and the first church was sold to Calvin L. McGrew February 27, 
1849, the conveyance being made by William Smith, Lewis Green and Will- 
iam Houx, trustees of the two churches. 

The new church was built upon a lot conveyed to Henry Neil, Joel P. 
Wiles, George K. Smith and Henry K. Smith, trustees of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church, consideration ten dollars, by James H. Graham. This 
purchase of lot and building of the church house was about 1846 to 1848. 
There is no record of deed by said Graham on record until 1865, which 
seems to indicate that by neglect the first deed was not recorded at the time, 
another being made April 7, 1865. 

The general assembly of the church was held in this house in 1856. 


This church was sold in 1880 to the Lexington German School Associa- 
tion and the congregation built a frame building three miles south of Lex- 
ington, known as the Edenview church, which is still occupied by the original 
Lexington congregation. The Cumberland Presbyterians built a large brick 
building ten miles south of Lexington in 1850, called the Mount Hebron 
church. This building was twice burned and rebuilt and is now occupied 
by the Mount Hebron congregation. 

In 1854 a congregation was organized in Wellington, known by that 
name, which was continued till 1885, its membership having been so depleted 
by removals and deaths that it was abandoned and the church property in- 
terests sold. 

The Greentown congregation was organized somewhere about 1840. In 
1856 they built a substantial brick church jointly with the Methodist Epis- 
copal church South. The congregation has ceased to exist, by removal and 

There are at this time but four church houses and congregations in the 
county, viz. : Edenview, Mount Hebron, Odessa and Pleasant Prairie. 

The first preaching in the county was by Rev. Robert Morrow, who was 
sent out as a missionary by the women of Kentucky. He was followed by 
Rev. Finis Ewing, one of the founders of the church. His remains repose 
in Macphelah cemetery in Lexington, marked by a square white marble 
shaft with appropriate inscription carved thereon. 

These were followed from time to time down to the present by many 
able and efficient preachers; while all their names cannot be remembered, 
we find the following have all served the gospel to the church and people : 
Finis Ewing, Robert Morrow, John Morrow, Henry Renick, Daniel Patton, 
Robert Renick, W. W. Suddath, Ben Thomas, Pinkney Henderson, J. A. 

Prather, Hugh R. Smith, J. A. Drennen, C. A. Davis, R. S. Clemens, 

Van Arsdal, McCluney, Colonel Horn, Jacob Gillespie, A. A. Moore, 

James Dalton. 

The above history of the Cumberland Presbyterian church in Lafayette 
county is as near accurate as can be obtained by reliable records, the writer 
having trusted nothing to mere memory and has made diligent search for 
reliable records and other landmarks of the church, and which he believes 
is the most accurate and full of any ever compiled. It reaches far back in 
the past in regard to the church in the county. The writer has been an 
eye-witness and partaker in much of which is here written as history, and 
can vouch for most of it as true and accurate, he having been born in the 
county and lived continuously in it from birth (1831), and having been a 


member of this church since 1850, and whose parents were Cumberland 
Presbyterians before him, his mother being an early pioneer, coming to 
the county in 181 7, while it was yet a territory, and she being the first person 
making a profession of religion in the county and, according to church rec- 
ords, the second one baptised, this done by the Rev. Robert Morrow. Hence, 
the author's opportunities to know the history of this church is rather ex- 

Among other matters mentioned here, he will add that prominent in 
the great and good work of the church were the annual campmeetings, which, 
for lack of houses of worship, were held in groves, generally in the fall of 
the year (September), and which were attended by great congregations. 
They lasted generally a week and were among the most happy and enjoyable 
things experienced by the writer, to which also thousands of others will 

The arrangement of these campmeetings was to select a grove near 
plenty of good water, generally a bold spring, lay off a square of ground, 
making seats of split logs with an aisle in the center and an elevated pulpit 
at the end. Around this square, at some distance, camps (from eight to 
twelve, generally) were built of logs, and straw for floors and beds. At the 
meeting families would occupy these camps and furnish provisions and do 
the cooking for the people who attended. Everything was free, every long 
table loaded with substantial food and everybody welcome to every table free 
of cost, to eat and drink to his appetite's content. The writer has witnessed 
at these campmeetings some of the most glorious and spiritual meetings ever 
seen on earth. 


This is a large church body, having over one thousand ministers all 
over the United States. There are one thousand, three hundred and thirteen 
congregations, with a fine college at Elmhurst, Illinois. It has its own mis- 
sionary field in India, with ten missionaries. At St. Louis it has one of the 
finest deaconess homes and hospitals in the country. 

Zion's Evangelical church, at Mayview, Lafayette county, Missouri, 
dates back to 1873, when Rev. F. Drewel, of Higginsville, made a start by 
preaching at Hanck's school house to the few German settlers in the valley 
of Mayview and vicinity. Soon Rev. H. Hoefer, of Higginsville, took charge 
of the work here. In 1880 an organization was perfected at Mayview and 
named the "German Evangelical Zion's Church." The present constitution 


was signed by the following membership : H. Reehterman, William Nolte, 
F. Nolte, Henry Robins, Her Robins, John Sanders, T. Tiefel, Ernest Tern 
pie, Casper Wagner, E. Vauter, I. Goenner and F. Kroener and one other. 
A frame church was erected, costing one thousand dollars, and was dedi- 
cated in 1882. Rev. Hoefer preached there twice each month until 1884, 
when the congregation elected Rev. F. Eggen as their own pastor. Follow- 
ing him came Rev. Lentv/ein. In June, 1887, Rev. William Buehler was 
elected pastor and still continues, having served now twenty-three years. 
In 1887 the membership was only seventeen, while today it has forty com- 
municants. In the spring of 1888 the parsonage was erected, at a cost of 
eight hundred dollars. In 1905 it was decided to build a new church, 
thirty-four by fifty-four feet, the largest in Mayview. It was dedicated 
November 5, 1905. The cost was two thousand, seven hundred and twenty- 
nine dollars. The bell in this church was the generous gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Robins, now deceased. There are two fine five-hundred-dollar organs 
in the church building, both donations. 


The first steps toward founding the German Evangelical Bethel church 
at Concordia were taken March 19, 1872, when the following men, H. 
Klingenberg, P. Sheinmann, F. Kurz, A. Kurz, P. Esselmann, H. Detert, 
William Sodemann, H. Droege, H. Meyers, W. Milenz and Rev. H. Hoefer, 
pastor of St. John's church, near Concordia, met for the purpose of organ- 
izing a German Evangelical church. A church building was soon erected, 
at a cost of nine hundred and fifty dollars, and was dedicated September 8, 
1872, by Rev. H. Hoefer. He served three congregations, from 1872 to 
1877, when he was succeeded by Rev. F. Frankenfeld, and the latter was 
soon followed by Rev. J. M. Toobilzky, and he by Rev. Haenelt. In 1880 
Rev. Carl Kantz followed for six years, and under him the present church 
was erected at an expense of five thousand dollars. Following the last- 
named pastor came Rev. H. Mohr, who remained until 1893. Then came 
Pastor Rev. K. Doernenberg, who served from 1893 to 1895, when Rev. 
F. Klemme was chosen, serving until 1902. Rev. J. Hoefer took charge of the 
congregation and served until 1909, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
A. Siegenthaler. In January, 1910, Rev. H. Becker was elected pastor of 
Bethel congregation and is still presiding. 

During the existence of this congregation there have been christened 


four hundred and seventy children, three hundred and ten children con- 
firmed, one hundred and ten couples married and one hundred and eighty 
burials. The work of this congregation is still going forward and is doing 
great good in the work of uplifting the community. 

st. luke's evangelical church, Wellington. 

In the springs of 1880 and 1882 several German farmers from St. 
Charles and Warren counties located near Wellington, this county. At 
first the settlers attended the church at Napoleon, but for those living east 
of Wellington and others, that point was not convenient, so preaching was 
had at the Harris school house by Rev. Dreevel. Finally, on June 10, 1882, 
a church was formed with seven families of the neighborhood and preach- 
ing was had by the Lexington minister twice each month. Soon the Ger- 
mans wanted a church in Wellington and purchased some property for two 
thousand two hundred and fifty dollars, and in March, 1884, Rev. Dreevel 
took possession of that land and the dwelling thereon. In January, 1885, 
it was decided to erect a church building there, and in November of that 
year the building was dedicated to God. This structure is now employed 
as a school room for the congregation. On account of ill health, the faithful 
pastor resigned, and in March, 1890, Rev. D. Behrens was elected pastor 
and served until November, 1892. From 1893 to 1896 Rev. H. InehhofT 
had charge of the congregation. In February. 1896, Rev. Seybold was 
selected as pastor. A new church had to be erected to make room for the 
increasing congregation, and the same was dedicated October 12, 1897. 
Its cost was three thousand six hundred and forty-two dollars, with fix- 
tures. A new parsonage was provided in 1899. The voting membership of 
this congregation is about seventy. After twelve years of hard, faithful 
service, Rev. Seybold moved to Atwood, Illinois, and was succeeded by the 
present pastor, Rev. I. Munz. 

st. paul's evangelical church, napoleon. 

In 1870 the first German settlers from St. Charles and Warren coun- 
ties, Missouri, came to Lafayette county and located near the villages of 
Napoleon and Wellington. They felt very much the need of a church of 
their own faith and hence in September, 1875, St. Paul's church was organ- 
ized at Napoleon with nine members, two of whom are still living. Rev. 




Dreevel, who was the organizer, resided at Higginsville, but soon became 
pastor at Napoleon. In 1882 a small congregation set to work to build a 
house of worship. They purchased four acres on the Bell Reserve place 
and erected a fine church, costing twelve hundred dollars, also a parsonage 
costing three thousand dollars. Following the last named came Pastor 
Rev. Vehe, followed by Rev. L. Haas. In 1891 Rev. F. Sabrowsky took 
charge of this congregation and still remains. As the congregation became 
larger and many had a long distance to go to church, a society was formed 
at Wellington. The mother church now has a membership of fifty-five 
families. A parochial school is maintained in the spring months in which 
the German language is spoken and taught. The present standing of this 
church is excellent. 

st. john's evangelical church. 

This church is near Concordia and is one of the earliest in the county. 
It was organized by F. Bohring, a school teacher from Germany, who 
served this congregation from 1847 to I ^5°- From that date to 1853 there 
was no pastor, then came a student from the seminary and took up the work. 
During his time there the edifice was erected. The congregation saw 
many hard struggles during the panicky times in the fifties. From 1856 to 
1859 the pastors were Rev. Lampe, followed by Rev. Asterbeil, and he, in 
i860, was succeeded by Rev. Krueger to 1863, then came Rev. Howard, who 
served till 1869. It is related that these men never taught the real doctrines 
of the Evangelical people, so never succeeded, but in the next minister, Rev. 
H. Hoefer, the right man was found, and he caused prosperity to shine upon 
the congregation. He came in 1870, served seven years and organized 
Bethel church. Following him came Rev. W. Gartner, from 1877 to 1882, 
who built the new school house. From 1883 to 1886 Rev. M. Vehe served 
as minister, and in 1886 Rev. W. Beek was called and served. He resigned 
in 1893, and from 1894 to 1896 Rev. Koenig had charge of the work, and 
from 1896 to 1898 Rev. Hauek. Since that date Rev. F. Kitterer has had 
charge of the congregation. 

In 1900 the congregation celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, when 
there had been baptized five hundred and forty-seven, four hundred and 
sixty-two had been confirmed and one hundred and fifty-two united in mar- 
riage. Several churches have come from this one. 



Among the mighty factors of spiritual improvement in Lafayette county 
is the German Evangelical Salem church. The history dates back to 1869, 
when, in the spring of that year, several German farmers moved in and 
located near Higginsville. At first they were wont to assemble on Sundays, 
when a sermon was read and all united in singing their soul-stirring hymns. 
These meetings were held first at the home of Mr. Wehrmann, later at the 
houses of Messrs. Hoefer and Herman, then at the Peacock school house. 
An organization was perfected, and in 1870 three lots on the corner of Main 
and Green streets were purchased of Mr. Higgins. The organization was 
perfected August 9, 1870, under the name of the "German Evangelical 
Salem Church." Next a modest frame building, twenty-four by thirty-six 
feet, was erected and dedicated, October 29. 1871. Rev. H. Hoefer, who 
had charge of the work at Corder, where he resided, and also founded the 
Concordia church, resigned his work at Higginsville in 1873, an ^ was f°l~ 
lowed by Rev. T. Drewell, who remained four years, during which time the 
church acquired the grounds and parsonage on Green and Boggs streets, 
upon which many improvements have since been made. Rev. Hoefer was 
returned in 1877 and faithfully served for twenty-five years. In 1883 a 
new and spacious edifice was dedicated. It was a brick building, thirty-six by 
sixty feet, with a ninety-foot spire. The old building was then moved out 
and put to the use of a school room. Theodore Hoefer, eldest son of Rev. 
Hoefer, served as assistant to his father for ten years, acting as organist 
and teacher. He then himself entered the ministry. In 1892 a new par- 
sonage was provided, at a cost of two thousand three hundred dollars. In 
1908 the old frame church (school house) was razed and a brick structure 
took its place. In 1902, being too ill and feeble to longer serve, Rev. Hoefer 
was succeeded by Rev. N. Rieger, who came in November of that year. 

In the spring of 1902 the second church building commenced sinking 
on account of poor foundation and was demolished. From Easter on to 
Thanksgiving, services were held in a large tent. Then was erected the 
finest edifice ever built in Higginsville, the present church. It is seventy- 
seven by eighty-eight feet main part, with an auditorium of forty-two by 
seventy-four feet. Here one finds two fine pipe organs, the best in the 
county. This church cost twenty-four thousand, four hundred and forty- 
eight dollars, and it was dedicated May 15, 1904. Now in its fortieth year, 


Salem church numbers one hundred and fifteen voting members, four hun- 
dred and fifty communicant members, two hundred and forty-three pupils in 
Sunday school. The society is entirely free from debt and in a prosperous 


The history of this church reaches back to 1876, when Rev. Dreevel 
began to preach the gospel to the Germans of Lexington. They soon felt the 
need of a home of worship, and in furtherance of this idea a meeting was 
held at the court house on August 15, 1877. At this meeting a resolution was 
adopted to organize an Evangelical church, and a committee for this pur- 
pose was appointed, consisting of H. Haenkel, K. Winkler and G. Ludwig, 
who worked hard in conjunction with the board of trustees. 

On the 2d day of September, 1877, the Evangelical Trinity church was 
organized and a constitution adopted, which was signed by seventeen mem- 
bers. On October 8, 1877, Reverend Dreevel was elected as the pastor, 
but was unable to serve longer than the following spring, when Rev. Klimpke 
was chosen pastor. In 1879 a Ladies' Aid Society was organized and has 
continued to do much good work. On November 21, 1882, Rev. C. Klimpke 
resigned and Rev. Servish was elected and served until 1884. From this time 
until December, 1885, Rev. Tistor was the pastor. From 1886 to 1888 
Rev. A. Dobler had charge of the congregation. On the 28th of April, 1888, 
the congregation elected as their pastor W. Herman, who was a true and 
faithful worker in the interests of the church. Shortly after his election 
the congregation erected a parsonage. In 1890 the West Missouri district 
held its yearly conference here for the second time. Shortly afterwards 
Reverend Herman resigned and the congregation elected Rev. G. Schulz, who 
served two years, and was followed by Reverend Reichard. During the lat- 
ter's illness he was assisted by Rev. D. Buchmueller, and after his resigna- 
tion on account of poor health Reverend Buchmueller was elected to the 

In 1897 the church building, which heretofore had been rented, became 
the property of the Evangelical church of Lexington. The church was re- 
modeled, at a cost of six hundred dollars, a reed organ, costing two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, was installed, and the congregation celebrated its 
twentieth anniversary. 

In 1903 Reverend Buchmueller resigned and the congregation chose 
as their pastor Doctor Lissac. who has charge of the congregation at the 



present time. The church has within it three organizations, the Ladies' Aid 
Society, the Sunday school and the choir. The latter, which is one of the 
best church choirs in the county, has done very effective work in its line. 


It is found from the records of this, the only Episcopal church in La- 
fayette county, that it was on Whitsunday, 1844, when Rt. Rev. Jackson 
Kemper, D. D., first bishop of Missouri, for the first time performed divine 
service in Lexington. On Easter Sunday. 1845, the parish was or- 
ganized. The first wardens were Robert N. Smith and Paul Reinhard; the 
first vestrymen were Lawson Grant, Daniel C. Relf, Henry Smack, Messrs. 
Collins, Foster, etc. Rev. Mr. Fackler was the first rector, and remained 
until Easter Monday, 1847, when he resigned on account of ill health. 

The corner stone of the present house of worship was laid on June 30, 
1848, at which time Rector J. A. Harrison was in charge of the parish. 
The church was first used for service on Advent Sunday, 1848, and was 
publically consecrated to the worship of God on the first Sunday in Advent, 
1850, by the Rt. Rev. C. S. Hawks, bishop of the diocese, and others. 

The church, to which an addition has since been made, is a neat, good- 
sized brick structure on the corner of Franklin and Thirteenth streets. Its 
original cost was about six thousand dollars. The interior is finished in ele- 
gant walnut woodwork, oiled. In 1880 the church had a membership of one 
hundred, but at present has only about sixty communicants. The rectors who 
have had charge of this parish include Revs. St. Michael Fackler, J. A. Har- 
rison, D. G. Estes, G. K. Dunlap, Thompson L. Smith, John W. Dunn, A. T. 

Sharpe, E. M. Pecke, John Davis, J. N. McFarlane, J. W. Keeble, 

Duboc, Isaac Houlgate, Richard Ellerby, J. K. Dunn, S. W. Moran, E. G. 

Adams, Chapman, J. V. Plunkett and the present rector, Rev. C. H. 


Facts Furnished by Rev. Thomas S. Cobb. 

The Methodist Episcopal church South was organized in 1837. with the 
following members: Thomas Caloway and wife, Doctor Talbert, James 
Austin, Lucy Anderson, David Gillispie and wife, Cyrus Osburn, A. W. 
Henning, M. Zeigler, I. Bolin,vJohn Brown and wife, Clark Peters, Harriet 


Eckle, John Eastwood, I. Wetzel, David Locke and wife, Doctor Black- 
well, Mahala Blackwell, James Cloudsley and wife, and James Norfolk and 

The first church was built of brick in 1840. In i860 the church was 
taken down and a larger one, more modern and commodious, erected. The 
original building cost about one thousand five hundred dollars, and the sec- 
ond over twenty thousand dollars. On account of the Civil war this was not 
dedicated until 1878. At that time the last debt was paid on the building, 
and the house was dedicated by Bishop H. H. Teananugh, of Kentucky. 

The following pastors have served this church : Revs. Clinton, Bev- 
erly, Dodds, Westerman, Forsythe, Johnson, Ashley, W. W. Jones, Joseph 
Boyle, A. L. Hamilton, T. A. Morris, N. Scarrett, T. M. Finney, James A. 
Cobb, B. T. Teananaugh, White, W. B. McFarland, J. C. Shackleford, Hall, 
W. C. Godbey, Doctor Camp, A. G. Stacy, Frank Boggs, Thomas M. Cobb, 
M. M. Pugh, W. M. Williams, G. W. Walker, M. M. Prattsman, William 
Poage, D. C. Brown, J. C. Carpenter, A. R. Faris, B. U. Alton, C. M. 
Bishop, J. C. Giner, J. W. Howell, C. E. Patillo and O. M. Rickman. 

This church has a fine Sunday school, with more than four hundred 
enrolled. Dr. W. R. Eckles and F. Lee Wallace are the superintendents. 
There are three missionary societies and a flourishing Epworth League. The 
present membership of the church is four hundred thirty-three. 


The Dover Methodist church South was organized some time in the 
forties. David Evans and wife, Mr. Eustice and wife and Mrs. Plattenburg 
were among the first members. A substantial brick church was built in the 
early fifties, at a cost of two thousand dollars, or possibly more. It still 
stands and is used by the church. The present membership is about forty. 

The following preachers have served at this point : M. Milice, J. R. 
Bennett, J. W. Lewis, W. J. Brown, Doctor Camp, M. Adkinson, R. A. 
Shaeffer. W. B. McFarland, M. J. Finney, B. Morgeson, T. P. Cobb, W. F. 
Magoner, M. M. Dowdy. M. Barhonburg, J. J. Hill, G. L. Coffman, H. J. 
Rand and Calhoun Bruner, present pastor. This has never been among the 
strong churches, but has supported a pastor for more than sixty years. 


The Waverly Methodist church was organized in 1858 by the follow- 
ing persons: Dr. George W. Hereford and wife, Mr. Neal and wife, Messrs. 
Melton, Williams and a few more. 


The pastors have been: W. M. Prattsman, J. R. Bennett, W. B. Mc- 
Farland, L. Bedsworth, J. F. Skurlock, C. H. Boggs, M. G. Williams, L. P. 
Norfolk, F. A. Taylor, J. C. Shackleford, J. M. Dempsey, R. A. Holloway, 
W. Morrison, W. H. Winter, E. G. Frazier, F. P. Cobb, W. B. North, L. 
H. Uandiner, M. M. Pugh, Perry Long, W. B. Cobb, L. F. Clark, C. T. 
Wallace, W. L. Merrill, C. U. Shulerberger, H. G. Rand, C. Bruner. The 
present membership of this church is one hundred and eleven. 


This church was organized in 1879 by John D. Wood, R. T. Russell, 
Rebecca J. Russell, N. W. Ladd, Ella Ladd, Edward Rawlings, Leroy Ann 
Rawlings, Mary H. Hillock, Dr. J. F. Wood, Dr. J. W. McDonald. 

The present membership of this church is two hundred and twelve. The 
original church was erected in 1883 and the second one in 1896 and the 
present building in 1904. The various pastors have been as follows: Revs. 
John D. Wood, J. B. H. Wooldridge, W. S. Woodard, T. P. Cobb, J. C. 
Shackleford, W. B. McFarland, J. Y. Busby, T. M. Home, T. J. Brown, 
W. M. Rader, E. Y. Ginns, S. P. Cayton and J. C. Saylor. 


Mt. Tabor Methodist church, seven miles southwest of Odessa, was or- 
ganized in 1866. The original members included these: Polly Ann Dorithitt, 
Daniel Adkinson, Anna Adkinson, Corinthia Browning, Sarah Tracy, Rob- 
ert Russell, Rebecca J. Russell, Samuel Beard, Elizabeth Beard, Frank Jor- 
dan, S. L. Yancey, Catherine Yancey, Mary Wolfenberger, William Wil- 
coxen, Archibald Ray, Jeanette Ray. The present membership is seventy- 
two. The first church was erected in 1868 and still stands. The pastors 
have been : Revs. J. P. Barneby, Rev. Winshell, Henry Watts, William 
Pitts, W. T. Eastwood, M. Duran, Preston Philips, J. B. Wooldridge, John 
H. Denny, T. P. Cobb, G. R. Wright, N. M. Dowdy, J. R. Hedges, f. D. 
Payne, W. F. Wagoner, H. M. Johnson and J. C. Saylor. 


The Methodist church at Higginsville was organized in 1872 by the Rev. 
W. S. Woodard, with the following charter members: D. S. Swacker, wife 
and daughter, Mr. McCorcle and wife, James Schooling and a few others. 
The first church was erected in 1880 under the pastorate of W. B. McFarland. 


It was a frame structure and cost about two thousand dollars. In 1901 a 
second church was provided, a substantial brick building, erected under the 
pastorate of Rev. J. E. McDonald. This is a modern church and cost about 
eight thousand dollars. The present membership is two hundred and twenty- 
nine. The pastors at Higginsville have been : Revs. W. S. Woodard, J. C. 
Shackleford, T. P. Cobb, W. B. McFarland, L. R. Downing, J. McCurry, 
Thomas M. Cobb, T. J. Pritchett, J. E. McDonald. A: L. Marshall, R. E. 
Pyle and L. P. Norfleet. 


The Methodist Episcopal church South at Wellington was organized 
in 1850 with the following charter members: Mosby Arnold, then a local 
preacher, Melissa Arnold, Affiah Arnold, Nancy Cundiff. Thos. Bryant, Sarah 
Bryant, Cornelia Ann Cores, Elizabeth Crews, J. A. Mahan, Cynthia M. Ma- 
han, Susan Duck, Farris Ferrell, Elisa Ferrell, G. W. Ferrell, Mary Lewis 
and Barbara Carr. 

A small frame building was used as a church, a short distance west of 
the town, was later on moved nearer the town, remodeled and repaired and 
continuously used until the present brick church was built, at a cost of about 
two thousand five hundred dollars, in the year 1853, and which was dedicated 
by Bishop Early in 1854. The lot upon which this church was built was do- 
nated by William Corse, a merchant in the town, and deeded by him to the 
following named trustees : Ferris Ferrell, Mosby Arnold, J. W. Mathews, 
George W. Ferrell, J. A. Mahan, in November, 1854. The deed was recorded 
in March, 1855. This old church has been greatly improved, repaired and 
reseated in the last few years. The present membership is seventy-four. A 
good Sunday school has been maintained throughout all these years. For the 
last thirty years J. A.Lockhart has been superintendent of the Sunday school 
and is at this time. There is an average attendance of about fifty scholars, 
with eight efficient teachers. H. B. Corse has served as secretary for thirty 
years and is still acting in this capacity. 

The following have served as pastors : Revs. J. L. Porter, P. O. Clay- 
ton, Edmond Wagoner, W. M. Leftwink, H. W. Webster, J. R. Bennett, J. 
A. Murphy, W. M. Pratsman, W. F. Truslow, Lemar Bedsworth, J. C. 
Shacklesford, W. M. Pitts, W. M. Benley, Preston Philips, L. W. Pearce, 
W. L. Eastwood, T. D. Payne, C. T. Wallace, Charles Franklin, E. Y. Ginn, 
S. P. Clayton, J. C. Saylor and J. W. Pryor. 



Three miles east of Chapel Hill in Sniabar township is McKendree 
church. It was organized in the log cabin home of James M. Cobb in 1840. 
The original members were Morris Cobb, Rebecca Cobb, James M. Cobb, 
Polly Cobb, Isam Reese, Malinda Reese, Elizabeth Reese, Nancy Reese, Sarah 
Sparks, Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Satterfield and a few others. The present member- 
ship is about one hundred and fifty. 

Worship was held in the home of J. M. Cobb for a number of years, then 
at the home of Moris Cobb, who had built a large story -and-a-half log house. 
Later they moved to a large log school house built in the neighborhood. In 
1858 the first church was built at a cost of one thousand two hundred dol- 
lars. It was dedicated by Rev. W. M. Prottsman. In 1887 the first church 
was taken down and a larger and better building erected at a cost of about 
two thousand five hundred dollars. It was dedicated by Rev. Thomas M. 

The following preachers were brought up in this church : J. N. Cobb, 
T. M. Cobb, W. B. Cobb and T. P. Cobb (all sons of James M. Cobb, in 
whose cabin the church was organized), and W. F. Wagoner. 

These are some of the pastors who have served this church : William 
Hulse, Dodds, Chase, Thomas Wallace, D. A. Lueper, R. A. Foster, Fletcher 
Wells, J. P. Barnaby, Samuel Colburn, W. M. Pitts, W. J. Brown, James B. 
Wooldrige, L. W. Pearce, J. D. Wood, M. Duren, J. F. Webster, W. M. 
Pugh, T. P. Cobb, T. D. Payne, W. T. Eastwood, N. M. Dowdy, W. F. 
Wagoner, J. R. Hedges. 

neal's chapel. 

Neal's chapel was organized 1870. Among the charter members were 
Lewis Neal and family, William Barley and wife, Jacob Zantameyer and 
wife and a few others. The same year a church was built about one mile 
north of Corder. It cost four thousand dollars. When the Chicago & 
Alton railroad was built, the church was moved to Corder, improved and en- 
larged. The present membership is about one hundred and twenty-five. 

Revs. J. C. Shackleford, W. J. Brown, W. B. McFarland, R. A. Shaeffer, 
R. Margison, W. L. King, W. C. Carop, W. F. Wagoner, T. P. Cobb, M. Ad- 
kisson, N. M. Dowdy, W. W. Jones, S. P. Cayton, E. Y. Ginn, A. B. Apple- 
bey. L. P. Norfleet, A. H. Godbey, J. D. Wood, W. B. Cobb and W. H. Sud- 
dath have served as pastors. 



The Bates City church was organized by Rev. T. P. Cobb in 1881, with 
twenty-three members. They now have about sixty. A church costing about 
one thousand two hundred dollars was built the same year the society was 

They have been served by the following pastors: T. P. Cobb, W. S. 
Woodard, C. T. Wallace, T. D. Payne, Chas. Franklin, W. T. Eastwood, 
J. J. Hill, L. W. Pearce, W. M. Benley, W. F. Wagoner, N. M. Dowdy and 
J. R. Hedges. 


Wallace Chapel is located nine miles southwest of Higginsville. It was 
organized by Rev. C. T. Wallace in 1886. The following year a substan- 
tial frame church was built, at a cost of about one thousand five hundred dol- 

Daniel Adkisson and family, Philip Adkisson and wife and daughter, 
Thos. West and wife, Samuel Williams and wife, Mr. Neff and wife, were 
among the charter members. The present membership is about one hundred. 

Revs. C. T. Wallace, C. Bruner, W. F. Wright, T. P. Cobb, W. F. Wag- 
oner, L. S. Night wine and J. R. Scott have served as pastors 


This church was organized in 1871 by Rev. W. W. Spates. It was lo- 
cated about five miles southwest of Waverly. Among the charter members 
were Mr. Boyd and wife, Mrs. Hoard, Geo. Northcut, Mrs. Larkin and oth- 
ers. A church house was built in 1881, at a cost of about one thousand five 
hundred dollars. This building was afterwards moved about four miles 
north to a point on the main road from Dover to Waverly and the name 
changed to Providence church. The membership at this time is about forty. 

The following preachers have been pastors : Revs. W. W. Spates, W. 
B. McFarland, W. J. Brown, R. A. Shaeffer, W. J. King, B. Margison, T. 
P. Cobb, W. F. Camp, W. F. Wagoner, M. Adkisson, J. J. Hill, Gilmore 
Coffman, M. Bahrenburg, C. T. Wallace, W. B. Cobb and C. Bruner. 


Bethel church, located about four miles south of Corder, was organized 
in 1871. Charter members: Doctor Bull and wife, Jackson Corder and 
wife, W. R. Finch and wife, D. J. Waters and wife, and a few others. The 


church house was built in 1878 and was dedicated by Rev. W. M. Pugh. It 
cost about one thousand dollars. The present membership is about thirty. 

These are the names of pastors so far as known : W. W. Spates, R. A. 
Shaeffer, W. J. Brown, W. B. McFarland, T. P. Cobb, E. K. Wolf, J. F. 
Caskey, L. P. Norfleet, A. B. Applebey, A. H. Godbey, E. Y. Ginn, T. P. 
Cobb, W. F. Wagoner, W. B. Cobb, J. D. Wood, W. H. Sudduth. 


Marnin chapel is located four miles south and east of Mayview. It 
was organized about 1872. Larkin Norfleet and family, Butler Moore and 
son, L. F. Weaver and wife, Mr. Douphet and wife, Mr. James and family 
and Mr. Smith and wife were among the first members. The present mem- 
bership is about forty. The church house was built in 1878 or 1879 and cost 
two thousand dollars. W. M. Pitts, L. W. Pearce, J. Y. Buchey, Thos. Horn, 
J. D. Wood, C. T. Wallace, W. F. Wagoner, T. D. Payne, L. S. Nightwine 
and J. R. Scotts and others have served as pastors. 

By Rev. Russell B. Briney. 

The Christian church at Lexington was first organized in Lafayette 
county, though the church at Dover, which was originally a "New Light" 
church, was organized at a much earlier date. 

The church at Lexington was organized on April 17, 1836, by Elder 
Levi Van Camp, Phoebe Van Camp, Elizabeth Moseby, John S. Porter, 
Elmira Porter, Samuel R. Benton, Ann Benton, Rebecca Thorp, George W. 
Marquis. Levina Marquis, Wyatt K. Stone. Eliza J. Stone. Cinderella 
Bounds, Robert Littlejohn and James Marquis. 

The first church building was erected in 1840 at a cost of four thousand 
dollars, and afterwards was sold to the colored Baptists in 1873. The 
present church building on South street was erected in 1870, its original cost 
being fifteen thousand dollars. In recent years it has been remodeled, mak- 
ing a property easily worth twenty thousand dollars. 

Some of the preachers who have served the congregation are as fol- 
lows : Duke Young, F. R. Palmer, John Callerman, Thomas N. Gaines, 
S. S. Church, Allen Wright, Samuel Swinford, Noah Miller, George W. 
Elby, Thomas P. Haley, H. H. Haley, John R. Frame, William C. Dawson, 


Dennis Grandfield, George G. Taylor, F. W. Allen, C. B. Edgar, George 
Plattenberg, J. H. Hughes, C. S. Lucas, Calvin S. Blackwell. Those of more 
recent date are George Terrill, G. N. Goode, E. J. Fenstermacher and R. B. 
Briney, the present incumbent, who has been serving the congregation for the 
past eight years. 

The Dover Christian church, as already indicated, was organized even 
earlier than the one at Lexington. While at the beginning they agreed to 
take and wear only the name of Christian, and to eschew human creeds as 
bonds of union, advocating the all-suffering and supreme authority of the 
word of God, they still held and practiced many things considered as unau- 
thorized by the church. But having agreed to take the Bible and the Bible 
alone as their rule of faith and practice, it was not long till they were led 
out of their unscriptural practice and became fully identified with the church 
of the Reformation. 

Among the early preachers we find Thomas McBride, John and Samuel 
Rogers, of Kentucky, and F. R. Palmer, then Thomas Gaines, Allen Wright, 
Joel Haden, and nearly all the preachers in that part of the state. Dover 
was for years the home of the conspicuously able George Plattenburg. In 
1853 J. N. McGarrey, now of Lexington, Kentucky, was called to preach 
for them and did so most acceptably until 1862, when he removed to Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky. The August meeting is famous all over the state, this church 
for perhaps seventy-five years or more having had each year their annual 
revival in the month of August. While perhaps not as flourishing a church 
now as in former years, still the church is doing a good work and is faithfully 
ministered to. 


The church at Higginsville was formerly the old Republican church. 
Among its first members were John Warren and family, Andrew Warren and 
family, William Ridge and family. They built a house of worship in the 
country not far from where Higginsville now stands, and from the date of 
the organization kept the ordinances and maintained a regular preacher. 
Their early preachers were Luke Young, T. N. Ganer, Allen Wright, Hiram 
Bledsoe, T. W. Hancock, J. W. McGarvy, H. S. Earle, H. H. Haley, William 
H. Robinson, George Plattenburg and others. The church is now at Hig- 
ginsville and is in a very prosperous condition, having about three hundred 
members. The preachers of more recent years are J. H. Coil, J. N. Crutcher, 
and H. W. Hunter, who has just taken up the work and whose ministry 
promises great things. 



The church at Mayview was formerly known as Union church. It was 
organized in 1852. The first members were Wyatt Stone, Eliza J. Stone, 
M. E. Stone, A. T. Small, Homer Proctor, Mary Proctor and Easter (a 
colored woman). Soon after the organization, they built a neat brick 
church three miles south of the present town of Mayview. This house was 
destroyed by fire during the Civil war — in 1864, and in 1872 the present 
frame structure was erected in Mayview, the new building being dedicated 
on the 4th of May, 1872. This church is doing good work under the able 
leadership of Rev. Arthur Downs. 


The church at Odessa was organized soon after the Mayview church. 
There is but little data upon which to base a history, but the church is in 
good condition and is growing. W. B. Snyder is the present minister. 

There are other organizations of the Christian church in Lafayette 
county, such as are at Waverly, Bates City and other points, but nothing can 
be learned as to their history. In fact, this article is almost bodily taken 
from a book by Bro. T. P. Haley, entitled "The Dawn of the Reformation," 
which fortunately came into my possession. I have simply tried to supply 
the subsequent information. 

[Many requests were made for the desired information concerning these 
churches, but the parties appealed to failed to render the necessary assist- 
ance. — Editor.] 

By Rev. Lee Harrel. 

There are at present sixteen Baptist churches in Lafayette county, with 
a membership of about two thousand. They own church property valued at 
about sixty thousand dollars. 

The first Baptist church organized in Lafayette county (then called 
Lillard) was in the spring of 1819. This church is no longer in existence. 

The second Baptist church, organized in 1825, was called Little Sni-a- 
bar, and was located about three miles southwest of Lexington. These, were 
primitive churches and the members worshiped in log houses. In 1838 the 
Little Sni-a-bar church removed to Lexington and changed its name to the 


First Baptist church of Lexington. The Blue River Association was organ- 
ized at Little Sni-a-bar, October n, 1834, while they were still worshiping 
in their log house. At that time Blue River Association covered the territory 
of the following counties : Lafayette, Johnson, Cass, Jackson and parts of 
Bates and Henry. At the present time the churches of Lafayette and John- 
son counties are what is now known as the Lafayette and Johnson Baptist 
Association. The entire association has a membership of four thousand four 
hundred and ninety-two and own property to the value of one hundred and 
thirty-six thousand four hundred and fifty dollars. There are forty-two 
churches, which gave last year for all purposes twenty-five thousand five hun- 
dred and ten dollars. Only four churches failed to contribute to missions last 
year.. Rev. Lee Harrel, of Higginsville, moderator, W. W. Goody, of 
Odessa, clerk, and Otto Nolte, of Mayview, treasurer, are the officers of 
the association. 


The First Baptist church of Lexington is the oldest existing church 
in Lafayette county. It has a great history. Few churches have enjoyed 
the labors of so many able ministers of the gospel. Rev. John D. Worder, 
the first pastor, was a typical pioneer preacher. He lived to be eighty-one 
years of age and was a Baptist preacher more than fifty years. Rev. William 
C. Ligon, whose pastorate begun in 1843, lived to the ripe old age of eighty- 
one. These were indeed pioneer preachers. Rev. Dr. A. P. Williams, of 
whom it may be said that he could reproduce the New Testament from 
memory, in 1841 baptized one hundred and seven persons into fellowship of 
this church. He was a great preacher in many respects. He learned to read 
after he was married, his wife becoming his teacher. Before his death, he 
became one of the best Greek scholars in the state. He organized more 
Baptist churches than any minister who has ever lived in Missouri. 

Dr. E. S. Dulin, the first president of William Jewell College, was pastor 
of this church at three different times. Rev. L. C. Harris, the accomplished 
scholar and orator, after a ten months' pastorate, died in Lexington of typhoid 
fever, in 1854. 

Dr. Joseph D. Worder was pastor of the church nine years, 1856 to 
1865. Rev. Dr. Lonsiny Burrows, who has been the accomplished secre- 
tary of the Southern Baptist convention for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury, succeeded Doctor Worder. Following Doctor Burrows came Dr. Dun- 
can H. Culph, who was also president of Lexington Baptist College. He 


was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Henry Talbird, who was president of Howard 
College, Alabama, and who was a colonel in the Confederate army. Then 
came Rev. W. A. Crouch, the greatest of them all, according to the view of 
the writer. Doctor Crouch is at present living in Liberty, Missouri. Suc- 
ceeding Doctor Crouch came the polished Dr. Charles Manly, who was so 
many years president of Furman University, South Carolina. After him 
came Rev. W. I. Cole, who is at present pastor in Topeka, Kansas. During 
those years there may have been others who served the church whose names 
we do not now recall. The present pastor, Rev. R. T. Mansfield, was born 
in Roanoke, Randolph county, Missouri. He graduated from the regular 
course in William Jewell College in 1896 and took post-graduate work in 
1897. He entered his present pastorate in 1906. The late M. F. Royal served 
as deacon for forty-seven years and as Sunday school superintendent for 
about a quarter of a century in this church. William H. Chiles has been 
the superintendent for the last twenty years. The present house of worship 
was first occupied in 1857 and cost twenty-eight thousand dollars. 


The May view Baptist church was organized in 1842. The present mem- 
bership is two hundred and eleven, and the church owns property valued at 
three thousand two hundred dollars. The pastor serves full time at this 
place, the present pastor being Rev. J. L. Downing, of Odessa. He was for 
some years a missionary to Brazil and returned on account of his wife's 
health. He commenced preaching then at Odessa where he did valiant work, 
but his health failed and he studied medicine and practiced for a time until 
he regained health. 


This church, which was organized in 1844, is located in the southwest 
portion of Lafayette county. At first they worshiped in a log house. The 
next building was a frame structure, costing one thousand dollars; the third 
house, and present one. is a neat frame building costing about one thousand 
one hundred dollars. Owing to the organization of numerous other churches 
in the near-by villages the present membership is small, about fifty-five. The 
following have served as pastors here: Revs. George Minton, 1854; Samuel 
Shepherd, 1866; J. B. Jackson, 1870; G. W. Smith, 1874; I. N. Newman. 
1875 ; J. B. Jackson, 1878; T. W. Leonard, 1881 ; J. T. Cowan, 1881 ; A. H. 


Boroughs, 1885; A. M. Cockerill, 1886; T. J. Philips, 1890; J. P. Powell, 
1893; W. Ii. Scott, 1896; Harry Hoder, 1899; J. M. Tate, 1900; Lee Wood, 
1904; W. B. Hooser, 1905; A. M. Cockerill, present pastor of the faithful 
old church, is the oldest Baptist preacher in active service in Lafayette county 
and in the association. He resides at Warrenburg and is much beloved. 


The Concordia church is a German organization, situated in the beautiful 
little town of its name. It was formed July 13, 1851. Their first church 
house was built in 1864, two and a half miles southeast of Concordia. The 
present building, in town, was built in 1889. They also have a good parson- 
age, and the church property is valued at seven thousand five hundred dollars. 
The charter members were Fred Stotesburg, J. Flonenmeyer, I. W. Schroeder, 
Mr. Heeswould and a few more. Their first pastor was Rev. Carl Kresse, 
followed by Revs. Werner, Anton Hinsler, C. Shomaker, E. Groalman, J. 
Silvers, G. Drewell, J. Silvers. Thomas Stori and Rev. G. R. Mayhock. The 
membership is now ninety-seven. This has always been one of the most 
liberal churches of this association. 


Greenton Baptist church was organized by Rev. Charles Whiting, a mis- 
sionary, September 13, 1866, in a church building owned by the Methodist 
and Presbyterians. There were thirty constituent members. Rev. Whiting 
served until 1867, and was followed by Rev. John Kingdow, then came Rev. 
G. W. Smith. The present building, costing three thousand dollars, was 
erected in 1869. In 1877 Rev. W. L. Robinson was made pastor and in 1879 
came Rev. Leonard. In 1880, Rev. S. B. Whiting was ordained pastor, serv- 
ing five years. April 19. 1885, Rev. Burroughs was installed pastor and in 
1886 came T. S. Dulin. He was succeeded by Rev. F. Memfee and May 5, 
1890, came Rev. Lee Harrel. The next pastor was Rev. T. J. Philips, who 
served until 1893, when Rev. Ed Prather was chosen pastor in December, 
1894, serving until 1897, when came Rev. T. J. Osborn, he being followed by 
Rev. C. F. Whitlock and again Rev. Osborn was returned. August 12, 1899, 
Rev. T. L. Powell was elected pastor. In 1900 came Joseph Powell, who was 
followed soon by Rev. Don Mason. In 1905 Rev. George McGrew was made 
pastor, serving until March, 1907, when he died. April 14, 1907, Rev. Frank 
Powell was chosen pastor; March, 1910, Rev. Thomas Miles was elected 



This is another German Baptist church. It was organized in 1868 and 
now has a membership of one hundred and twenty-seven. They own church 
property valued at six thousand five hundred dollars and have a good parson- 
age. Rev. C. F. Tieman is the pastor, who is a true Christlike man, esteemed 
by all. There are many choice spirits in this church. Few churches in Mis- 
souri have given as freely as the First Baptist church of Higginsville. Some 
day there will be a wedding between this German church and the Second Bap- 
tist church. 


Waverly Baptist church was organized September 23, 1868, by Rev. John 
Kingdom William Fristo and wife and their son and daughters, Sarah 
Allen, Mary A. Mathews and I. L. Mathews were charter members in this 
church. The following have served as ministers: Revs. Kingdon, 1868-69; 
E. Roth, 1871 to 1877; E. B. Whiting, 1877-84; C. B. Martin, 1885-86; T. S. 
Dulin, 1887-89; Rev. Thomas, 1890-1891 ; W. S. Wilburn, 1891-92; Rev. 
Prather, 1893-94; Rev. Clouts, 1894; no record of how long Rev. Clouts and 
his successor, Rev. Daily, served. In 1901-02 Rev. S. H. Carter served; 
1903-04, D. D. Pulis; 1904-05, Rev. Henry; 1907-10, Rev. W. E. Pruitt. 

This church owns property valued at one thousand five hundred dollars. 
The membership of the church is fifty-four. 


This church is located in the village of Aullville and was organized in 
1 87 1 with ten charter members: Susan Osborn, Eliza Osborn, Sarah A. 
Groom, Frank Gladdish, Bevil Whitworth, Sarah Morgan, Nancy Osborn, 
Lucinda Perdue, J. W. Endly and Mrs. Francis Endly. 

The present building was erected in 1872, at a cost of one thousand five 
hundred dollars. The pastors, serving in the order given, have been as 
follows : Revs. E. Roth, B. F. Taylor, Eldridge, Osborn, Thomas, Russell, 
Price, Wells, Harvey, Setyer, Hunter. The church has a membership of 
seventy-one. In looking over the church records we observe that many of 
the eminent and truly good and strong men have come from out the circles 
of the smaller churches, including this organization. This church is a power 
for good in the village and has helped mightily in driving the saloons from the 



This church was organized in 1873 and is located ten miles southeast of 
Odessa and ten miles south of Mayview. The following charter members 
formed the church: Jennie Collins, Nancy Mathews, Henry Watlock, Neal 
Buchanan, George R. Neal, Mildred Neal, Nancy Wooton, Sarah Wooton, 
Elizabeth Evans, William Tindell, Tabitha Tindell and Marion Smith. The 
church property is valued at one thousand two hundred dollars. The present 
membership is seventy. The following pastors have served : Revs. C. W. 
Smith, F. W. West, Charles White, J. S. Price, Thomas Neville, J. W. Dor- 
man, J. R. Robinson, J. S. Denton, William Portwood, W. H. Scott, J. S. 
Denton, R. P. Harris, J. B. Dotson, Rev. Palmer, W. F. Wisdom, J. S. Price, 
Earl Binney, A. M. Cockerill, J. W. Cunningham. 


This church was organized in Higginsville, January 4, 1880, with eleven 
members as follows : W. W. Preston, Mary C. Nutter, Annie Reece, Lelia 
Mason, John W. Endly, A. J. Horn, Rebecca Horn, Benj. McElroy, A. E. 
Asbury and his wife Ellen Asbury. The council invited to assist in organiza- 
tion, Rev. L. Ellege, of Aullville church ; Rev. E. F. Griefe, of the German 
Baptist church, and Deacon August Erdmon, of Three Groves church. It 
was organized in the Presbyterian church, which at that time was situated on 
Main street. The organization took the name of the Second Baptist church 
of Higginsville, because the German Baptist church already existed there. B. 
F. McElroy was elected church clerk and held the office fifteen years. Rev. 
S. B. Whiting was elected pastor. At the meeting January 17th new mem- 
bers were admitted as follows : Albert Foulds, Cecilia Neill, Harry Garnett, 
Mrs. Cassia Johnson and P. B. Hudson. The Presbyterian church kindly 
offered their church building to be used by this newly formed church, the first 
Sunday of each month for the time up to 1882, when we dedicated our own 
house of worship, which was a good frame building, located on the same spot 
where our beautiful modern house stands. The old church was dedicated 
February, 1882. 

Rev. S. B. Whiting continued as pastor until 1885. During his pas- 
torate many of the best members the church ever had were gathered into the 
church. Rev. Whiting was a sweet-spirited man. His motto was "Speaking 
the truth in love." He preached the truth as he felt it in his own soul. In 
our own beautiful church is a memorial window bearing the name of Rev. 


S. B. Whiting. March 7, 1885, Rev. W. R. Painter was elected pastor, who 
is beloved by his brethren throughout the state. He served as chaplain at the 
penitentiary at Jefferson City till recently, when he was compelled to give the 
work up on account of his failing health. Rev. J. S. Connor became pastor 
in November, 1888. He was educated at William Jewell College. During 
his pastorate the parsonage was built at a cost of one thousand eight hundred 
dollars. At this time L. A. McMuckin, I. H. Campbell and A. E. Asbury 
were trustees. In April, 1902, B. L. Mitchell was elected pastor. Rev. C. A. 
Buchanan became pastor in 1894, continuing ten years. He was another- 
noble spirit. The writer knew him well and loved him tenderly. He was a 
true interpreter of God's word and a genuine, loyal-hearted preacher of the 
pure gospel. His work was the joy of his life. His pulpit was his home and 
his throne. He died at Palmyra, Missouri, while serving as pastor of the 
Baptist church there. 

Rev. O. S. Russell became pastor in October, 1896, and served one year, 
and was succeeded by Rev. T. M. S. Kenny in 1897, serving two years. He 
died in 1909, in Colorado. Following him came Rev. E. S. Paddock in Sep- 
tember. 1899, and in December, 1901, came pastor J. D. Mathews, who re- 
mained but one week. Rev. A. S. Guinn became pastor in January, 1902, 
remaining until May, 1905. Rev. T. R. Carr became pastor in July, 1905, 
serving to December 9, 1906. Rev. W. B. Watts became pastor and contin- 
ued till August. 1908. During his pastorate our new church building was 
erected at a cost of about thirteen thousand dollars. Rev. Watts is a man of 
untiring energy, converted late in life and had but few early advantages when 
he entered the ministry. When he left the church it still owed a debt of three 
thousand dollars, under which we are still struggling. Rev. Lee Harrel be- 
came pastor December 20, 1908, and is still the pastor. During these two 
years the Lord has been good to him and his people. The church is making 
progress in the payment of the church debt and hope to dedicate it in the near 

The present officers of the church are : Rev. Lee Harrel, pastor ; H. C. 
Snyder, treasurer; Walter W. McElrov. clerk; Albert Foulds, S. A. School- 
ing and A. E. Asbury, trustees; Walter McElroy, A. E. Asbury, Walter 
Chiles, Charles Wright, Frank Heimbrook, S. A. Schooling, D. A. Staley and 
H. C. Snyder, deacons. 

It was the original design in building to have the church cost ten thou- 
sand dollars. Of this amount, Capt. A. E. Asbury agreed and did give one- 
fourth and also placed a beautiful memorial window in the church in memory 


of his daughter. Another fine window was contributed by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hartman. We now have the most beautiful house of worship of any Baptist 
church in Lafayette county. It is the prayer of the pastor that we may be 
enabled to give it to the Lord and Master free of debt during his pastorate. 
The last three thousand dollars is hard to raise. ^ 

The present pastor was born in Todd county, Kentucky, April 13, i860. 
He came with his father to Clay county, Missouri, when he was about fifteen 
years of age. He graduated from William Jewell College with the class of 
1892. He served as pastor at Plattsburg from 1891 to 1893. He was pastor 
at Piatt City from 1893 to 1908. He served the First Baptist church at 
Neosha during the year 1908. While pastor at Piatt City he was elected 
moderator of North Liberty Association. The Lafayette-Johnson Associa- 
tion elected him moderator the first year he came among them. May the 
Lord of all grace teach him how to do the work of his Master. 


This church was organized October, 1871. The constituent members 
were : Thomas W. Snyder. Mrs. M. J. Snyder. Mrs. M. M. Clark, Edward B. 
Starke, Mrs. Hallie A. Starke, R. W. Chamberlain, Rev. E. Roth and wife. 
In November, 1871, Rev. E. Roth was elected pastor and E. B. Clark, clerk. 
Ten years later the church moved to Corder and H. C. Snyder became church 
clerk. About that time the present church building was erected. Rev. Roth 
served fifteen years as pastor, from 1871 to 1886. Rev. Leonard followed 
in 1887, served one year, and Rev. A. M. Cockerill was called in 1888, serv- 
ing until 1890. In 1 89 1 Rev. F. L. Streeter was made pastor, serving two 
years. Then followed Rev. J, T. Philips, serving from 1893 to 1896. Rev. 
J. T. Jetmore served during 1897 and Rev. F. G. Campbell in 1898. Rev. 
Philips in 1899 an< ^ 1900. Rev. C. F. Whitlock was elected pastor in July, 
1901, serving one year. In 1902 Rev. W. S. Peace became pastor, serving 
until his death, in 1904. The same year the clerk and Sunday school super- 
intendent died. In 1905 Rev. L. J. Harris became pastor, serving four years. 
He was succeeded in 1908 by Rev. T. A. Bowman, the present pastor. This 
church owns property valued at two thousand eight hundred dollars. The 
membership is one hundred and seventeen. 


This is another good German church, situated four miles northwest of 
Odessa. It was first organized in 1879, as an English-speaking Baptist 
church, but in 1885 the community having been settled up with Germans, it 



was changed to a German Baptist church. The pastors have been : Revs. 
Alex. Barton, J. W. Tate, W. Griefe, W. Mueller, M. Hoefflin, Rudolph 
Klitzinz, Charles Bruckman and Prof. Hoffman. The house of worship is 
a frame structure, costing one thousand dollars. The present membership 
is forty-one. Like the other German churches of our society in Lafayette 
county, they stand at the head in contributions to the Lord's work. 


The Baptist church at Odessa was organized August 25, 1874, by pas- 
tors and deacons from Greenton, Lexington, Mound Prairie, Concord, Enan 
and Long Branch, with the following members : 

Virgel Haskell, Samanthe Haskell, Mattie Haskell, J. B. Carmichael, 
Nancy Carmichael, J. L. Carmichael, Maggie Carmichael, T. W. Carmichael, 
Winifred Burns, Milton Smith, Mary Smith, Ida Smith, Dona Smith, Lu- 
anda McClure, Mary J. Starr, Ann Bird, Viola Hatch, G. W. Wheeler, Rich- 
ard Nickelson, Zurilda Nickelson, Eliza Wheeler, and Hannah Barker. 

The following have been pastors : Revs. G. W. Smith, D. C. Bolton, 
J. B. Jackson, I. N. Newman, Henry Barton, J. L. Carmichael, Alex. Barton, 
L. Ellege, W. T. Russell, W. M. Tipton, S. H. Morgan, A. F. Baker, C. A. 
Buchanan, F. P. Davidson, M. L. Bibb, J. L. Downing, J. D. Biggs and 
L. M. Proctor. 

Since its organization this church has had enrolled as members about 
twelve hundred persons. At present the membership is three hundred and 
twenty. The church owns property valued at seven thousand five hundred 
dollars. This is one of the very best churches in any small town in Mis- 
souri. They are liberal in contributions. 

A few of the pastors of this church deserve more than mere mention. 
Alex. Barton, who died while yet a young man, was a remarkable Christian 
character. He was a great preacher. The writer of these notes was with 
him in his last hours. He and Rev. Fisher were conducting a protracted 
meeting at Kearney, Missouri. I well remember his last sermon. After he 
was taken ill Rev. Fisher continued the meetings and this sick man sent 
over town for men to come and see him and then I listened to him preach 
to them from his dying bed, saying "Come near me and see how sweet it is 
to die a Christian." I will never forget that night. He told Fisher to go 
back and preach as he never had before, adding, "I will be at home with God 
before your services close." I carried a note to the church before the meeting 
closed that night telling of his departure. 


Another powerful preacher from this church was Rev. J. D. Boggs. 
When pastor of this church, he was a great sufferer and the church really 
immortalized itself by its treatment of Doctor Biggs, for they cared for 
him royally. 


This church was organized in 1871. They own property valued at 
nine hundred dollars, and have a membership of thirty-four. No more facts 
could be obtained from this church. 


This church was organized in 1909 and now enjoys a membership of 
twenty-nine. They worship in an old house built by a Union society long 
years ago. Dr. J. L. Downing organized this church. It is well located and 
bids fair to grow and prosper. 


This church was formed in 1908 in the old church two and a half miles 
southeast of Concordia. The church at Concordia claims this property, but 
the brethren who worship there feel that it is theirs. The matter is still 
in the courts. We are sorry such a thing ever happened. We have visited 
this little church and find a fine body of Christians. Rev. C. F. Carter is 
their pastor. He is a safe and sane man and the work is prospering. The 
membership is one hundred and six. This church property is valued at two 
thousand dollars. 


I could get no items of interest from this church. It was once a great 
church, but is now about dead. 


St. John's Methodist Episcopal church (colored), of Lexington, was 
organized in 1865, the close of the Civil war period. The original members 
were Briston Ragsdale, Howard Inman, Dolly Ragsdale, L. Hagood, John 
Clady, Mary Inman, Neal Davis, Bartlet Martin, D. Smith, Fanny Buford 
and Z. Foster. In 1868 a brick edifice was erected at a cost of three thou- 


sand dollars. In 1881 it had a membership of seventy-five, with a Sunday 
school of about as many, instructed by ten teachers under superintendent 
Mary Turney. 

At this date the membership is one hundred and one. The Sunday 
school has an average attendance of fifty pupils. The church property is 
valued at three thousand dollars, while the newly repaired parsonage is worth 
nine hundred dollars. Both church and parsonage are nicely located on 
North Twelfth street. The present pastor is Rev. E. P. Geiger, who came 
frona Slater, Missouri, in April, 1910. 

The African Methodist Episcopal church was organized in Lexington, 
October 13, 1867, on College street. The names of the first members were 
Nelson Coleman, Bettie Langhorn, Edith Wilson, Dandridge Johnson and 
Daniel Jenkins. The first edifice in which they worshiped was a frame struc- 
ture erected in 1867, costing two thousand dollars. In 1870 the present 
fine brick edifice was erected at a cost of four thousand dollars, and was 
dedicated by Bishop T. M. D. Ward, of District of Columbia. Among*the 
earlier pastors were : Revs. S. Washington, James Madison, John M. Wil- 
kerson, J. N. Triplett, W. L. Harroad, W. A. Dove, J. C. C. Owens. The 
present pastor is Rev. M. Collins, formerly a presiding elder in the church. 
In 1880 this society numbered one hundred and thirty-seven. It is the strong- 
est colored society in Lafayette county, and has among its membership many 
well-to-do men who own their homes and have landed estates and good busi- 
ness qualifications. 

In Lafayette county there are in the various churches of the African 
Methodist Episcopal church, five hundred and thirty-nine members. 

The Colored Methodist Episcopal church at Odessa has a membership 
of forty-five, and own a good frame edifice. 

At Wellington this denomination has a membership of thirty-seven, own 
their own church, valued at one thousand dollars, and a parsonage, valued at 
eight hundred dollars. 

At Higginsville this denomination has a society and expect to build a 
church building soon. 

The Colored Baptist church of Lexington has a creditable edifice on the 
corner of Twelfth and Main streets. 



"Knowledge is power," and this was early realized by the pioneer set- 
tlers who braved the storms and trials of the period from 1820 to 1840 in 
Lafayette county. As a result of the foundation stones laid by these intelli- 
gent and far-sighted pioneers, the present generation has the splendid educa- 
tional facilities that it enjoys. 

The date of the first schools within Lafayette county hovers around 1820. 
It was in 1817 that settlement was effected a few miles to the west of the 
present town of Waverly. Those who located there, to build homes for 
themselves, were Littleberry Estes, John Evans, a Mr. Hyde, a Mr. Russell 
and a few more whose names are now forgotten to the oldest inhabitant. 
The settlers came in mostly from Madison county, Kentucky. It matters but 
little just where the first school was taught, or by whom. It only matters 
about how early did the pioneer band in this part of Missouri take measures 
to provide schools for their children. By some it has long been claimed that 
the first school was taught by a son of the above pioneer Estes in the winter 
of 1819-20, while by others, just as positively, it is claimed that the first 
school was taught by Benjamin Gooch, in 1820, in what was called the Bed- 
well school house, two miles east of Lexington, on the old Dover road. Be 
this as it may, the time of establishing schools was about the year 1820. 

The early schools were the two already named and the following : One 
taught by John Drummond in 1823-24, which was about two miles farther 
out from Lexington than the one taught by Joseph Farrar in 1822; James 
Warren taught in 1822 in the John Catron neighborhood; Col. John Stapp, 
later a county judge, taught, in 1828-29, at the Swift school house; James 
Frances taught in or near Old Lexington, in 1829-30; Dr. A. T. Buck taught 
the earliest grammar school in Lafayette county, in the old log court house 
in Lexington; Judge James Pearson taught one or two years prior to 1830 
in the Warder vicinity; William Spratt taught, in 1833, four miles east of 
Lexington, in the Catron settlement. These facts have been sifted down 
from history, record and tradition by such good authorities as William 
H. Chiles, John Catron, Dr. William A. Gordon and Rev. Joseph Warder. 

These were typical "subscription schools" in the true sense of the well- 


known, oft-used term in America prior to 1840. The buildings, like the 
cabin homes of the patrons, were built from round logs. The floor was 
simply the earth, well pounded down. The seats were made from slabs, 
with pegs inserted in auger holes for legs. The building was sometimes 
lighted with a single window and some had greased paper as a substitute 
for glass. They were heated by the old-fashioned mud-chimney fireplace. 
In these buildings hung the "master's lash," which was too frequently used 
to be enjoyed by the erring youth who dared to disobey the many hard- 
to-keep rules of the instructor. "The Hoosier Schoolmaster," by Edward 
Eggleston, might have been written in Missouri, as easily as in Indiana! 

In these schools the teacher was usually paid the sum of one dollar per 
month for each scholar, and boarded around from one house to another. 
It was a purely private enterprise, by which the schoolmaster made his living. 
The community, however, always favored such educational plans, by furnish- 
ing as good a log school house as was within their means. These buildings 
were also used for religious services, for be it remembered that a majority 
of the settlers who came in from beyond the Mississippi river, to make homes 
for themselves, did not (as has by some historians been claimed) "leave their 
religion in the East." Each new settlement of fifteen or more families had 
its own subscription school privileges, and no special improvement was made 
for nearly twenty years. In these schools only reading, writing, spelling and 
arithmetic were taught. Writing was done by means of a goose-quill pen, 
and often pokeberry juice was used for ink, the "copies" being set by the 
teacher, whose penmanship was sometimes good and sometimes not so good ! 

It is found by research that by 1836 Dover got to "puttin' on airs" and 
had a school house with a puncheon floor, and in other ways was quite in ad- 
vance of the other sections of Lafayette county. For this reason, that 
school was termed the "Dover Academy." It was taught by John A. Tutt, 
and became so largely attended that he had to have an assistant. There 
were also taught grammar, geography, natural philosophy, geometry, and 
even an attempt at trigonometry. The pupils paid a dollar for the "common 
branches" and as high as two dollars and a half for the "higher branches." 
Doctor Gordon, later of Lexington, taught there, after attending the school. 


John Aull, a well-known and, for that day, well-to-do citizen of Lexing- 
ton, made his will on May 2, 1838, and he died in February, 1842, just 
four years from the day he made his will. It contained this bequest : 


"I give, devise and bequeath in trust to the county court of Lafayette 
county, in the state of Missouri, the sum of one thousand dollars, to be 
loaned out by said court on real estate security, of ample value and free 
from all incumbrance — and the interest carrying therefrom to be applied un- 
der the direction of said court to pay the tuition or education" of orphan or 
poor children under the age of sixteen years, at or within two miles of the 
county seat of said county." 

He also gave the same amounts from his estate to Ray, Clay and Jack- 
son counties. This accounts for what at one time seemed a mysterious thing 
in the school fund reports of the county, for later it was placed in the public 
school fund, where it was designated as the "Aull Fund." 


It appears from the state records that the public school came into prom- 
inence about 1840, as the first apportionment was sent to the state superin- 
tendent by J. L. Minor in January, 1842, and this shows the following array 
of facts for the various districts that reported, though it is certain that the 
county had more school districts at that date than is here shown : 

Twp. and Range. Months Taught. Teachers. No. Pupils. 

Township 50-26 . . . Seven months $1 19.00 43 

Township 50-26 . . . Nine months 96.00 20 

Township 48 Six months 165.00 43 

Township 48 Six months 150.00 33 

Township 48 Six months 84.00 17 

Township 49-24 . . . Six months seven days 150.00 30 

Township 51-24 . . .Five months twenty-four days 35 

According to the printed report of the state superintendent in 1871, 
it is seen that the county had eighty-two sub-districts. There were seventy- 
six school houses, six brick, sixty-three frame and seven log. The total num- 
ber of white children was 7,388; colored children, 1,286; total, 8,674. All 
were in public schools except 601, who attended private schools. Average 
wages for male teachers, $55.11 ; female, $39.28. 

Ten years later the record discloses the fact that Lafayette was keep- 
ing pace with her sister counties. She then (in 1881) had one hundred and 
six houses in which school was taught ; had ninety white and nineteen colored 


schools in operation. The wages, be it said with regret, had not advanced, 
but had been reduced, — men getting forty dollars and women thirty-one dol- 
lars. But in all other ways the schools were in a superior condition. The 
rate levied for school purposes was then thirty-three cents on every hun- 
dred dollars worth of property. The cost per pupil, per day, was eight 

Coming on down almost thirty years, to 1910, the following showing is 
made in the public school system of this county : 


Lexington schools, in 1909, had an enrollment of 1,254; teachers em- 
ployed, 28; average daily attendance, 976; in high school, 129; average wages 
paid, $46.64; assessed valuation of district, $1,500,000. 

Corder schools — Enrollment, 231 ; average attendance, 190; teachers em- 
ployed, 5; average wages paid, $51.80; levy on one hundred dollars, $1.05; 
assessed valuation of district, $296,400. 

Wellington schools — Teachers employed, 4; average wages paid, $47.56; 
enrollment, 180; assessed valuation of district, $190,000; levy on a hundred 
dollars worth of property, seventy cents. 

Alma schools — Enrollment, 57 ; teachers employed, 2 ; averages in wages, 
$55.00; total valuation of district, $97,000. 

Concordia schools — Enrollment, 126; teachers employed, 3; average in 
wages, $66.30; district valuation, $300,000; levy thirty cents on a hundred 

Dover schools — Enrollment, 81; teachers employed, 3; average wages, 
$42.50; district valuation, $165,000; levy on a hundred dollars, sixty-five 

Napoleon schools — Enrollment, 71 ; teachers employed, 2 ; average wages 
paid, $41.75; valuation of district, $49,000; levy on a hundred dollars, 
eighty-five cents. 

The total number of school houses in the county was 103 for white chil- 
dren and 15 for colored children. Of these buildings, 12 were constructed of 
brick. The number of pupils was 5,483 white and 694 colored, — making a 
total of 6,177. Of these, 1 10 graduated in the state course of study. 

The average daily attendance was 4,859. Estimated value of all school 
property, $200,000. Average monthly wages for men teachers, $76; average 
for women, $45. Number of teachers employed in county, 173. Amount 
paid for teachers' wages, $68,000. Average levy on every hundred dollars of 


taxable property for school purposes, sixty-five cents. Total number of per- 
sons between the ages of five and twenty-one in county, 9,145, of which 1,066 
were colored persons. Total number of school districts in Lafayette county, 99. 

Recently the rural schools of the county have been organized under close 
supervision of the county superintendent, with a course of study from which 
pupils can graduate and go directly to the high schools of the county, without 
further preparation or loss of time. 

The teachers, patrons of the schools and school boards are taking more 
interest in the work of making good, efficient schools for the rural districts 
than has ever been seen in the history of the state. 

From 1866 to 1873 ' n Missouri there existed a school law which pro- 
vided for a county school superintendent, but at the last named date it was re- 
pealed and each township had its school officers and there was a school com- 
missioner system, which was anything but a good thing for the educational 
advantages of the county. After much discussion, pro and con, in the Legis- 
lature for over thirty years, the present system was brought about. Now the 
people elect a highly competent educator to look after the general school inter- 
ests and instruct the teachers in many ways. The present school law went 
into effect in 1909 and is giving the best of satisfaction. 


No history of Lafayette county would be considered in any way com- 
plete in the treatment of the educational institutions once existing within its 
borders, if it failed to mention something concerning "Chapel Hill'' and her 
illustrious alumni. 

The present generation knows but little, if indeed anything, of this once 
famous educational institution, where many of the men who have made Mis- 
souri famous obtained their education and which was destroyed during the 
terrible Civil war fought between the years 1861 and 1865. 

About the year 1840 Archibald Wellington Ridings, a scholarly man, 
who was born in Surry county, North Carolina, in 1815, came to Missouri and 
located on a large farm lying in both Johnson and Lafayette counties, just 
three miles east of the Jackson county line. On a beautiful and commanding 
ridge on the Lafayette side, but only one hundred yards from the Johnson 
county line, Mr. Ridings built a comfortable home and had numerous cabins 
for his negro servants. This picturesque point overlooked the beautiful valley 
of the Blackwater creek almost its entire course through Johnson county — in- 
deed, the source of this stream is a fine spring in a shady dale at the foot of 
the ridge upon which this able pioneer built his home and where later was the 


big stone college which should ever perpetuate his name, for be it understood 
that in his day and generation Mr. Ridings might well be likened to Horace 
Mann for his educational qualifications and what he accomplished for the 
great, busy world in which he moved as a leading spirit. There remains at 
the present day on that lonely and now quite silent spot nothing to mark or 
suggest the location of the once noted Chapel Hill College, save possibly a heap 
of stones long ago moss-covered and overgrown with brambles. And there 
is nothing to mark the old townsite, but a church, a store and a few residences. 

Mr. Ridings, the eminent founder of this educational institution, was 
educated at Chapel Hill, the State University of North Carolina, so he named 
his school in the then new West after his alma mater. He began with but 
one student and the commencement of this school came about in this way : 
Soon after the founder came to Missouri he was happily married to Mary J. 
Stapp, a sister of Senator F. M. Cockrell's first wife. Milton Stapp, a youth of 
seventeen and a brother of Mrs. Ridings, was fond of hunting and on one 
of their journeys in pursuit of game he accidentally wounded himself in the 
leg. The limb was so shattered it had to be amputated. Thus maimed, the 
bright lad had to abandon his usual pursuits and pleasures, so his considerate 
brother-in-law, Mr. Ridings, determined to give him a thorough education. 
There were no good schools near, so he took upon himself the task of teach- 
ing the boy. After a while, as was natural, this method became somewhat 
monotonous to the lad, so, to keep him interested and content, his teacher 
told him to ask two or three of his friends to join him in his studies. At the 
close of the session in the spring, Mr. Ridings, who was a "gentleman of 
leisure," was so interested in his new occupation that he told his pupils to 
bring with them in September any friends who desired an education. They 
took him at his word and accompanying the boys in the fall were ten others. 
It may be that the big-hearted tutor got more than he bargained for, but he 
never said so. A room in the spacious home was set apart and furnished as 
a school room. 

From this small beginning developed the Chapel Hill College. In the 
early forties a school building became necessary to accommodate the rapidly 
increasing numbers of students, and a large two-story stone structure was 
erected upon the most sightly location on the ridge. The dormitories for the 
students were two-room cottages, with porches in front, scattered about the 
campus and adjacent lots. These were for male students only. The girls — 
and there were many of these, as this was a mixed school — boarded with 
private families in the neighborhood. 

The cost of early education will be seen by the following : An interest- 


ing fact in connection with the history of this college was the item of living 
expenses. Lodging, board and washing and candles (this being long before 
kerosene or electric lights were thought of) cost the students one dollar and 
twenty-five cents a week. And it was board "fit for a king," too. Turkeys, 
wild and tame ; chickens, game, spare-ribs, sausage, old ham and oodles of 
rich cream, milk and other good things. But then it must be understood that 
turkeys sold for twenty-five and thirty cents each; chicken, ten cents; pork, 
two and a half cents, and butter at ten cents, so really it cost little to feed the 
inner man. Just what the tuition was is not now a matter of record. 

A brother of A. W. Ridings and the father of Mrs. P. L. Fulkerson, of 
Lexington, Missouri, lived in a very large house in the vicinity of Chapel Hill. 
He had a great many colored servants (slaves), so he was induced to furnish 
board and lodging for the girl students. Sometimes there were thirty or 
forty boarders in that home in one term. 

After the institution was fairly launched as a college the faculty con- 
sisted of the president and ten professors. The Rev. C. G. McPherson was 
its first president. He was succeeded after four years by the Rev. Robert D. 
Morrow. Later, the chair was occupied by Dr. William Washington Sud- 
dath, and his successor was the Rev. George V. Ridley. All these were men 
of thorough education and well known divines. 

In all this time Mr. Ridings remained in the college as one of the in- 
structors. Senator Cockrell, who graduated there, taught Greek and Latin 
one year after his graduation. Milton Stapp, in whose interest the school 
began, taught mathematics many years in the college. 

Chapel Hill College soon passed into the hands of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian church synod and many eminent ministers of that denomination were 
educated there. It meant something to get a diploma from this fine old 
school. The curriculum was thorough and conducted by able professors. It 
was the largest school in western Missouri, if not indeed in the entire state 
at that day. In his zeal, his unswerving efforts in the upbuilding of Chapel 
Hill College and his substantial assistance where it was most needed, the Rev. 
Albert Moore may be called one of its founders. Certainly, he can be num- 
bered among the great and truly good men who gave, unremunerated and un- 
stinted, their influence and help for the promotion of the institution. This 
man was the father of Gen. Milton Moore and John Moore, of Kansas City. 


Here are named a few of the many graduates of Chapel Hill : Milton 
Stapp and Senator F. M. Cockrell have already been named. Then came the 
sons of Rev. Albert Moore, Governor John S. Marmaduke and his brother, 


Col. Vincent Marmaduke ; Colonel Bledsoe, of the famous "Bledsoe Battery" ; 
Dr. John D. Wood ; the late Joseph W. Mercer, of Independence ; the late Col. 
John T. Crisp ; the Rev. Dr. Hong and Rev. James Dalton, of Warrensburg, 
and the Rev. G. L. Wood, of Belton. Lee W. Jack, of Warrensburg, who can 
proudly boast that he is a part and parcel x>f Chapel Hill College, being con- 
nected by birth or marriage with each of the fine old families of that once 
noted neighborhood, was a student at the college with a few interruptions for 
six years, entering in 1850. Mr. Jack's mother was a sister of Mrs. Ridings, 
Mrs. W. W. Sudduth, Prof. Milton Stapp and the first wife of Senator Cock- 
rell. A brother of L. W. Jack, John W., and a sister, Mary Jack Brook, were 
students at this college. W. A. Almond, of Gainsville, Texas, and Joseph 
Ward also spent some years there. Among the young women students were : 
Miss Kitty Renick, Miss Mary E. Wilson, of Bates county, who married Rev. 
Hong; Miss Lou Davis, Miss Mary Jennie Ridings and Miss Lucy Hall. 

Many Indians and Mexicans attended school at Chapel Hill. Jose Wat- 
rous, a Spanish boy, was sent to Chapel Hill when he was but ten years old 
and remained twelve years, when he left the college an ordained preacher of 
the Presbyterian church. 


Monday night, March 26, 1863, the famous old college buildings were 
set on fire and destroyed by vandals inspired by partisan hatred. No one saw 
the persons who perpetrated this wicked work, but suspicion pointed only one 
way. The Civil war was at its height at this time, so no effort to rebuild the 
institution could be considered. After hostilities ceased, there was too much 
want and general desolation in the stricken state to admit of endeavor to build 
anything of a public nature. Homes had to be restored and life begun anew, 
especially in the rural districts of the border counties. Other institutions of 
learning lured students elsewhere and sealed the fate for all time of old 
Chapel Hill College. 

Though he was compelled to witness the passing of the excellent school, 
upon the upbuilding of which he had spent his best years and efforts, the spirit 
of Archibald Wellington Ridings was undaunted. He was the moving spirit 
in the location of the normal school at Warrensburg, which is a fitting and 
enduring monument to his memory. 


Facts Furnished by E. N. Hopkins. 

Lexington boasts not alone of her excellent female colleges, but also has 
an excellent military academy, the origin of which was the outcome of a sor- 


row and a well-tempered philanthropic spirit upon the part of its founder, 
Stephen G. Wentworth, of Lexington. Mr. Wentworth had a son named 
William, who was born in Lexington December 30, 1852, and when fifteen 
years of age united with the Presbyterian church and was a devoted Christian. 
For five years he was acting teller in the well-known Morrison- Wentworth 
Bank, but his health failed and after spending some time in the milder climate 
of far-away Texas, he returned to his native place and on May 2, 1879, passed 
from earth's shining circle. This deeply affected his father, who decided to 
make a thank-offering in way of some public benefaction in memory of his 
beloved son. After looking the field over well, he concluded to found a male 
academy in Lexington. In 1878 the First Presbyterian church of Lexington 
dissolved its organization and Mr. Wentworth bought their house of worship, 
on the corner of Elm and North streets, for two thousand five hundred dollars 
(the original cost being eleven thousand dollars), with the view of founding a 
male academy. In September, 1880, a school was opened in this building, 
under the name of "Wentworth Male Academy." In September, 1879, Prof. 
B. L. Hobson had opened in Lexington a select school for boys, but he merged 
his plans with Mr. Wentworth's and associated himself with Prof. Sandford 
Sellers; they conducted the school one year, when Professor Hobson retired 
on account of failing health. 

On April 18. 1881, the institution was duly incorporated by the follow- 
ing named persons, constituting the first board of trustees : 

"Now therefore, we the undersigned, S. G. Wentworth and William G. 
McCausland, of the Presbyterian church ; Henry C. Wallace, of the Mission- 
ary Baptist church; Edward Winsor, of the Methodist Episcopal church 
South; George M. Catron, of the Christian church; William F. Kerdolfr", Sr., 
of the Episcopal church, and Benjamin D. Weedin, of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian church, hereby constitute ourselves, our associates and successors, a body 
corporate and politic under the name of the 'Wentworth Male Academy' for 
the period of nine hundred and ninety-nine years from and after the date 
hereof, subject to renewals and extensions, and vested with all the rights, im- 
munities, powers and privileges granted to educational associations under 
article ten of chapter twenty-one of the revised statutes of Missouri of 1879." 

All denominations were to be admitted, but the institution was always 
to be instructed by Christian men. The first annual catalog was issued in 
July, 1 88 1, and showed a roll of fifty-three students. Prof. Sanford Sellers, 
A. M., was principal; Prof. A. W. Payne, assistant; S. G. Wentworth, presi- 
dent board of trustees ; George M. Catron, secretary ; William F. Kerdolff, 
treasurer. In addition to the academy building, Mr. Wentworth also pur- 


chased a house two squares farther west, at the corner of Oak and North 
streets, commonly called College street, for the academy boarding house, which 
had for its matron a devoted Christian woman. 

The success of the school was assured from the first and in a short time 
it had outgrown its rooms and grounds, when its generous founder donated 
more grounds. The present buildings and twelve acres of land on which 
they stand comprise a part of the old Lexington battle ground of Civil war 
days. In 1901 it was stated "that on these campus grounds where the States 
met and fought, over one hundred students, from eighteen states and Old 
Mexico, now gather daily at the call of the bugle and learn the art that has 
made the parade ground historic." 

The growth of this school has forced a recognition from the state of 
Missouri and it has made it a part of the National Guard system, in 1889, 
commissioning its graduates and thus giving it a relationship to West Point 
Military Academy. The United States has for years made Wentworth Mili- 
tary Academy one of the one hundred military institutions to which a detail 
of an army officer, and also the furnishing of ordnance and stores without 
cost to the school have been made. During the days of the Spanish-American 
war, many men and officers went forth for service from this academy. Gradu- 
ates from Wentworth have gone forth to enter the chief universities in the 
country and have won honors as both scientific and classical students. A 
diploma from here admits to many high grade educational institutions in the 
United States. 

In June, 1910, there were enrolled in this Academy two hundred and 
nineteen students. The trustees at this date are : Judge Richard Field, presi- 
dent; Walter B. Waddell, secretary; Judge William G. McCausland, treas- 
urer; Captain W. D. Rankin, Judge John E. Burden, Judge Benjamin D. 
Weedin, J. O. Lesueur. The officers of inspection in 1909-10 were: Capt. 
P. D. Lockridge, general staff United States Army ; Adjutant-Gen. F. M. 
Rumbold, Missouri National Guard; J. D. Elliff. A. B., A. M., inspector for 
the Missouri State University. 

The roster of students by states in the last catalog shows : Central 
America, 1; Colorado, 12; Illinois, 12; Indiana, 1; Iowa, 7; Kansas, 32; 
Louisiana, 2; Old Mexico. 4; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 92; Nebraska, 8; 
Oklahoma, 46; Wisconsin, 1 ; total, 219. 


The buildings include a spacious armory hall, fifty by eighty feet in size, 
in which drills are conducted in inclement weather. The buildings are all of 
solid brick masonry, except the armory hall. The whole institution has the 


modern advantages of hot and cold water, bath, closets, hot water heating sys- 
tem, electricity and gas for illuminating purposes. The grounds, including 
the farm near the depot, embrace nearly sixty-five acres, well elevated and 
drained, also nicely covered with a rich growth of blue grass and adorned 
with handsome shade trees. In 1908 there was constructed a new set of 
buildings additional to the others named. This includes a brick structure, 
thirty by one hundred and eight feet, three stories high, modeled after the 
government school at West Point. The amount expended two years ago for 
buildings and additional grounds and equipment was forty thousand dollars, 
while last year fifteen thousand dollars was spent in the purchase of fifty acres 
more land. 

Starting as a small day school, with only a local patronage, a uniform 
growth has continued through various stages of development and experiment 
until grounds, buildings and equipment, comparing favorably with the best 
military schools in the country, have been secured and until an attendance has 
been reached equaled by only a few military schools in the United States. 

Capt. G. B. Pritchard, Jr., Fifth Cavalry, U. S. A., has been detailed as 
military instructor and entered upon his duties in January, 19 10. He is a 
thorough graduate of West Point Military Academy, of the class of 1895, 
served through the Spanish-American war and is doing excellent work — that 
designed by the war department at Washington. 

It may be added, that this is not now an individual enterprise, but is in- 
corporated and belongs to a board of trustees. It has no debt whatever and 
these facts insure its permanence. 

Facts Furnished by E. N. Hopkins. 

In pursuance of a benevolent purpose of the Masons of Missouri the 
grand lodge of the state in 1843 purchased all the property of Marion College, 
in Marion county, consisting of thirteen hundred acres of land and a suitable 
college building. The institution was incorporated under the name of the 
Masonic College the same year by an act of the Legislature. The faculty con- 
sisted the first year of Worthington Smith, grand master of the grand lodge 
of Virginia, and Archibald Patterson. The school grew and soon Professor 
Patterson was promoted from the preparatory department to the chair of 
mathematics, the vacancy being filled by Mr. Hollingsworth. With this fac- 
ulty, the school continued until 1846, when the grand lodge determined to re- 
move to Lexington, where the people had subscribed thirty-one thousand dol- 


lars to secure its location. In 1847 the corner-stone was laid with imposing 
ceremonies conducted by Grand Master Joseph Foster. On July II, 1848, 
during the session of the grand lodge in Lexington, the building was dedi- 
cated. Two hundred Masons, two hundred Sons of Temperance, six hundred 
and fifty Sunday school children and more than two thousand ladies and gen- 
tlemen walked in the procession which marched from the court house. The 
following is quoted from a contemporaneous account by an eye-witness : 
"Upon arriving at the college the various members of the procession placed 
themselves immediately in front, while the fraternity marched into the build- 
ing and received it from the hands of the committee. They then returned to 
the portico, the grand master occupying the center, the grand chaplain, grand 
secretary and other officers on either side, and the other members on the stone 
steps below. The services were commenced by singing a verse of a hymn, 
followed by an appropriate prayer by the grand chaplain. Another verse was 
sung, when the grand master, in the name of the Great Jehovah, dedicated 
the building to the cause of virtue. This was followed by the elevation and 
clapping of hands, the public demonstration of Masonic honors ; another verse 
was sung and the edifice was dedicated in the name of St. John. The same 
demonstration followed and again, after another verse was sung, it was dedi- 
cated in the name of the Masonic fraternity throughout the world. The pro- 
cession then formed and went to the grove, where hundreds awaited their 
arrival. After some measure of order and quiet was obtained, prayer was 
offered by the grand chaplain. The marshal then introduced the orator of the 
day, A. L. Slayback, to the enormous concourse of waiting hearers, or rather 
spectators, which a large portion of us were compelled to be." 

A description of the building by the same writer is in part as follows : 
"It is a neat and substantially built edifice, fifty-seven feet front by eighty 
feet deep, with a basement of hewn stone, and two other stories of brick. 
The front, which is made in imitation of stone, is in the Grecian Ionic style, 
with four fluted columns with their appropriate caps and entabulatures. In 
the center of the tympanum, protected by the corona of the pediment, stands 
in bold relief the letter "G," the great initial of the fraternity. On either 
side is that consoling emblem of universality, the sprig of evergreen. The 
frieze and architrone are each ornamented with appropriate Masonic emblems. 
The basement contains a chapel twenty-eight by forty-eight feet; on each of 
the other floors a wide hall runs through, with rooms on either side for reci- 
tation and other college purposes. The grounds contain a little more than 
six acres, wholly unimproved, but they will doubtless present a very beautiful 
appearance and be adorned by the skill of man." 


On the next day the grand lodge elected the first faculty for the college 
here. It consisted of: Hon. Wilkins P. Fannehill, of Nashville, president; 
Archibald Patterson, professor of mathematics; William Cameron, of Vir- 
ginia, professor of the preparatory department. Fannehill declined the pres- 
idency and the board of curators elected Dr. H. Sherwood, former president 
of Shertliff College, Illinois, who served one year. He was succeeded by Dr. 
C. G. McPherson, who served one year. Prof. F. L. B. Shaver, principal of 
the preparatory department during the session of 1849-50, was elected presi- . 
dent in 1850 and served three years. For the next two years Archibald Pat- 
terson, professor of mathematics, presided over the institution as president 
pro tern. William T. Davis, principal of the preparatory department from 
September, 1852, was elected president in 1855, and continued in that office un- 
til the college closed its doors in June, 1859. Professor Patterson was with the 
school continuously from 1843 to 1855, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
Thomas P. Akers, afterward member of Congress from this district. Pro- 
fessor Cameron remained with the school until 1857, when he was succeeded 
by Rev. W. W. Sudduth, who continued until the end. The principals of 
the preparatory department were in order of succession as follows : Cameron, 
Davis, D. C. Allen, John E. Ryland, Rev. Geo. K. Dunlop. Besides these 
several special lecturers were engaged in the departments of chemistry, geology 
and philosophy — Dr. J. B. Alexander, Dr. William H. Ruffin and Dr. J. Bull. 

In the early days of this school trial was made of the under-graduates as 
assistants in the preparatory department, and while the work of these students 
— "pupil teachers" — met with the approbation of the college faculty, the 
plan was not popular w'th the patrons at large and was speedily discontinued. 

From the very beginning the college supported two flourishing literary 
societies, the Erodelphian and the Philologian. Their public exercises at the 
close of sessions in February and July were considered events of quite as 
much importance as those of graduating day. 

In 1850 Professor Patterson was sent East by the grand lodge to pur- 
chase material for the equipment of laboratories of physiological and chemical 
apparatus, for which the curators paid the sum of six hundred and sixty-five 

The subscriptions of Lexington citizens given to secure the location of 
the college here were more than sufficient to purchase the land and erect the 
building. The support of the college was expected to come from tuition fees 
and from assessments upon the Masons throughout the state. These assess- 
ments proved unpopular, and resort was had to the popular, but mistaken, 
policy of so many colleges half a century ago — that of selling scholarships to 


provide endowments. At considerable expense, about thirty thousand dollars 
worth of these scholarships were sold and as the sales were conditioned upon 
the sale of a minimum sum of fifty thousand dollars, the grand lodge of Mis- \ 
souri. in July. 1852, assumed the remaining twenty thousand dollars. But 
the sale of scholarships served to drain the tuition income, and soon the college 
was in a dangerous financial condition. The old Masonic College property 
was sold in 1850 for four thousand dollars, to be paid in six annual install- 
ments. This was a heavy loss. The Masons of the state grew restless under 
assessments. An appeal was made to Congress for a donation of public lands, 
but the appeal was not heard. Finally the college closed its doors in 1859 and 
the enterprise was abandoned — an interesting enterprise, for it was the first 
Masonic college in the world. Several other States — chiefly Southern states 
— followed the example of Missouri in establishing Masonic colleges, mostly 
for men. but at last, in 1851, Texas established one for women. All of them, 
it is believed, have failed. 

In May, i860, the grand lodge of Missouri appointed a committee of 
three to secure the proper legislation for the transfer of the property to 
the state of Missouri for school purposes. The act was passed and approved 
in May, 1861, but the transfer was not made until May, 1866. Therefore 
the state made an appropriation of three thousand dollars per annum for the 
maintenance of a military institute, and fifteen thousand dollars for the im- 
provement of the buildings, which had been greatly damaged by the war. 
How unfaithfully the work was done may be inferred from the report of the 
committee of the Legislature in 1.870. It was reported on the floor of the 
House that no school had been held for the past few years, that about two 
hundred dollars had been spent in repairing the building and that the military 
department consisted of four colored youths, who periodically parade around 
the dilapidated building. The Legislature forthwith passed an act authoriz- 
ing the governor, B. Gratz Brown, to deed the property back to the Masonic 
grand lodge, which was done. On April 18, 1871, the grand lodge deeded the 
property to the Marvin Female Institute (since Central College), upon condi- 
tions as follows : That a first-class institute should be maintained perpetually, 
without more than two years consecutive intermission; that thirty boys of de- 
ceased Masons are to be received annually, free of tuition. The failure of a 
great farternity and of the state is exchanged for the success of the church. 


The alumni of this college included such men of note as follows : United 
States Senator Stephen B. Elkins, of West Virginia; Thomas B. Catron, of 
New Mexico ; Alonzo Slayback, Governor John S. Marmaduke ; Judge John 


E. Ryland, Samuel Ruffner, Judge Samuel Gilbert, Wilbur F. Boyle, L. Beds- 
worth, Thomas Scudder, Ranney Brothers, St. Louis business men; Nove 
brothers, business factors of St. Joseph ; Robert and Richard Keith and many 
others who have made their mark in life's aims and ambitions. 

For the present standing of this school, or rather Central College, which 
has succeeded the old Masonic College, the reader is referred to the item of 
"Central College," elsewhere in this book. 


Furnished by Alumnae of College. 

In February, 185 1, the Lexington Female Collegiate Institute was incor- 
porated by the Missouri Legislature, with a board of trustees composed of 
members of the Baptist, Methodist. Christian, Presbyterian and Episcopal 
churches. From its imposing title and its wide appeal for patronage through 
its board of trustees it may be presumed to have possessed a high ambition. 
This happened also at the period when Lafayette county, having built a new 
court house, which is the one now in use, had the old court house and public 
square, where built, for disposition. This square is the one in East Lexing- 
ton which is now vacant except that the Baptist mission chapel occupies the 
southwest corner, and is one of the most beautiful building sites in our city. 
At that time the court house, which was standing about the center of the block, 
was a commodious brick main building and a wing, three stories in height and 
without anything in its architecture suggestive of its use. and was readily 
convertible into a school building with ample dormitories. The trustees of 
the budding college purchased from the county this square and building, and 
adapted it to the use of the institution. The fortunes and history of this 
school, even if pertinent to this occasion, can hardly be obtained at this late 
day. Its first president, however, was the Rev. C. G. McPherson, of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian church. The school was non-sectarian. Mr. McPher- 
son retired from the presidency in 1854 and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. 
Schenck, a Presbyterian minister, and the school closed its history in 1855. 
In that year a number of leading Baptists of Lexington, in anticipation of 
founding a Baptist college to take the place of this "institute." purchased this 
property for nine thousand dollars and in the same year the Baptist Female 
College was incorporated by a special act of the Legislature of Missouri, and 
its work ushered into existence under the charge of Rev. Elijah S. Dulin, its 
first president. Among the original trustees — twenty-one in number — we find 


names well known in the history of this city as well as of the church : William 
B. Watldell and William H. Russell, of the famous freighting firm of Wad- 
dell & Russell, the rich men of that day; Joseph McGrew, of the well-known 
McGrew family ; James Royle, the father of the beloved senior deacon of the 
Baptist church of today; the Rev. E. S. Dulin, above referred to; Rev. A. P. 
Williams, the famous Baptist preacher of that generation ; Rev. Edward Roth, 
once pastor of the Lexington church, and William Duval, whose descendants 
are still with us. Of the others, none left anything behind except their con- 
nection with the college, but that of itself is enough honor and glory for the 
average life. One trustee, William B. Waddell. has been succeeded by two 
generations in the same office, his son, John W. Waddell, and his grandson, 
Walter B. Waddell, present member of the board. 

During the Civil war and probably in its second year, the United States 
army took possession of the college buildings and used them as a barracks and 
a hospital. W 7 hen the school was thus deprived of its buildings, Rev. J. A. 
Hollis, then its president, removed the remnant of the school to the basement 
of the Methodist Episcopal church and continued in it a short time, when it 
ceased until the close of the war. The buildings were by misuse rendered 
untenable and the property was sold to private parties, who afterwards sold 
the buildings for old brick and had the square platted into lots, the college 
only getting four thousand dollars for the entire property. After a number 
of years, the United States government made a small appropriation to pay 
for the damages to the property and for its use. 

In the meantime, to fill the interim during the time when the college had 
no home, Dr. E. S. Dulin conducted a female college on his own account, 
using temporarily the unfurnished auditorium of the Baptist church for a time, 
then the Russell mansion, now the residence of J. C. McGrew, Sr., and finally 
the property of Doctor Dulin, being the entire square in which is the residence 
of Oscar Andreen, that building and a frame row of buildings in the north 
half of the block constituting the plant of the "Lexington Female College," as 
it was styled by Doctor Dulin. 

But the first Baptist Female College was not dead nor its trustees in- 
active, and in 1869 the Waddell mansion was purchased from Mrs. Susan C. 
Waddell, wife of William B. Waddell, one of the original trustees, at a cost of 
eleven thousand four hundred dollars, and the college re-opened there, with 
Rev. E. S. Dulin, D. D., as president. In the subsequent years this building 
was enlarged, the chapel wing built, third story added and other improvements 
made, which, with the Smith and Mountjoy property added on the east a few 
years ago, constitute the final home of our beloved college. 


In 1903, for reasons which seemed to involve the best interests of the 
school, a large majority of the board of trustees agreed to change the name. 
The necessary legal measures were taken and the school now bears the name 
of Lexington College for Young Women, and under the charter must ever 
continue as a Baptist institution. 

In 1870 Doctor Dulin was succeeded by Rev. D. H. Selph ; 1873, by Prof. 
A. F. Fleet, A. M. ; 1888, by Rev. F. Menefee; 1891, by Rev. W. A. Wilson, 
D. D. ; 1896, by W. H. Buck, A. M. ; 1898, by J. A. Beauchamp, A. M. ; 1900, 
by E. W. White, A. M., and R. N. Cook, A. M. 

Under the management of Professors White and Cook, the college is hav- 
ing a degree of prosperity equal to any period in the history of the school. 
Having more departments and a higher standard than ever before, the work 
done may be counted as superior to that of former years. The friends of 
Lexington College are longing for enlarged accommodations by which this 
old historic school may lead on to still greater usefulness. 


"We feel the importance and absolute necessity of having, and main- 
taining, denominational schools and colleges, knowing that the church and 
society of the future depend, more than all else, perhaps, upon the character 
of the coming women." Thus a committee on education, in the late six- 
ties, expressed the determination of the Methodist Episcopal church South, 
in Lexington, to declare formally in favor of the higher education of wom- 
en, and to pledge support to an institution that might be chosen to work out 
its ideals. 

Despite the fears of friends as to the success of such an undertaking, 
notwithstanding the financial pressure which the reconstruction period 
brought, a building was secured in a beautiful part of the city, and Marvin 
Institute was founded. The pastor of the Southern Methodist church, Dr. 
W. F. Camp, assumed the added responsibilities the position of president 
brought, and with the courage and faith necessary to the beginning of so 
great an enterprise, "threw open the doors for the reception and education of 
the daughters of the church on the second Monday in September, 1869." The 
record of the first year can be briefly stated in the words of the committee 
appointed to report the condition and prospects of Marvin Institute to the 
annual conference : "Our fondest hopes have been met and blessed." The 
institution was recommended to the fostering care of the St. Louis confer- 
ence, then comprising the whole state south of the Missouri river. 

At the beginning of the second year, Dr. J. O. Church was elected pres- 


ident of the institute and chairman of the board of trustees, with the same 
corps of teachers who had previously labored in the school. 

When the old Masonic College succumbed to the desolation of war, the 
buildings became barracks and the campus a battlefield, where many of the 
sons of that noble institution surrendered all for their country. And after the 
war, when destruction told of the blighted hopes and ruined prospects that 
had centered there, the Masons of Missouri gave the buildings and grounds 
to the Methodists of the state, to be used perpetually for the education of 
women, thus pledging the denomination, in a peculiar way, to this depart- 
ment of church work. A charter was secured, the school incorporated as 
Central Female College, and the quarters moved to the present unsurpassed 
location on the bluff's of the Missouri. 

For the four years following, Dr. W. T. J. Sullivan had charge of the 
college. Doctor Sullivan was a good financier, deeming the ""financial in- 
tegrity of a school vital to its success" ; an able educator, appreciating the 
importance of the great fundamental principles of scholarship; and looked 
well after the spiritual interests of the young women committed to his care. 
The record of the year 1873-74 shows thirty-seven boarding pupils, and 
twenty-three day pupils enrolled, and as a further item of interest, there is 
added, "the school is self-sustaining." 

During the administration of Rev. Marshall Mcllhaney, and of his suc- 
cessor, Dr. W. G. Miller, there was no retrograde movement, but each year 
showed improvement over the one preceding. 

The election of W. F. Kerdolff to the presidency marks an epoch in the 
history of the college. Strict adherence to the real, the genuine, had inspired 
the confidence of the public, which so increased the patronage that larger 
buildings were demanded. In the summer of 1884 a twenty -five-thousand- 
dollar building, modern in all of its appointments, was erected. The char- 
acter of the faculty and of the school work was not overlooked in the en- 
thusiasm over material growth, but thoroughly prepared, experienced teach- 
ers looked after the practical and ethical interests of the students. 

It was no surprise, then, that President A. A. Jones, coming to the 
school in 1889, trained to the work of an educator, not only maintained, but 
enlarged upon the work that had been done. More room had to be provided, 
a lengthened course of study prepared and accepted, and the administration 
was marked by a development under approved conditions, attendance, build- 
ings, curricula, and college spirit expanding together. 

Upon the resignation of President Jones, Rev. Z. M. Williams, whose 
record as a Methodist pastor has identified him with every forward move- 


ment of the church, was called to the presidency. His work in raising the 
standard of the college, and in beginning a fund for an endowment, was a 
source of pride to the friends of the institution, and after his six years of 
labor, the curators gave a unanimous expression of appreciation of his ef- 
forts in the general upbuilding of Central College. 

While Rev. Alfred F. Smith had charge of the institution, there were 
added yet other conditions of favor and strength. Again the school reached 
a point where further advancement was necessary. Crowded for room, 
hampered by lack of fuller equipment and better facilities for its enlarged 
work, the funds were provided for the erection of a twenty-five-thousand- 
dollar wing to the main building, and additional money was given by the cit- 
izens of Lexington for the renovation and remodeling of the old structure. 
A home for the president was purchased and refitted, and the institution re- 
incorporated as Central College for Women. By the authority of the board 
of curators, the course of study was made to meet the requirements as laid 
down by the general board of education for colleges in "Class A." Thus the 
energies of this president, and his associates, gave confidence to the hope 
that Central College for Women would grow into one of the great schools 
for women in America. 

■ Believing that the past history of the college is but the prophecy of its 
future success, Rev. G. M. Gibson has entered upon his duties as president 
with the earnestness and enthusiasm that has characterized his efforts for the 
church in other lines of its activities. Coveting the best things for the insti- 
tution, he is seeking to bring about the furtherance of its interests, and the 
full development of its resources. 

In reviewing this record, we find that "among the colleges for women in 
the middle West, Central College for Women stands eminent. It is not ex- 
celled in these facts : Its buildings and grounds are worth more than one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; it has a campus of forty-seven acres; 
it has forty years' useful history; it has a large and influential membership 
of past students and alumnae, and the pledged support of one hundred and 
ten thousand Methodists." 

st. Paul's college. 

Bff Prof. Andrew Baepler. 

St. Paul's College, at Concordia, Missouri, is the property of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States, one of the sixty- 
five Lutheran synods of the United States. This synod is divided into 


twenty districts. Missouri is in the western district; the districts lying far- 
ther west are named after the states. 

Before 1884 the Missouri synod, as it is called, had two theological 
seminaries, one normal school and two colleges. The colleges are modeled 
after the pattern of a German college or gymnasium. The colleges were 
situated one at Fort Wayne, Indiana, the other at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Their chief object was to prepare young men for the study of theology at 
the theological seminary at St. Louis, Missouri. 

The rapid growth of the synod called for a large number of pastors, 
and it was generally felt that the material out of which pastors might be 
made west of the Missouri territory could not be reached in the synods by 
the two colleges. The demand for a third college situated in this territory 
therefore seemed imperative. 

Pastor Biltz, of St. Paul's Lutheran church at Concordia, was at that 
time president of the synod's eastern district, which in those days comprised 
all the territory west of the Mississippi river, except Iowa and Minnesota. 
Being called upon to supply more ministers than he could, he, more than any 
other, realized the need of a western college in which students from his dis- 
trict could prepare for the study of theology. As this synod itself could not 
be moved to found one, because it thought itself unable to do so, pastor 
Biltz persuaded his congregation to undertake the work with the help of the 
surrounding Lutheran congregations. 

In the fall of 1883 four acres of ground adjoining Concordia on the 
north were bought and the Rev. A. Baepler, the synod's English missionary 
in southern Missouri, was called as professor, St. Paul's congregation guar- 
anteeing his salary. January 3, 1884, Professor Baepler began work with 
six students, whose number increased to seventeen before the close of the 
session, in July. As the college buildings had not yet been begun, the stu- 
dents were at first instructed in the Professor's study, and then in pastor 
Blitz's catechism classroom. 

Like the two colleges at Fort Wayne and Milwaukee, St. Paul's College 
was to be on the order of the German humanistic gymnasium. In these col- 
leges the lowest class is called Sexta ; this is followed by Quinta, Ouarta, Ter- 
tia, Segunda, Prima. Each class covers one year's instruction, but the aim 
is to devote two years to each of the two, if not of the three upper classes. 
As yet this has not been possible in the synod's colleges. 

It was supposed that St. Paul's College would serve its purpose to some 
extent, if it had but two classes. For the students that had finished the course, 
it was thought, would not hesitate to take the four following classes at Fort 
Wayne or Milwaukee. 



During the summer of 1884 the college building was finished, and it 
was dedicated August 31st. It contained rooms for the professor and his 
family, for the students, for the matron who took charge of the boarding de- 
partment, and the necessary classrooms. 

When the school began in September, 1884, Quinta was added to Sexta, 
Professor Baepler teaching both classes in all branches, except music, which 
was taught by Mr. Wilk. 

In 1886 Quarta was added to the school, Dr. W. Happel, of Albany, 
New York, acting as the principal's assistant for one year. 

In September, 1887, Prof. H. Schoede, recently of the St. Louis Sem- 
inary, was appointed second professor, which position he still holds. 

It should be mentioned here that St. Paul's congregation, in 1885, offered 
the college to the Western district of the synod and that the synod accepted it. 

In December, 1887, Professor Baepler accepted the position of prin- 
cipal of the synod's Fort Wayne Concordia College. He was succeeded as 
principal, or, as it is called according to German custom, director of St. Paul's 
College, by the Rev. J. H. C. Kaeppel, of Jefferson City, Missouri, who had 
for a number of years been a professor in Waltber's College, St. Louis. 

In 1890 it became necessary to add a three-story building to the first 
house, and to call a third professor. This was the Rev. E. A. Pankow. In 
1891 another class was added, making four, with a four-year course. At 
the same time five more acres of ground were added to the campus. 

In 1896 the college, which, as has been stated, was now the property of 
the Western district of the Missouri synod, was offered to the general synod 
and accepted. The synod, however, reduced the classes to three. 

In June, 1897, Professor Pankow resigned and returned to the ministry. 
He was succeeded by Professor Baepler, the school's first teacher. 

In 1902 the synod resolved to restore the lost class to the college, thus 
again giving it a four-years course, and to appoint a fourth professor. Ac- 
cordingly, the Rev. E. Pardieck, of Chicago, in September, 1902, entered 
upon his duties as a teacher of the college. 

In 1903 a building was added, which serves as a boarding house for all 
the students and as a dormitory for a part of them. 

On March 11, 1905, the college was in danger of being destroyed by 
fire, but the fire department of Concordia succeeded in getting the fire under 
control before it could spread. But the three-story building was seriously 

In June, 1905, the general synod finally resolved to add two more classes 


to St. Paul's College, thus making it unnecessary for the students of St. 
Paul's to go to Ft. Wayne or Milwaukee to finish their education. Of 
course, two more teachers had to be added to the faculty. In September, 
1905, Secunda was added to the classes, and the Rev. H. Lobeck, of Cape 
Girardeau, Missouri, became the fifth professor. In the following year, 
Prima was added, giving the college six years, and the Rev. William Schaller, 
of Quincy, Illinois, was installed as sixth professor. 

The synod had also passed a resolution" to add a new recitation hall to 
the buildings of the college. In May, 1907, this new house was dedicated. 
At the term's close in June, 1907, sixteen members of Prima were found 
fitted to enter the St. Louis Theological Seminary, being the first class that 
had received its college education at St. Paul's only. 

On January 1, 1910, the director of St. Paul's College reported to the 
synod students in their respective order, twenty, eighteen, nineteen, twenty- 
four, twenty-seven, thirty-six. 

Prof. Otto Kirchers, of Concordia, and J. Sagchorn, one of the teachers 
of St. Paul's congregation, instruct in instrumental music. 

Agreeable to its purpose, St. Paul's College lays particular stress upon 
instruction in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, English and German. The ordinary 
course in algebra, plain and solid geometry and trigonometry, and in the 
natural sciences, is afforded. German is the means of instruction in the 
ancient languages and in history and religion ; all other branches are taught 
through the medium of the English language. 

The students whose aim is to enter the Lutheran ministry — that is to 
say, nearly all the students — pay no tuition and no house rent, — in fact, 
nothing but their food and the cost of preparing it. Of course, each student 
provides his own books and clothing. 

From the beginning, the members of the Concordia and Emma Lutheran 
congregations took upon themselves the care of keeping the students' linen 
clean, in order to save them laundry bills. On Sundays most of the students 
take their dinners with the families of these congregations. 

Every year the Lutheran congregations of Lafayette and Saline counties 
collect food stuffs of every kind and take them to the college, while the 
church members that are not engaged in farming contribute money. All 
of these gifts go to the boarding department and serve to keep the board 
bill of the students at a very low figure. The unavoidable expenses of a 
great many students are defrayed, in part at least, by their home congrega- 



This school was established in September, 1905. Its faculty is com- 
posed of eight regular teachers and several assistants. Preparatory and col- 
legiate courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Art, Bachelor of Laws, 
and Bachelor of Science are maintained; also special departments of piano, 
art, expression, commercial and shorthand studies. On the principle that 
God's laws are best to develop character, and that all men should know the 
contents of the only book that brings civilization, happiness and eternal life, 
the Bible is taught to each pupil daily. It is not, however, a theological 

About one hundred and fifty students have been enrolled each year. It 
is co-educational and undenominational. The property consists of the col- 
lege building, and a dormitory for students. 


Among the defunct educational institutions of Lexington, which in its 
day was very prominent and prosperous, was the Elizabeth Aull Female 
Seminary, which was established through the noble spirit of Elizabeth Aull, 
who was born in New Castle, Delaware, in 1790. She united with the Pres- 
byterian church in her native city when aged but fifteen years. She was 
a sister of James, John and Robert Aull and Mrs. Maria Pomeroy, all of 
whom were early settlers and wealthy and prominent citizens of Lexington. 
Her name appears as early as 1839 as being among the first members of the 
Presbyterian church here. 

During 1857-58 Elizabeth Aull had a lingering illness, which finally 
resulted in her death. During this period she meditated much upon what 
she should do with her property, she holding about one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars in her own right, and it was in this time of illness and suf- 
fering that she formed her plans and purpose to do something for the edu- 
cation of the young women of this state. About this time occurred the fail- 
ure of H. S. Chadwick & Son, to whom she had loaned ten thousand dollars 
and taken security on Mr. Chadwick's fine residence. This mansion was 
about to become her property, and it seemed like an act of kind providence 
in helping her to found her cherished institution for ladies. She called in her 
pastor, Rev. B. M. Hobson, and asked his counsel concerning some of the 
details. It was her own act — she had made up her mind to do this thing 
before ever mentioning it to any one. 

Item thirty-sixth of Miss Aull's will contained the following : 


"I give and bequeath to Robert Aull, George Wilson and Rev. B. M. 
Hobson, as trustees, upon the condition and subject to the restrictions here- 
inafter named, the following real estate situated in the city of Lexington, 
Missouri, viz : The real estate recently purchased by me of Hanson S. Chad- 
wick, and now in his possession, embracing lots numbered five and six, seven, 
eight and nine, in block number two, in Mundy's addition to the town of 
Lexington, as described in the plat of said addition, now on file in the re- 
corder's office for the said county of Lafayette, the real estate hereby be- 
queathed being the whole of the real estate conveyed to me by the said H. S. 
Chadwick and wife by deed dated the 29th day of September, A. D. 1858. 
In trust, however, to be used as a female seminary of learning, under the 
management and control of the Presbyterian church of Lexington, Missouri, 
of which I am now a member; upon condition, however, that upon said prem- 
ises such seminary shall be opened and established within three years after 
my death. And if on such premises such seminary shall not be opened and 
established within the period on aforesaid premises, or said premises shall 
cease to be used for a period of two years, then said premises and every part 
thereof shall revert to and become a part of my estate. And if in addition to 
the real estate above specified, which I value at ten thousand dollars, a further 
subscription of ten thousand dollars in money shall be made and paid to the 
proper persons, for the use and benefit of said seminary, within three years 
after my death, then I give and bequeath to the said trustees, the further 
sum of ten thousand dollars for the use and to be expended for the benefit of 
said female seminary." 

This will was signed and sealed by Miss Aull in the presence of Edward 
Stratton, William P. Boulware and A. H. McFadden, October 5, 1858. Her 
death occurred December 12, 1858, and on December 18th the will was pro- 
bated. February 22, 1859, the will was recorded and the executor (Robert 
Aull) was placed under bonds of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for 
his faithful execution of its many bequests. 

The citizens of Lexington soon commenced to raise subscriptions for 
the ten thousand dollars above named. About six thousand dollars was 
subscribed. It was feared that the ten thousand dollars could not be raised 
and that the property would then revert back to Mr. Aull. the executor. 
When this was made known, Mr. Aull made a proposition which would le- 
gally meet the terms of the will, and at the same time not thwart the wishes 
and plans of his sister to found a seminary for women. He would take the 
Chadwick property, as the will provided he should, and give his own house 
in place of it for the school ; and also give one-half of the contingent ten 
thousand dollars. This was not nearly as liberal an offer as Miss Aull had 


calculated to make; Mr. Aull's house was not nearly so good a one, and 
the amount of money was only one-half; but it was a great deal better than 
to lose the school entirely, because the ten thousand dollars "additional sub- 
scription" could not be raised. Thus the plan went through and the sem- 
inary was founded. Stephen G. Wentworth was a trustee from the begin- 
ning of the enterprise, and was treasurer seventeen years and president of 
the board for three years. Also he donated to this school a telescope and some 
other scientific apparatus, besides other valuable donations. 

The Legislature of Missouri chartered the institution March 12, 1859, 
and incorporated Robert Aull, Rev. B. M. Hobson, Gen. R. C. Vaughan, Dr. 
J. B. Alexander, John Chamberlain, George Wilson, James Wilson, S. G. 
Wentworth, Samuel F. Taylor, A. W. Hutchins, W. J. Ferguson, Rev. T. 
A. Brachen and Edward M. Samuel as the original board of trustees. 

Rev. Lewis Green Barbour was chosen first president and the school 
was thrown open in September, i860. The school prospered, but soon the 
Civil war came on and somewhat hindered its forward march. Mr. Bar- 
bour remained true to his trust until the close of the war, when he resigned 
and was succeeded by Capt. Rufus W. Finley, A. M., who commenced in 
1865 and quit in the summer of 1867. He was followed by Anthony Haynes, 
who served three years and was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Quarles, A. M. The 
latter was a great educator and possessed much experience, but it was too 
much for his strength and in 1875 ne was forced to resign and was succeeded 
by Rev. James M. Chaney, A. M., who served only three years, being fol- 
lowed by Maj. A. H. Todd, A. M., who remained one year. In 1877 Mr. 
Quarles, having abandoned the ministry on account of his throat, was again 
chosen president and served ten years. 

In 1879 President Quarles bought more ground and enlarged the insti- 
tution greatly. Doctor Quarles continued as president of the school until 
1886, when he was succeeded by Prof. J. D. Blanton, who served until 1892, 
when he was followed by Rev. T. Peyton Walters, who was president until 
1896. Next came Prof. W. H. Morton and he served one year. Then the 
Rev. H. B. Berks succeeded to the presidency, but it being impossible to 
carry on the school under so many adverse circumstances, it was discontinued 
and in January, 1903, a majority of the members of the Presbyterian church 
authorized the trustees to sell the property. Accordingly, in 1906, the prop- 
erty was sold to Sanford Sellers. The proceeds of this sale, amounting to 
about four thousand dollars, are, in accordance with the will of Elizabeth 
Aull, now held by the trustees and available as a nucleus for the establishment 
of a Presbyterian school in Lexington, Missouri. Who will undertake the 
establishment of such a school is the question yet to be solved. 



For thousands of years there have been numerous secret or civic fra- 
ternities of men banded together for high and honorable purposes. With 
the early settlement of Lafayette county these were not numerous, but had a 
following, and it will be the aim of this chapter to inform the reader as to 
their organization and present standing. 

Of Masonry, it may be stated that the first lodge to be instituted within 
this county was Lafayette Lodge, No. 32, which was organized June 3, 1840, 
its chapter bearing date of October 8th. It was surrendered December 1, 
1866, and a new charter granted October 19, 1867, with original name and 
number. The following were the first members : Thomas Benedict, Martin 
Fitzpatrick, James C. Mason, James W. Wetzel, Cyrus Osborn, P. Phillips, 
C. Osborn, William Houx. 

Lexington Lodge, No. 149, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was 
organized June 4, 1855, with the following membership: O. Anderson, G. A. 
Kein, J. Vaughan, J. B. Alexander, R. B. Bradford, J. A. Crump, D. F. 
Greenwood, T. Hinkle, W. P. Walton, T. H. Fox, S. Keith, B. P. Evans, E. 
Winsor, William J. Pignote, R. M. Henderson, J. R. Hale, and thirteen other 
names not reported. From April 21, 1862, up to November, 1865, no meet- 
ings were held, but at that date a meeting was held and members were rein- 
stated. At that meeting, or soon thereafter, the following were elected : E. 
Winsor, worshipful master; W. G. McCausland, secretary; B. R. Trelaun, 
senior deacon ; F. B. Hall, junior deacon ; A. Walk, tyler. Its present mem- 
bership is one hundred and thirty-five. Its elective officers are : M. C. Mc- 
Fadden, worshipful master; Wm. J. Bandon, senior warden; G. C. Marquis, 
junior warden ; H. Sinauer, secretary ; L. C. Yates, treasurer. 

Lexington Royal Arch Chapter was organized October 13, 1848, by John 
F. Ryland the charter being dated in October of same year. John F. Ryland 
was the first high priest. The present membership is sixty-nine. Its officers 
are: Robert Norfolk, high priest; O. O. Crawford, king; M. C. McFadden, 
scribe ; H. C. Sinauer, secretary ; W. D. Rank, treasurer. 

Dover Lodge, No. 122, was organized in May, 1850, by Cyrus Osborn. 


The charter members were P. B. La Berten, Samuel Warren, Jacob Sutfield, 
C. T. Ustick, W. R. Shurlock, William C. Webb, W. M. Johnson, John E. 
McDougal. In 1880 there were forty-four members in this lodge. Their 
hall was leased of the Dover Store Company. About 1880, when the town 
of Corder began to forge to the front as a business center, this lodge was re- 
moved to that town and Dover has no Masonic lodge now. 

Chapel Hill Lodge, No. 330, of Sniabar township, was granted a dis- 
pensation in 1870. The names of the charter members were: John McClure, 
John W. Wilkinson, Dr. F. M. Shore, R. Edmondson, D. G. Doty, F. E. 
McCormick, A. J. Lyon, B. E. Phillips, John W. Bledsoe. In 1880 this 
lodge had eighteen members and held meetings in a hall built in 1869, at a 
cost of five hundred dollars. There was a lodge at this point prior to the 
war, but during that conflict it was robbed of the effects of its hall, including 
charter and jewels. 

Mt. Hope Lodge, No. 476, at Odessa, was instituted by Xenophon Ry- 
land, under dispensation, dated March 31, 1874, the charter being issued in 
October of the same year. It was first instituted at Mount Hope and removed 
to Odessa when that town started, hence its name. This lodge had a mem- 
bership of one hundred and four in 1910. Its present officers are as follows: 
Samuel Baggarly, worshipful master; P. B. Clayton, senior warden; C. D. 
Newhard, junior warden ; W. S. Powell, treasurer ; W. D. Barclay, secretary ; 
R. D. Crank, senior deacon ; S. S. Rutan, junior deacon ; J. P. DeMoss, senior 
steward; J. F. Martin, junior steward; W. F. McKinney, tyler; I. W. Car- 
son, chaplain. 

The past masters who are still members of the lodge are : W. W. 
Thomas, 1883; Charles A. King, 1894; H. W. McNeel, 1902; C. L. Frost, 
1903; W. S. Powell, 1904; R. D. Crank, 1905; W. D. Barclay, 1907; R. W. 
Powell, 1908; J. P. DeMoss, 1909. 

Lafayette Lodge, No. 437, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, at Cor- 
der, was instituted April 6, 1887, and now has a membership of forty-eight. 
They occupy a leased hall. The 1910 officers are: Thaddeus P. Corder, 
worshipful master; E. M. Moore, senior warden; Harris P. Bray, junior 
warden; Lewis Carthrae, Sr., treasurer, and Samuel M. Reynolds, secretary. 

The charter membership of this prosperous lodge were as follows : Lewis 
Carthrae, R. M. Barley, S. B. Shrader, George W. Corder, George W. Mar- 
quis, R. Rhodes, John Price, J. H. Hinson, R. M. Edwards, W. M. Corder, 
P. Rhodes, J. L. Reddeck, M. Wilmot, George P. Gordon, Jackson Corder, 
H. F. Corder, N. J. Gordon, Paul M. Lindsay, J. M. Winn. 


Higginsville Lodge, No. 364, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, worked 
under a dispensation from June 9, 1880, issued by H. W. Winsor, district 
deputy grand master. The first and present officers were as follows : 

First officers — William W. Preston, worshipful master; George W. 
Houx, senior warden; B. Wilkerson, junior warden; James Pedicord, secre- 
tary; A. E. Asbury, treasurer; A. Wade, senior deacon; W. J. Ferrell, junior 
deacon; H. G. Smith, tyler; Grove Young, senior steward; A. Kinsler, junior 

Present officers — Frank Monser, worshipful master; Frank Schmidt, 
senior warden; Frank Knipmeyer, junior warden; Alfred Hoefer, secretary; 
H. F. Campbell, treasurer ; Charles W. Wiley, senior deacon ; C. W. Ott, 
junior deacon; Hy. Stoll, tyler; J. Ed Sheets, senior steward; J. W. Edwards, 
junior steward. 

The present membership of this lodge is sixty-seven. 

Higginsville Chapter, No. 106, Royal Arch Masons, was organized at 
Higginsville, May 8, 1884, with the following charter membership: A. E. 
Asbury, Alonzo Barnes, Harry Hawkins, J. H. Searfoss, C. W. Seeber, S. 
B. Schrader, A. Wade, H. W. Winsor, Bernard Wilkerson, J. J. Fulkerson. 

The present membership is forty-two. A hall is leased by the Masons. 
The present officers are: Alonzo Barnes, high priest; G. H. Frey, king; D. 
H. Hancock, scribe; L. T. Land, treasurer; A. H. Hoefer, secretary. 

DeMolay Commandery, No. 3, Knights Templar, of Lexington, was 
organized in 1869 and now has a membership of forty-eight. This is the 
only commandery in Lafayette county. Its present officers are as follows : 
Walter B. Waddell, eminent commander; Owen O. Crawford, generalissimo; 
Jesse G. Crenshaw, captain general ; James R. Moorehead, prelate ; James C. 
Shelton, recorder; Minitree C. McFaddin, senior warden; Henry W. McNeel, 
junior warden; Lee J. Slusher, standard bearer; Joseph O. Coffin, sword 
bearer; William P. Roach, warder; Fred T. Wilson, sentinel. 

Waverly Lodge, No. 114, was organized by Judge John R. Ryland, under 
dispensation dated June 15, 1849. The following were the first officers: Henry 
B. Harvey, worshipful master; Michael Stevenson, senior warden; G. W. 
Hereford, junior warden; W. W. Shroyer, treasurer; John S. Nowland, sec- 
retary ; A. Francisco, senior deacon ; J. M. Lewis, junior deacon ; Joseph W. 
Cloudsley, tyler. The charter was surrendered on account of the Civil war 
and was never renewed. 

Waverly Lodge, at Waverly, was organized June 2, 1866. The first 
officers were Elisha M. Edwards, worshipful master; Charles M. Cowan, 
senior warden ; George W. Hereford, junior warden. The order leases its 


lodge room. The present officers of the lodge are : G. W. Hackley, worship- 
ful master ; Henry Larkin, senior warden ; Joshua W. Motte, junior warden ; 
W. H. Landrum, treasurer; R. P. Motte, secretary; N. G. Miller, tyler. This 
lodge is small, but doing excellent work in the grand old order of Masonry. 

Aullville Lodge, No. 464, was instituted by Xenophon Ryland by dispen- 
sation dated November 15, 1872. A charter was issued to it in October, 
1873, w i tn tn e following names attached thereto: Lewis Carthrae, A. Gra- 
ham, John W. Weeks, James F. Downing, W. C. Orear, George Osborn, 
Alexander Osborn, M. M. Gladdish, John Snyder, C. C. Mitchell and Robert 

„ - 


Wellington Lodge, No. 81, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was or- 
ganized by a charter issuing from the grand lodge of Missouri early in the 
month of December, 1854, the real instituting taking place January 5, 1855. 
At that date, with W. M. Smallwood, of Lexington, as special deputy, the 
following officers were duly installed : William A. Chanslor, noble grand ; 
Quincy A. Houston, vice-grand; James M. Holloway, secretary; William M. 
Bowring, treasurer; Joshua H. Stein, warden; William M. Leflurch, chaplain. 
These names were written on the fly-leaf of a lodge book, and when the 
effects of the lodge room were destroyed this memoranda was picked up and 
fell into the hands of J. L. Marshall, who was secretary of the lodge from 
July, 1855, to 1861. No other record of the first lodge proceedings is now in 

The noble grands following the organization were as follows : W. M. 
Bowring, John W. Mathews, James M. Holloway, J. N. Marshall. John W. 
Mathews, Joseph Tidball, C. E. Straughn. Four years had now elapsed and 
the fraternity had flourished and increased in its membership. They had 
a good and well equipped lodge room, with much tasteful regalia. But with 
the opening of the terrible Civil war this prosperity all disappeared. Meetings 
grew less frequent and were poorly attended. Many entered the service of 
their country, on one side or the other, and the lodge room was locked up, 
biding the time when peace should be again in the land. On the evening of 
September 30, 1863, the hall was broken into by a lawless band of thieves, 
murderers and cut-throats, known as the Kansas Jayhawkers, under orders of 
one Colonel Wier, who very nearly destroyed the entire belongings, smashing 
the fixtures and tramping the beautiful emblems and regalia of the order. 
They ruthlessly scattered the lodge records and other valuable belongings 


over the streets and outlying lots. By the efforts of some of the good citizens 
of the place, among whom were D. K. Duck, the charter and other valuables 
were recovered and subsequently returned to the members of the lodge. 
When, in 1866, the lodge was re-organized it had nothing left but the lists 
and a few things of valuable record, and these were destroyed by the fire that 
burned the lodge room on the night of December 19, 1873. This lodge room 
stood on the north side of the public square, where now stand the two livery 
barns. But undaunted by this bitter misfortune, a duplicate charter was ap- 
plied for from the grand lodge of Missouri, which was to bear the same name 
and number as the former one. But it was found that by the great fire in 
St. Louis in the year 1862 the entire belongings of the grand lodge had been 
totally destroyed — not even the names of the founders could be found. 
Several men, brothers of the three-link order, had pledged their efforts to 
regain their cherished idol, Wellington No. 81, so that on November 26, 
1874, a meeting was held at the lodge quarters in Wellington and the follow- 
ing officers were installed : J. A. Lockhart, noble grand ; G. C. Adamson, 
vice-grand ; H. B. Corse, secretary ; H. B. Tidball, treasurer. Since then 
meetings have been regularly held. Fortune has smiled and again frowned 
on the order, but it has steadily advanced, in the main, and today has a mem- 
bership of one hundred and forty-eight. At the time of the last fire the 
membership had dwindled down to five working members and hope was almost 
gone, but these men — J. A. Lockhart, J. A. Workman, H. B. Corse, G. C. 
Adamson and Frank Myers — stood nobly by and, with loyal hearts and ready 
hands, laid on the sacred charter, registered a solemn oath to cleave to and 
cherish the same at all times. At last triumph came and these men had their 
reward. A new hall was erected and served its purpose until 1909, when 
their present hall was built. The order owns the two properties. The new 
hall is over two modern store rooms, all being contained in a fine brick 
building, an ornament to the town and a credit to the order that has come up 
through such tribulations. 

[The author is indebted to the painstaking work of Charles M. Bowring 
for the facts contained in this article.] 

Guttenberg Lodge No. 323, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, at Lex- 
ington, was organized May 27, 1874, by G. W. McKean, district deputy grand 
master. The charter members were as follows : Henry Sinauer, C. H. Schaef- 
ermeyer, J. F. E. Winkler, John Joehner, C. Georges, J. G. Mehl, John Fritz, 
W. Siegwart, S. Schneider, N. Hearle, J. Klee, C. Huepper, J. G. Fischer, H. 
Nagel, Adam Walk and C. Meyer. The present membership of this lodge is 
sixty-seven. They meet in a leased hall on Main street. 


Lodge No. 45, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was instituted in 
185 1 and has thirty-three members at present. W. C. Shippman is noble 
grand and J. A. Wilson, secretary. 

Herman Lodge No. 380, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organ- 
ized at Concordia January 1, 1878. The charter bears date of May 23, 1878, 
and contains the following named charter members : E. F. Ninas, Henry 
Meyer, William Lodeman, Gustave Wohrenbrock, Henry Ficken, H. W. 
Thieman, W. F. Walkenhorst, J. H. Powell, J. W. Walkenhorst. In 1881 
the membership was twenty-seven, but owing to the general sentiment of the 
Lutheran and Catholic churches in the vicinity of Concordia, the lodge, in 
common with all secret societies there, went down, and there are no civic fra- 
ternities within the place today. 

Archer Lodge, No. 448, of Higginsville, was organized early in the 
history of Higginsville, and today has a membership of one hundred and 
three. They meet in the American Bank Hall. The officers in 1910 are: 
Thomas Green, noble grand ; John Sayers, vice-grand ; Fred Newman, sec- 
retary ; J. H. Burgan, treasurer. 

Dover Lodge, No. 759, of Dover, was organized February 20, 1909. 
The present membership is thirty-five. The elective officers are : O. G. 
Congdon, noble grand; H. G. Wahl, vice-grand; Philip Wahl, secretary; L. 
Wahl, treasurer. 

Odessa Lodge, No. 446, is in a flourishing condition. It has a member- 
ship of one hundred and sixty-five, with officers as follows : S. S. Rutan, 
noble grand ; W. A. Renick, vice-grand ; A. J. Stanfield, recording secretary ; 
J. A. Newhard, financial secretary; D. P. Goodwin, treasurer. This lodge 
owns a hall property worth ten thousand dollars. 

Itaska Encampment, No. 6, of the Odd Fellows order, at Lexington, 
was organized February 14. 1868, by Dr. J. F. Hassell, district deputy grand 
patriarch. The charter members were : M. W. Withers, Amos Green, J. A. 
Price, W. W. Laneborn, G. W. McKean, John Aull, J. T. Hassell and J. T. 
W. McKean. This encampment is now in a flourishing condition and has 
officers as follows : James Rosewall, chief patriarch ; W. E. Hurst, senior 
warden ; L. C. Yates, high priest ; Lee Hopper, treasurer ; J. C. Talbott. 


White Cross Lodge, No. 154, Knights of Pythias, at Higginsville, was 
organized October 22, 1890, and now enjoys a total membership of one hun- 
dred and sixty-five. They occupy a rented hall in good quarters, on the 


main street of the city. The 1910 officers are: H. E. Tucker, chancellor 
commander; Hy Galladay, vice chancellor; E. C. Gaines, prelate; D. S. 
Dickey, master of work; W. N. Laidlaw, keeper of records and seal; W. 
M. McElroy, master of finance ; D. H. Holke, master of exchequer ; Robert 
Schawengerdt, master at arms ; Finnis Kinkead, inner guard ; Harry Leary, 
outer guard. 

Lexington Lodge, No. 157, has a membership of one hundred and thirty- 
three. It is in a very prosperous condition and occupies a hall separate from 
any other order in the city, located on the north side of Main street. 

Olive Lodge, No. 97, Knights of Pythias, at Odessa, has a membership 
of two hundred and three, according to the 1909 annual record book of 


Lexington Lodge, No. 749, of the order of Elks, now so popular 
throughout the entire country, was organized here by fifty-six charter mem- 
bers, December 20, 1901. The present membership is two hundred and seven- 
teen. The present lodge home of the order is in the old bank building on 
Main street, which was later used as a residence, and sold to the order by 
Mrs. Catherine G. Reid in June, 1902. The present officers of the Elks lodge 
in Lexington are : John J. Price, exalted ruler ; B. T. Payne, esteemed 
leading knight ; George W. Kerdollf, esteemed lecturing knight ; Firman 
B. White, esteemed loyal knight; Worth Bates, treasurer; O. H. Wester- 
man, secretary; C. H. Bates, esquire; John Bowman, inner guard; John C. 
Young, Jr., tyler; A. W. Allen, chaplain; O. R. Sellers, organist; E. B. 
Campbell. J. G. Grenshaw and G. C. Marquis, trustees. 



In all ages of the world people have looked upon the pursuit of agricul- 
ture as high and honorable, and the tiller of the soil has from early centuries 
been recognized as the man who has furnished his fellow beings with that 
which has been indispensable for their sustenance. It was long ago said that 
"He who causes two blades of grass to grow where one grew before is a 
benefactor to mankind." Again, it is from the hardy, sun-burned farmers 
that have come our noblest statesmen and lawmakers. The farmer, in fact, 
has come to hold the balance of power and holds the crown of a king within 
his soiled, but truly manly hand. Nowhere on earth's fertile fields is this 
statement more nearly correct than in this great Missouri valley and the state 
of Missouri. 

During the first decade after the settlement of Lafayette county men 
were too busy to organize for mutual good and for the interchange of 
thoughts, but each pioneer sought to provide for his family, as best he could, 
by the rudest and most primitive methods. Game was plentiful, fruits of the 
uncultivated varieties abounded on every hand, and the richness of the virgin 
soil brought forth crops without great care. It was not until about 1854-55 
that our farmers sought to organize themselves, aided by the business factors 
of the county, into a society known as the Lafayette County Agricultural and 
Mechanical Society. 


In 1855 a society was incorporated, for the purpose of "promoting im- 
provements in agricultural and mechanical methods, and in the raising of stock 
and fruits." 

As the incorporators furnish the reader with a fairly good list of the 
better class of citizens of that date, the list of names is here appended : 

Minos Adams, George W. Smith, R. Hale, Street Hale, C. Ben Russell, 
John Cather, George Zeiler, George P. Venable, R. E. Hays, George Ken- 
nedy, Benj. Marshall, C. Easter, D. Russell & Co., B. T. John, John C. 


Young, Evan Young, W. M. N. Green, William Ewing, J. M. Julian, James 
Cloudsley, Eneberg & Jennings, J. F. Hassell, Strother Renick, Linn B. Gor- 
don, Thomas B. Campbell, Alexander Mitchell, William Limrick, O. F. 
Thomas, Benjamin Fish, A. Green, C. O. Grimes, George H. Ambrose, E. 
Winsor, A. J. Williams, John K. Lord, J. M. McGirk, John Catron, J. H. 
Page, A. N. Small, Henry C. Chiles, J. Russell, James F. Campbell, James 
Peddicord, William T. Wood, William T. Bell, J. D. Robinson, Loeb Terhune, 
Leroy L. Hill, J. W. Zeiler, B. R. Ireland, R. W. Kune, Tilton Davis, R. M. 
Spurtly, James C. Kelley, G. T. Douthitt, F. M. Fields, R. J. Smith, John W. 

One of the stipulations of the articles of the above incorporation was 
that the society should never hold to exceed thirty acres of land, and other 
property, including buildings, not exceeding the value of ten thousand dol- 
lars. The first president of the society was Judge William T. Wood, with E. 
Winsor, Esq., as secretary. The society built the old, now historic, "Fair 
Ground," about two miles to the southeast of Lexington. There it held 
many excellent annual exhibits, and interest was unabated until the days of 
the Civil war, which forever put an end to the activities of the pioneer agri- 
cultural society. The war came on, property was destroyed by invading 
armies, business was demoralized; the days of "reconstruction" came, and 
the dawn of brighter days made glad the heart of both the victor and van- 
quished. It was not until September, 1880, however, that matters shaped 
so that a new organization was formed for agricultural advancement by the 
farmers and business men of the county. 


The above was the title of an organization perfected at Higginsville in 
September, 1880, though it was not incorporated until June, 1881. The fol- 
lowing were the officers : President, Capt. A. E. Asbury ; secretary, L. T. 
Bell ; general superintendent, Dr."C. W. Seeber. The board of directors were 
the following gentlemen : Jackson Corder, Joseph Davis, Ryland Toddhunter, 
Charles Hoefer, W. H. Waddell, John O. Lockhart. T. B. Campbell, H. J. 
Higgins, W. A. Redd, C. W. Seeber, George P. Gordon, J. D. Connor, H. C. 

The capital stock was fixed at eight thousand dollars and the grounds 
purchased amounted to forty acres. Good buildings were erected, barns, 
shed, yards, drinking ponds, a good half-mile race track, etc. These grounds 
are three-fourths of a mile from the center of Higginsville. The Alton 
railroad tracks run near the grounds. 


The first annual exhibit was in August, 1881, and proved a pronounced 
success. The managers of this first fair at Higginsville were : Dr. C. W. 
Seeber, general superintendent ; B. S. Higgins, chief marshal ; J. D. Connor, 
superintendent of the floral hall, agricultural and mechanical department; W. 
C. Beatte, superintendent, and Mrs. R. Toddhunter, assistant superintendent 
of home, field and garden ; Mrs. H. C. Chiles, superintendent of fruits and 
flowers; Mrs. Jackson Corder, superintendent of fine arts; Mrs. H. J. Hig- 
gins, superintendent of textile fabrics and materials : George Catron, super- 
intendent of poultry department ; H. C. Chiles, superintendent of sheep and 

The society ran along for many years and prospered, but finally it did 
not meet with as good financial success as was at first anticipated and at last 
failed. The property was sold for the debts against the society and then local 
men took the matter up and formed an unincorporated company. The 
grounds were divided into town lots and sold at fifty dollars apiece, the same 
being drawn by lot. From the funds thus raised the old debts were paid off 
and a new era was ushered in. It is now known as the Lafayette County 
Fair, but has no regular corporate organization or real stockholders. This 
change was wrought in 1878, since which annual exhibits have been held 
and much attention paid to stock and speedy horses. The sum of seven 
thousand, five hundred dollars is paid out each season for premiums to ex- 
hibitors of stock, agricultural, horticultural and speed exhibitors. These 
annual exhibits are usually held in August. 

The grounds are indeed exceptionally beautiful, being shaded by fine 
trees, with fine water provisions and the best half-mile track in Missouri. 
The present officers of this association are : M. C. James, president ; T. J. 
Miller, vice-president ; Daniel H. Holke, treasurer ; J. P. Chinn, secretary. 
The people have stood nobly by this enterprise, which is of a semi-private 
nature, and the attendance has been large each year under this arrangement 
of things. 


Hon. William H. Chiles' "Centennial History" of this county had this 
to say in connection with the hemp industry in Lafayette county : 

"The production of hemp necessitated its manufacture, and in 1828 
or 1829, William P. Moore, who died in this county about two years ago, 
and John Buchanan established a rope walk in Lexington on a small scale, 
which they continued to operate for several years, but the business finally 
fell into the hands of the McGrew Brothers, and in later years their factory 


was destroyed by fire. The same fate followed these enterprising gentle- 
men when in after years they established their very extensive hemp works 
on the river levee. Twice on the levee they were burnt out, and finally 
abandoned business, and the half-ruined building on Water street, still bear- 
ing the McGrew sign, is the only remaining monument of the industry and 
perseverance of this family in one of our greatest antebellum enterprises." 
In September, 1843, tne on ^y newspaper in Lafayette county — the Ex- 
press — had this local item : "The patent hemp-brake, owned by Mr. Poyntz, 
is now fitted up in this place (Lexington), and it is to be put in operation 
every Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, if the days are fair, for the 
inspection of the hemp-growers of upper Missouri. The farmers are invited 
to come in and examine the said machine." 


The Patrons of Husbandry, commonly known as the "Grange move- 
ment," at one time here, as in all parts of the United States, flourished among 
the agricultural classes, and was not without its benefits. Although that 
organization has almost become extinct, other farmers' associations and clubs 
have taken a part of the field that it was intended to cover. It came to be a 
semi-political order, and in many localities held the balance of power. Did a 
man want office, he first made friends with the Granges in his district, for 
without them he could not be elected. The movement was very strong in 
Missouri, and there were numerous township granges established, which were 
run well for several years. One of the principles of this farmers' order was 
that they did not believe in "middle men" and sought to cut off the retail 
man's profit by shipping and buying direct to and from the great markets. 
Local stores and grain warehouses were established, and for a time all went 
well, but finally discord arose in its ranks and its days were soon numbered. 
However, many good things resulted from the monthly meetings of farmers 
and their families. Farming, dairying and horticulture, etc., were discussed 
and the best methods were thus brought to obtain in practical farm life. 

Among the Granges instituted in Lafayette county may be named these : 
Prairie Grange, in Davis township, was organized by Lewis Neale, Jr. It 
erected a neat frame hall in 1879, on section 5, township 49, range 24. Jack- 
son Corder was its secretary in 1880. 

Davis Creek Grange, No. 155, was organized in the early spring of 1873, 
with thirteen members. By 1880 it had increased to a membership of about 
sixty farmers. William Nois was the lecturer. They built a two-story frame 
building, "Grange Hall," costing about seven hundred dollars. 


Greenton Grange, No. 559, was instituted by Lewis Neal, August 5, 
1873. I R r 88o it had a membership of one hundred and twenty. It flourished 
a number of years and did much good toward developing the best methods of 
farm and home life. 

Corder Grange was instituted by Thomas Allen in 1881. John Board 
was the lecturer. It reached a membership of only eighteen and died with the 
going down of the popularity of the movement a few years later. 

Lafayette Grange, No. 305, was instituted by Thomas Allen in 1873. 
The first master was Dr. W. C. Webb. It had a membership of about sixty 
intelligent farmers, with their wives. They met in the brick school house on 
section 15, township 50, range 25. 

Chapel Hill Grange was instituted August 16, 1873. Charles T. Wil- 
liamson was the lecturer for this Grange, which had, in 1881, a membership 
of forty-four. Meetings were usually held in the school house. 

Chihuahua Grange, No. 1438, of Freedom township, was instituted by 
Lewis Neal, its charter bearing date of January 24, 1874. In 1881 this 
Grange owned a hall and enjoyed a membership of seventeen. 


At the date of the great Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, in 1876, 
Lafayette county possessed the following farm property (exclusive of lands) : 
Eight thousand, two hundred and twenty-six horses, valued at two hundred 
and ninety thousand dollars ; mules and asses, three thousand, seven hundred 
and ninety-three, valued at one hundred and seventy-one thousand, three 
hundred dollars; neat cattle, twenty-one thousand, three hundred, valued at 
two hundred and forty-five thousand, eight hundred dollars ; sheep, eight 
thousand head, valued at eight thousand dollars; hogs, thirty thousand, six 
hundred and forty, valued at one hundred and three thousand dollars. These 
valuations represent the assessed, and not true, value on the open markets of 
the world. 



The first river navigation on the Missouri was effected by keel boats — 
long, narrow boats propelled by many oarsmen — and it was in this type of 
boats that the first traders and emigrants made their way up the waters of 
the great river as far as Lafayette county. The first merchandise was also 
brought up the river in the same way. The next step in river transportation 
was the introduction of steamboats. The first steamboat that ever glided up 
to the Missouri was the "General Pike," from Louisville, Kentucky, landing 
at St. Louis, August 2, 18 17. The first steamer to enter and come up the 
Missouri was the "Independence," that left the wharf at St. Louis May 15, 
1 8 19. The next steamboat to ply the waters of the Missouri river was the 
one belonging to Major S. H. Long's United States exploring expedition. 
This passed up the stream in the month of June, 18 19, and was a part of a 
fleet, the balance being made up of nine keel boats. It was this fleet that was 
first witnessed by the few pioneers who were then living in Lafayette county, 
and from then on steamboats soon became the common carriers for produce 
and passengers along this river, and frequently landed at the various wharves 
of this section of the state. 

The next great change was effected by the building of railroads, and it 
was when the first bridge was sought to be chartered over the Mississippi 
river, at Rock Island, Illinois, that the railroad interests met with bitter oppo- 
sition from the river men and the steamboating industry. Congress was 
asked to thwart the railroad plans, and it was made to appear that building 
of railroad bridges across the great navigable water courses of the country 
would so obstruct and impede water navigation as to render it useless. It 
was only after a long contest that Congress finally granted the charter for 
constructing the bridge just named. But it was only ten years after the 
building of the Mississippi railroad bridge at Rock Island, before the same 
men in Congress, especially the representatives from Missouri, were pleading 
with their colleagues to grant a charter for the building of the bridge at St. 
Louis. Draw bridges or bridges high enough to admit the free passage of 
boats up and down the river were provided, so that both steamboating and 
rail transportation could operate at will. 


As time went on and railroads became a power and demanded too high 
freight rates, the tables turned again, and about 1880 a gigantic barge system 
was instituted by business interests and shippers of the middle West. The 
first aid toward this innovation in transportation was the construction of the 
jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi river, by Capt. James B. Eads, of St. 
Louis. This was authorized by Congress in 1875, and cost five million dollars. 
Then came the great barge system for carrying cargoes of heavy, rough 
freight, such as iron, salt, brick, grain and lumber. Direct water communi- 
cation was at once established between St. Louis and Europe by this water 
route. A report made in the St. Louis Republican in April, 1881, stated that: 
"There were started from St. Louis yesterday eighty trains of grain to New 
Orleans, the same being made up of three barge company's boats filled with 
more than a half-million bushels of grain. This amount would have filled 
one thousand, two hundred railway cars and equaled sixty ordinary railway 
trains of twenty cars each. All this wheat was put in fifteen barges. These 
barges were piloted down the Mississippi by three tow-boats and reached 
New Orleans in about nine days." 

During the months of February, March and April, 1881, there was 
shipped by these barges from St. Louis wheat amounting to one million, 
eight hundred and forty thousand bushels, corn to the amount of three mil- 
lion bushels, oats amounting to fifty thousand bushels and rye amounting to 
twenty-two thousand bushels. Hence it will be discovered that the shipping 
interests of the middle West were suddenly changed, and this brought about 
a great revolution in railroading. 

No important change marks the history of transportation since then 
until the present decade, during which time another change has been inaugu- 
rated, that of United States river and harbor improvement by Congress. 
This was brought about by the aid and suggestion of Theodore Roosevelt, 
while President. Deep waterway conventions were held at various points, and 
public attention called toward the great advantages to be had by so improv- 
ing the channels of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, with other water- 
ways of the country, that water routes to the seaboard might be more effect- 
ive and complete. Just now these streams are being surveyed and funds 
being appropriated for the extensive river channel improvements, even as far 
north on the Missouri as Kansas City and Sioux City. The business men of 
these upper Missouri cities have subscribed liberally, and the general govern- 
ment had appropriated such amounts as will bring about another state of 
improved water transportation within a few years, at longest. To be able 
to send grain, stock and other products of the Northwest down the great 


rivers to the seaboard and thence on to foreign countries will indeed go far 
toward truly developing this section of the country, and at the same time be 
a check on railroad monopoly on certain commodities, thus proving a benefit 
to the common people and producers. This legislation has not been of the 
ordinary partisan type, but espoused by both of the great political parties of 
the country. 


Concerning the early-day steamboat landings in this county, and other 
things connected with river freighting, we draw from old files and publica- 
tions printed in the forties and fifties : 

In 1843 tne Lexington Express stated that "The distance from Fine's 
Landing, near Waverly, to St. Louis is three hundred and twenty-nine miles ; 
Dover Landing, near Berlin, three hundred and thirty- four miles; Lexington 
Landing, three hundred and forty- four miles; Wellington Landing, two 
hundred and fifty miles ; Wolf's Landing, three hundred and fifty-nine miles ; 
Napoleon Landing, three hundred and seventy-five miles." 

From the same paper files it is learned that in February, 1844, notice 
was published to the citizens living on the north side of the river that the 
proprietors of the ferryboat, Messrs. Pomeroys, would, for the ensuing 
twelve months, carry all traders, together with their produce and teams, 
across the Missouri free of charge. This did not include firewood, rails and 
loose cattle. 

In May, 1844, appeared the following : "The steamer 'Western Belle' 
lay at this landing all day, receiving freight, including one hundred and thirty 
tons of hemp, which was to be shipped to St. Louis by one house." 

About the same date : "The steamer 'Western Belle' will take the La- 
fayette county delegation to St. Louis for six dollars each for the round trip, 
and while on board and at St. Louis board them, the boat to be furnished 
with good music, and a gun." 

From another Missouri newspaper is copied the following : "The United 
States snagboat 'Sampson' has passed up the Missouri, drawing out many 
snags on its route. It is a magnificent sight to see this great monster take 
hold of large walnut trees six feet in diameter and more than a hundred feet 
long, fifty feet of which have been imbedded in the mud for five hundred 
years (possibly), and draw it out with the ease of a dentist extracting a tooth. 
The largest sycamore, walnut and cottonwood trees are pulled out, sawed 
and set afloat in the stream. Many trees imbedded in the river more than a 


hundred years are as sound as when first they fell. These boats should be 
in constant use." 

September 26, 1843 — "The clerks of the steamers 'Lexington,' 'J onn 
Anil' and Tone' are each entitled to our thanks for late papers and other 

October 3, 1843 — "The new steamer 'Lexington' arrived at our landing 
on the 24th ult. She was detained several weeks on her way from Pittsburg 
(Pennsylvania) by the extreme low stage of water in the Ohio for the last 
two months. At last she was released and made her escape and made west- 
ward in good plight. May success attend the 'Lexington of Missouri.' : 

These scenes of a half-century ago may be revived in the near future, if 
the deep waterway scheme is made a success. But the boats and general oper- 
ations will be of a new and modern plan. The old-time warehouse system 
and busy scenes about the wharves of this county may again be brought back 
to our people, who have long ago abandoned the steamboat and barge for the 
passenger and freight trains. It should not be expected that there will ever 
come a time when the old means of river transportation will materially affect 
passenger traffic, for we live in too fast an age for doing away with the rapidly- 
moving express train, but that our freight will be conveyed to and from the 
seaboard by such facilities, can be counted on as certain. 


The first steam railroad constructed in the United States was the Balti- 
more & Susquehanna line, in 1830, though horse railroads had been in use 
in coal mines and quarries several years prior to that time, and in three cases 
engines had been used on such roads. 

The earliest movement for railroads in Missouri was the call for a con- 
vention at St. Louis, April 20, 1835, and that body resolved to build two 
lines in this state — one from St. Louis to Fayette, Howard county, and the 
other southward to Pilot Knob. The St. Louis & Iron Mountain line made 
its survey in 1840. The Missouri Pacific was the first road to be completed 
in Missouri. It was incorporated in 1849 an< ^ cost fourteen million dollars. 
Ground was first broken on this line July 4, 1851 ; it reached Sedalia in the 
spring of 1861, and that was the terminus until 1863. On September 19, 
1865, tne l ast ra il was laid and the line from Kansas City was connected 
with that from St. Louis, and train service commenced between the two 
cities. By 1880 — thirty years ago — the state had fifty main line and branch 


roads and over three thousand, six hundred miles of railroads, with not a 
single county north of the Missouri river that did not have one or more 
roads. These lines were operated by twenty-five separate corporations. At 
this date, 1910, there are eight thousand, one hundred and two miles of 
railroads within the state. 

The first public meeting in Lafayette county looking toward the con- 
struction of a railroad was a mass meeting held on Monday, October 11, 
1859, at which time resolutions were passed and were published. From such 
publications we extract the following : 

"That Jackson county, Kansas City and other influences west will be 
amply sufficient to insure the completion of said contemplated road from 
Lexington to Kansas City, and therefore it behooves us in Lafayette county 
more especially to look to the completion of said beginning point to the city 
of Lexington. 

"Therefore, be it resolved, to wit : That we ask the honorable county 
court of Lafayette county to subscribe half a million dollars for the purpose 
of building a road from said place of beginning (a point between George- 
town and Knob Noster) to Kansas City, by the way of Lexington, and to 
be applied toward the construction of that part of said road between the city 
of Lexington and place of beginning, to be paid in five equal installments 
(annually), the first beginning in 1861. The county in her corporate capacity 
not to retain any stock after all the subscriptions shall have been paid up ; 
but to remain a stockholder to the extent of a half-million dollars until the 
first installment shall have been paid, and certificates of stock issued to the 
taxpayers, then to be reduced one-fifth, and in the like ratio each year until 
all the stock is paid up. 

"Second, that in order to test the voice of the people of the county 
upon this proposition, a poll be opened at the respective places of voting in 
said county, on the 14th day of November, 1859, and that each voter of the 
county be requested to vote for or against the proposition. 

"Third, that we desire our county court to reserve a controlling and pro- 
tecting influence in said subscription, and guard our interests from fraud 
and misapplication of our means, and to see that our money shall not be 
spent without a certainty of procuring the road. 

"(Signed) William L. Field, Chairman." 

An election followed this, the same being held November 14, 1859, and 
it was the first of many railroad votes cast in Lafayette county. The votes 
stood as follows : 


For. Against. 

Clay township 33 199 

Davis township 98 1 

Dover township 93 76 

Freedom township 228 29 

Lexington township 470 46 

Lexington City 599 19 

Middleton township 94 80 

Sniabar township 3 163 

Washington township 50 144 

Total 1,668 757 

Total vote 2,425 

Under the old state constitution the county court had unlimited power to 
make its appropriations, but not so under the later constitution. However, the 
county court at that day acted wisely, as they asked the people to show their 
desire by casting the above mentioned vote, which was carried in favor of the 
appropriation of half a million dollars, by a majority of nine hundred and 
eleven votes. 

The county judges at that date were T. G. Smith, Richard Carr and 
Charles S. Tarleton. It was the latter gentleman who was appointed by 
his colleagues to act for the court, and he took full charge of the matter of 
subscriptions, etc. The project went forward for a time, but in 186 1 the 
company not having started its eastern terminus as agreed upon by the terms 
of contract, the county court, by a majority, refused to pay over the money 
subscribed. The case went to the supreme court, and, the Civil war coming 
on, nothing more was done by either side until 1866. when the county court 
was duly released from its former contract with the company, and the case 
was finally dismissed. 

In January and February, 1868, meetings were held at twenty different 
points within Lafayette county, with a view of voting five hundred thousand 
dollars to any railroad company that would build a line entirely across the 
county. The list of speakers, as printed in the papers of that date, show the 
following: Judge Norman Lackland, Judge William T. Wood, Judge William 
Walker, Col. John Reid, Dr. J. G. Russell, E.Winsor, Esq., and M. F. Gordon, 
Esq. The result of these mass meetings was a petition to the county court, 
which acted upon the same and ordered an election March 7, 1868. The condi- 
tions specified were that the road should run through the county so as to accom- 


modate the largest farming interests and the greatest number of citizens, 
and should establish a depot at the city of Lexington. Also that no bonds 
should be issued until enough had been subscribed along the line to grade and 
tie from Louisiana, Missouri, to the west line of the county of Lafayette, 
and all of this county's subscription should be used for work within this 
county. The result of the vote was : 

Townships. For bonds. Against bonds. 

Clay 131 143 

Davis 68 17 

Dover 144 26 

Freedom 35 262 

Lexington 763 73 

Middleton 132 21 

Sniabar 1 173 

Washington 29 148 

Totals 1 ,303 863 

The majority of the four hundred and forty votes on the proposition 
thus being given to the Louisiana & Missouri River railroad, it was sup- 
posed that Lafayette county was soon to see the iron horse steaming over its 
fair and fertile soil, but alas, such was not the case. The case was inter- 
mixed with the old company's affairs, the bonds were never issued and the 
road never materialized. The company to whom the first bonds had been 
voted in 1859 now again attacked the court and demanded the payment of 
the bonds. The case had fourteen several hearings before the court, then styled 
the "common pleas," and in July, 1868, a writ of mandamus was issued re- 
quiring the county court to issue to the Lexington & St. Louis Railroad 
Company bonds to the amount of almost a half million dollars. 


About the tirne the Civil war broke out all railroad matters were left in 
abeyance and remained so till its close. It will be remembered that just 
after the close of the war the Southern sympathizers were disfranchised, and 
they constituted a large majority of the population of this county. Soon 
after the war a great spirit of public improvement suddenly developed all 
over Missouri, and Lafayette county especially seemed possessed. The gov- 
ernment was in unaccustomed hands. The carpet-baggers were in evidence, 


though not to the extent that they abounded in the more Southern states. 
They were just as numerous, perhaps, but were not allowed such absolute 
and long-continued control. However, there were enough for acquaintance's 
sake. Lafayette county's share was not confined to one political party, but 
both parties furnished their quota. There were both Republican and Demo- 
cratic carpet-baggers. The "promoter" was in the land. The country was 
full of "prominent gentlemen" from the East, each with a scheme to make 
a whole community rich. It was only necessary to issue a few bonds and 
tax yourself a little, invest the proceeds in the stock of corporations repre- 
sented by them and they would do the rest. Immigrants would flock to your 
section, manufactories would spring up, property increase in value and you 
would find yourself in affluence. 

The railroad project was the principal game. Railroads to St. Louis, 
railroads to Kansas City, railroads east, west, north and south. Every com- 
munity was besieged by the promoters of two or three separate railroads. 
Every municipal township was canvassed (in its own interest, of course) 
by these "philanthropists." There were wealthy corporations just anxious to 
build a railroad through every town, township, village and hamlet in the 
county. All that was needed was that the people should vote a bond issue 
(just a trifle of fifty or a hundred thousand dollars — a mere drop in the bucket 
to the real cost of the road) as an evidence of interest in the matter more 
than for any other purpose. The money and much more would be spent 
right in the neighborhood and employment given to everybody at the high- 
est wages. Gentlemen of influence in every locality were induced to join in 
these schemes — some out of public spirit and others for what there was in 
it. All who were opposed to them and all who insisted on proceeding accord- 
ing to business methods and advised a strict inquiry into the matters, were 
vilified and abused and denounced on the stump and in the local papers. 
The mildest epithets applied to them were "mossbacks" and "obstruction- 
ists." There were many instances where it was dangerous to oppose these 
projects publicly, and there were men who by opposing their rascality car- 
ried their lives in their own hands. The bigger the fraud, and consequently 
the greater the call to expose it, the more dangerous was the task of so 

Lafayette county and six of her townships voted subscriptions and issued 
bonds for which they never received any returns and for the payment of 
which they are yet being taxed and will be for many years to come. As 
soon as the people who really owned and made the county came into their 
own again, they immediately put a stop to these proceedings and the great 


game of railroad promoting came to an end, there being no longer a pros- 
trate people to plunder. The promoter vanished and with him vanished the 
power that made him possible. The determined disposition of Missourians 
to manage the affairs of their own state for their own benefit was the occa- 
sion of raising the cry of "poor old Missouri" by the baffled adventurers 
from other states, in which they were joined by a few natives who had been 
willing to allow themselves to be taken hold of and managed as a province 
of another section, if by so doing they could have a hand in the plunder. 
The outcome of all this wild railroad projecting and the reckless extrava- 
gance in the management of the county's finances was a debt aggregating 
nearly a million and a half dollars, as follows : 

County bonds $988,921 

Lexington township bonded debt 150,000 

Sniabar township bonded debt 35,ooo 

Washington township bonded debt ' 75>ooo 

Middleton township bonded debt 17,000 

Freedom township bonded debt 25,000 

Davis township bonded debt 10,000 

Total $1,300,921 

In addition to the above, large sums were due as interest on the bonds 
and the county had besides this a floating debt in county warrants of nearly 
fifty thousand dollars. The first issue of bonds was about to become due. 
Suits had already been instituted against the county in the federal courts 
on interest coupons on which default had been made. Writs of mandamus 
compelling the county court to levy taxes to pay off judgments of the fed- 
eral courts were daily expected to be issued. The people were sullen and 
dissatified. Great numbers of them refused to pay any taxes, and the delin- 
quent list reached enormous proportions and a large and growing party 
calling aloud for outright repudiation of the bonded debt. 

When all the circumstances are considered, these people were not so 
much to blame. It is hard to find a parallel to the reckless extravagance and 
foolish investments and downright stealing which had brought about this ex- 
citing state of affairs. Two hundred and forty thousand dollars of the 
county's railroad debt consisted of bonds which had been surreptitiously 
issued in the night by two members of the county court, without the knowl- 
edge of the other associate. It is but fair to say that one of these was a 
Democrat and one a Republican, and that the third, from whom the matter 


was kept a secret, was a Republican and would have opposed the whole 
scheme. Judge George H. Ambrose, presiding justice of the court, and also 
president of the railroad company to whom the bonds were issued, signed 
the bonds at night in the clerk's office, packed them in his grip and carried 
them away. This but illustrates the character of the men and the methods 
used by them in fastening this enormous bnrden of debt upon this county. 


In September, 1869, Dover township voted a tax of twenty-five thousand 
dollars to aid the proposed Louisiana & Missouri River road. These bonds 
were never issued, however, and ten thousand dollars in these bonds issued 
by the county were declared void by the United States court in 1875. 

In October, 1869, twenty-five freeholders of Sniabar township petitioned 
for an election to vote thirty-five thousand dollars of township bonds to aid 
in the construction of the Lexington, Chillicothe & Gulf railroad. The elec- 
tion was ordered for November 13, 1869. The court records show that on 
December 6, 1869, the following townships voted by more than a two-thirds 
majority bonds to aid in the last-mentioned proposed railroad : Lexington 
township, $75,000; Sniabar township, $35,000; Washington township, $75,- 

On April 7, i860, Dover and Middleton townships held elections to 
vote fifty thousand dollars of their township bonds to aid the Louisiana & 
Missouri River railroad. The law disfranchising partisans of the Rebellion 
was still in force, but to meet this obnoxious condition both registered and 
unregistered men were called upon to vote, and the result was : 

Dover township — For. Against. 

Registered votes 126 34 

Unregistered votes 14 8 

Totals 140 42 

Middleton township — 

Registered votes 80 16 

Unregistered votes y^ 15 

Totals 153 31 

The great mass of unqualified voters resented the proposition and made 
a remonstrance at a meeting held at the Oakland church in Dover township 


in April following the election. They desired, however, to aid the railroad 
project by giving one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre on all lands they 
possessed. The road was never constructed as the bond issue was declared 

In July, 1870, the county court was petitioned by about two dozen citi- 
zens to authorize an election on a proposition to vote seventy-five thousand 
dollars of bonds to aid in building the Northwestern branch of the Tebo & 
Neosha railroad. The election was ordered for August 20th, that year. 
The plan was to build from Waverly southward through Davis, Middleton 
and Freedom townships, to a junction with the grade of the Lexington & 
St. Louis line. J. D. Miller, L. L. Johnson and Paul Boob were the judges 
of this bond election. The result was : For bonds, seventy-six ; against 
bonds, two. The record shows that sixteen of the votes cast were by col- 
ored men, and the disfranchising clause of the constitution of 1865 was still 
in force. 

Gen. J. O. Shelby had the contract to build this road. Work was com- 
menced and enough done to require the issue of seventeen thousand dollars 
out of the seventy-five thousand dollars authorized, then work stopped and 
was never resumed. But the taxpayers were compelled to pay the seventeen 
thousand dollars. Neosha is the county seat of Newton county, in the 
southwest corner of Missouri, and the road as originally proposed was to 
run from there to Warsaw, on the Osage river, near the mouth of the Tebo 
creek, in Benton county, hence the name "Tebo" and this had no reference 
fas has been supposed by some) to Tabo creek, in Lafayette county. 


Growing out of the burdensome railroad tax question, the schemes pro- 
moted, the frauds practiced and the general desire of all good citizens to have 
the advantages of a railroad system, and not have to pay such great taxes in 
order to secure the same, there was held a convention of the taxpayers of 
the county in 1874. The following has been gleaned from a report of this 
great meeting, as published in the Intelligencer of Lexington on February 
10, 1875: 

Seventy-five thousand dollars of bonds charged to the township of Lex- 
ington had been issued to the St. Louis & St. Joseph Railroad Company, in 
Ray county, which never built a dollar's worth of anything in Lafayette 
county. It was proved in court that they had been fraudulently delivered by the 
county judge, for a bribe of two hundred dollars. Thirty-five thousand dol- 


lars of bonds charged to Sniabar township, for the Lexington, Chillicothe 
& Gulf Railroad, had been issued on a vote of forty-one persons, mostly non- 
taxpayers, at a time when one hundred and seventy-five of the property 
owners were disfranchised. Seventy-five thousand dollars of similar bonds 
charged to Washington township had been issued in the same way. Four 
hundred and ninety-eight thousand dollars of county bonds had been issued 
by the county court under mandamus from the court of common pleas, but 
under protest from the county court and the people. Some of the bonds had 
been issued clandestinely by one of the judges, who afterward secured the 
signature of another one. Some of them had been issued by a judge who was 
president of the county court, and also at the same time president of the 
railroad receiving the bonds. Five hundred thousand dollars of bonds for 
the Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad Company were afterward declared 
void by the courts. Indeed, the facts brought out showed that there was a 
perfect conspiracy in Lafayette county and other Missouri counties, under 
the evil eye of what might well be called a "railroad ring." 


Time went on and things looked worse for the honest taxpayers of La- 
fayette county than ever before. A series of taxpayers' conventions were 
held in various sections of the county. It was shown that both the town- 
ship and county railroad bonds had been in many instances voted and issued 
under plain, high-handed fraud upon the part of designing men. Yet, they 
had been so ingeniously issued that innocent purchasers had bought of them 
freely and the higher courts held, in cases, that they were valid. So, in order 
to not engage in an endless litigation in contesting their payment, a compro- 
mise was thought the wisest thing to do. The final compromise terms sug- 
gested by the taxpayers' convention of November 29, 1875, was: To reduce 
the interest on all bonds from ten to eight per cent per annum and to pay 
from forty to eighty per cent of the face of the bonds ; all bonds to run 
twenty-five years, interest payable semi-annually. At this convention were 
representatives from among the best citizens in each of the eight townships. 
The officers of this last convention were: Charles L. Ewing, president; W. 
T. Gammon, vice-president; X. Ryland, secretary. 

The members of the county court and the agents of the holders of the 
bonds in question were invited to be present at the convention. 

At that time the townships and county were under a claimed indebted- 


ness of two hundred thirty-eight thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars 
for the Lexington, Chillicothe & Gulf railroad alone. Let it be stated here 
that not a mile of road had been completed within the county. 

At the election on the "compromise proposition," the vote stood : 

For. Against. 

County proposition, total county vote 1,645 70 

Lexington township proposition 346 10 

Freedom township proposition 201 5 

Davis township proposition 134 1 

Washington township proposition 119 34 

Sniabar township proposition 127 17 

Middleton township proposition 146 22 

When this vote was taken all voters were legally qualified, the disfran- 
chising clause having been removed, hence there is no question but that this 
was the true sentiment of the people, legally expressed at the polls. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that the taxpayers' convention was a 
great moving power in the settlement of the financial difficulties of the county. 
They met in December, 1874, as a convention fully representing every town- 
ship and interest in the county. During its long-continued existence there 
were many schemes and projects proposed and much difference of opinion 
existed among the delegates. The county court, a majority of which had 
been elected in the fall of 1874, was called upon to take action, involving 
great personal sacrifice without much promise of relief. The difference of 
opinion caused the county court to resign in a body, thus leaving the tax- 
payers in full possession of the situation. On its petition to Governor Hardin 
it appointed a court of its choosing. The men appointed were John A. 
Prather, Amos Graves and William Young, the latter himself having written 
the call in the first instance which brought the convention together and was 
also a strong advocate of the compromise as finally submitted to the people 
and adopted by them, after the compromise had been approved by the people 
as hereinbefore stated. The county court was left in entire management of 
the whole matter of the county's finances. By rigid economy and by a firm, 
unflinching adherence to the determination to pay no bonded debt otherwise 
than was offered in the compromise, they gradually brought order out of 
chaos. The floating debt of the county was paid off in full, and county war- 
rants were as good as greenbacks and, we may remark, have been kept so ever 
since. Ample preparations were made for the payment of the interest on the 
new compromise bonds and the practice has been strictly adhered to to this 


day, there never having been an hour's default in paying interest on the com- 
promise bonds. Lafayette county's credit consequently has always stood 
at the highest and in 1901 the whole debt was refunded at three and a half 
per cent interest and the same policy of economy and honesty pursued. 

From the enormous amount of county and township debt, as stated 
herein, the total amount of county debt is now as follows : 

County bonds $340,000 

Lexington township bonds 81,500 

Sniabar township bonds 35, 000 

Washington township bonds . ., 40,000 

Total $496,500 

The bonds of Freedom, Davis and Middleton townships have long since 
been paid. The complete history of public proceedings with reference to 
the county and township debts would make a volume of itself. 

It will be seen that the work of the taxpayers' convention has been of 
incalculable value to the county. It furnishes a splendid illustration of the 
capacity of her citizens for managing her own affairs and their genius for 


In October, 1868, the St. Louis & Wabash was completed from Lexing- 
ton, on the north side of the river. 

In 1870-71 the Lexington Lake and Gulf line was completed from Lex- 
ington southward through the county, but the company failed and no ties 
were ever laid on the grade. 

In March, 1871, the Missouri Pacific line was completed from Lexington 
to Sedalia. 

In 1876 the narrow gauge road from Lexington to Kansas City was 
completed without bonds. 

In 1878 the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis railroad was completed across 
the county from east to west. Bonds were then unlawful for railroad build- 
ing, but donations, subscriptions and rights-of-way were given in aid of the 

In 1 88 1 all the lines centering in Lexington were under the control of 
the great "railroad wrecker," Jay Gould. 


In 1910 every mile of railroad within Lafayette county is under the 
immediate control of the two corporations — the Alton and Missouri Pacific 


Lafayette county has the honor of setting the pace for all other counties 
in Missouri in the matter of practically showing how railroad taxes may 
be collected. The tax on the property of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad 
Company, which had bought out the old Lexington & St. Louis railroad, in 
July, 1875, amounted to six thousand two hundred and seventy-seven dollars, 
and Dr. William A. Gordon, a county tax collector, and William B. Steele, 
county clerk, sought to compel the payment of the same. Prior to this, coun- 
ties having railroad taxes had much trouble in making collections. But the 
officers of this county "took the bull by the horns" and soon collected what 
the company owed them. One locomotive, nine box cars, three stock cars 
and one passenger coach at Lexington were attached and chained fast, under 
guard, and held as security. Suit was instituted, claiming a damage on the 
part of the company of twenty thousand dollars. The case went to the 
United States district court in 1876. The legal point raised was that the 
taxes were due in Lexington, Missouri, while the offices of the company 
were in another state, New York ; also that the railroad then in question had 
been transferred to another corporation, the Atlantic & Pacific, and not the 
one taxed, known then as the Lexington & St. Louis railroad. 

The county employed attorneys in the persons of A. F. Alexander and 
Ryland & Ryland. The attorneys' final report reads as follows : 

"The claim was settled by compromise, and judgment allowed and ren- 
dered in favor of Lafayette county, State of Missouri, for the sum of eight- 
een thousand dollars, against the Lexington & St. Louis Railroad Company, 
bankrupt, on the 9th day of May, 1877, in the United States district court 
for the western district of Missouri, at Jefferson City." 

The total cost to Lafayette county was three thousand eight hundred and 
fifteen dollars. Thus, the county won out in a long legal battle and also set- 
tled a question for all future railroad tax collections in Missouri. 


The county is now the scene of preliminary work in the construction of 
a section of the great electric trolley system of rail highway being built from 
Kansas City to St. Louis. The survey has been about completed and the capital 


already raised. The conditions by which the right-of-way through this county 
was obtained provided that the following points, at least, should be touched : 
Bates City, Clay township ; Odessa, Sniabar township ; Mayview, Washington 
township; Higginsville, Davis township; Corder, Dover township, and Alma, 
in Middleton township. The corporation heading this road owns more 
than ten thousand acres of excellent coal land along its line and the design 
is to build immense power plants at the mines, use slack for fuel and save all 
transportation of coal in the production of electricity for lighting Kansas 
City and for power in that city, as well as to run its own line of passenger 
cars across the state to St. Louis. 


By William H. Chiles. 

Lillard county, which was established by legislative enactment of date 
November 16, 1820, was on the 25th day of the same month, in the act 
establishing judicial circuits and prescribing the time for holding courts, 
made a part of the first judicial circuit of Missouri. Judge David Todd, of 
Franklin, Howard county, was commissioned as judge of this circuit on 
December 5, 1820, by Governor Alex. McNair, and a few days later Hon. 
Hamilton R. Gamble, afterwards governor, was commissioned as circuit at- 
torney for this circuit. In the act establishing the county, the county seat 
was fixed at Mount Vernon, a little village near the mouth of Tabo creek, 
which remained the county seat until 1823, when it was removed to Lex- 
ington, and at that time to that part of it now known as "Old Town." 

Among other institutions of the town of Mount Vernon was what was 
known in those days as a "tavern," corresponding to the hotel of today, where 
"entertainment for man and beast" was furnished to the public, the former 
including that of a liquid nature. To this hostelry came from St. Louis the 
newly-fledged Judge Todd and Circuit Attorney Gamble, who on February 12, 
1821, at the hour of ten o'clock A. M., with the assistance of Young Ewing, 
clerk, and William R. Cole, sheriff, opened the first circuit court held in the 
territory now known as Lafayette county and inaugurated the reign of law 
in our precincts. A grand jury was empaneled, which brought in six indict- 
ments for assaults and affrays, a petition for a divorce, which was more of 
a novelty in those pioneer days than now, and a few other suits, were insti- 
tuted. Besides the circuit attorney, Judge Peyton R. Hayden, then a young 
lawyer but afterwards judge of the supreme court, and John T. McKinney 
were enrolled as attorneys and attended that term of court, which lasted 
only two days. Judge Hayden was from Boonville, and while it is not known 
to the writer, it is probable that Mr. McKinney was from Old Franklin, then 
and for many years noted for its numerous lawyers comprising many of the 
leaders of the Missouri bar. 


Judge Todd served as judge of this circuit until the year 1831 and was 
about the best known nisi prius judge in the state, his circuit including the 
rich river counties as well as St. Louis. He was a Kentuckian by birth, edu- 
cated at the Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, studied law 
in the office of Judge Bibb, then one of the most distinguished lawyers in 
his state, where he was admitted to the bar in 1810. He served as captain 
under General Harrison in the war of 18 12, represented his county (Fayette) 
for several years in the Legislature and removed to this state soon after its 
admission into the Union, where he located at Franklin. The last thirty 
years of his life were spent at Columbia, where he died in 1859 in his sev- 
enty-third year. He was a fine-looking man, with black eyes and hair, an 
entertaining conversationalist and graceful and easy in his manners. Having 
a fine memory, he was well versed in literature and science as well as the 
law, and with a vigorous and well-balanced mind, he was eminently success- 
ful in his profession, and was an impartial, upright, and conscientious judge. 

Of Governor Gamble, with a state-wide reputation, having served as 
judge of the supreme court as well as other important offices, it is hardly nec- 
essary to make more than a passing mention. He was born in Winchester, 
Virginia, November 28, 1798, was educated principally at Hampden Sydney 
College, and attained a large practice in his profession in St. Louis where 
for years he was retained in almost every important case, following many to 
the supreme court of the United States, where he was well known as a jurist. 
He died at his home in St. Louis January 31, 1864. 

Like Governor Gamble, Judge Peyton R. Hayden was well-known 
throughout the entire state. He was born near Paris, Kentucky, February 
8, 1796, and had only a common school education, and then turned his atten- 
tion to the study of the law, when a lad of fifteen. He removed to this 
state in 1817, at first settling in Cape Girardeau, but soon after changing 
to old Franklin. He was licensed by the supreme court to practice law in 
1819, in which year he married a sister of the late Judge Wash. Adams, of 
Boonville, where he immediately located and resided there until his death, on 
December 26, 1855. As a lawyer he was one of the ablest in the state, was 
a strong, vigorous and argumentative speaker and very successful in the prac- 
tice of his profession. He limited his reading to books of his profession, 
paying no attention to newspapers, by reason of which his knowledge of 
matters outside the law was very imperfect. He was quite a wit. Upon one 
occasion he was arguing a case in the supreme court, when Judge Tompkins 
interrupted him by saying: "Why is it, Mr. Hayden, that you spend so 
much time in urging the weak points of your case, to the exclusion of the 


more important ones?" "Because," replied Mr. Hayden, "I find in my long 
practice in this court that the weak points win fully as often as the strong 

We thus see that the nucleus about which the bar of this county formed 
and grew from time to time was composed entirely of outside lawyers and 
it is more than probable that there was then not a single resident attorney 
in the county. Not every county could support a resident attorney, and non- 
resident attorneys traveled the circuit and took cases there to furnish them with 
a line of practice. In those days the people were poor and illy supplied with 
ready money, fees were small and many of them were paid in trade, a horse 
most usually, or a cow or other product of the farm being the medium of 

The next term at Mount Vernon was held for three days, commencing 
in June, 1821. There were admitted at that term George Tompkins, after- 
wards and for many years presiding justice of the supreme court, Cyrus Ed- 
wards, John S. Brickey, Abiel Leonard, Armstead Grundy, Cornelius Bur- 
nett and Dabney Carr, all "circuit riders," as were their predecessors, coming 
principally from Franklin and St. Louis. 

Judge Tompkins was born in Caroline county, Virginia, in March, 1780, 
obtained a common school education in that state and removed to Kentucky 
in his early manhood, and during all this time storing his mind by extensive 
reading, including such law books as fell in his way. From Kentucky he 
came to St. Louis, where he taught school and pursued his legal studies. In 
18 16 he removed to old Franklin and entered into the practice of the law. He 
was judge of the supreme court from 1824 until 1845, wnen he was retired 
on account of his age reaching the constitutional limit, sixty-five years. He 
died on his farm near Jefferson City on April 7, 1846. As a lawyer he was 
very successful, was a fine jurist and of spotless integrity. His opinions show 
much learning and legal research for those days when books were not plenti- 
ful. On the bench he was at times sarcastic and irritable. He dressed very 
plainly, but could not tolerate slovenliness in others. To a lawyer arguing 
a case before the supreme court he said, as the hour of adjournment drew 
near, "Mr. Mendell, it is impossible for this court to see any law through 
as dirty a shirt as you have on, and this court will now adjourn until ten 
o'clock tomorrow morning, to give you a chance to change your linen." 

John S. Brickey was born in Richmond county, Virginia, November 2, 
1 79 1. His father being poor, he only received an ordinary country school 
education. At the age of eighteen he started west, teaching in the western 
part of his native state, then to Tennessee, then to Missouri, finally reaching 


St. Louis, where he studied law under Edward Hempstead, Esq. On being 
admitted to the bar he located in old Franklin, from which he traveled the 
circuit with the other lawyers and from which he took cases in this county, 
then Lillard county. He held several offices, the highest being that of presi- 
dential elector, casting his vote for Mr. Monroe, whose name has become 
famous through the "Monroe doctrine," so much talked of in these late years. 
As a speaker he was fluent, pleasant and captivating and especially strong as 
a jury lawyer. He was diminutive in stature, being only five feet and three 
inches in height, but that did not lessen his powers before a jury. He lived 
in Potosi, Washington county, the most of his life, moving to a small farm 
near St. Louis towards the end, where he died in 1872. He were long hair 
and beard which in old age became perfectly white and gave him quite a 
patriarchal appearance. 

Abiel Leonard, afterwards one of the great lawyers of the state and 
serving for a short time as judge of the supreme court, which he was com- 
pelled to resign from ill health, was born in Windsor, Vermont, May 16, 
1797, and was sent to Dartmouth College to be prepared for the ministry. 
He soon changed his intentions and selected the law as his profession, but 
left college after a stay of three years, on account of ill health. In 1816 he 
commenced the study of law in the office of a prominent law firm in White- 
boro, New York, and was admitted to the bar in 18 18. In 18 19 he came to 
St. Louis, from whence, after a stay of a few days, he went to old Franklin, 
making the journey on foot. On this journey at St. Charles he met Peyton 
R. Hayden, then, like himself, a young lawyer looking for a location, and 
soon these two men were leaders of the bar, being on opposite sides in almost 
every important case. Judge Leonard was one of the most thorough lawyers 
ever enrolled in the state ; he was no orator, his voice was harsh and coarse, 
he was small, being only five feet and four inches in height, and weighing 
only about one hundred pounds, insignificant, even homely, in appearance ; 
but his masterly logic, his extensive learning and his truthfulness and earnest- 
ness won success despite these personal drawbacks. He was a Yankee be- 
sides, but after killing Major Berry in a duel arising from this fact it was 
never urged against him any further. From Franklin he removed to Fayette, 
which remained his home until his death, on March 28, 1863. 

The writer can get nothing concerning the personality of the other law- 
yers then enrolled, nor of Amos Rees, who was admitted at the October term, 
1822, although the latter was well known to the lawyers practicing before the 
war at this place. It is probable that he was the first resident attorney of 
this county, as he was acting attorney-general in the prosecution of criminal 


cases during the years 1827 to 1831, and up to the 6th day of June, 1831, 
when he entered upon the discharge of the duties of circuit attorney, he being 
duly appointed by the supreme court to that office in March of that year. 

At the March term, 1822, Young Ewing, clerk of the circuit court, 
produced in court a seal provided by him for the court, which was approved 
by the court. The design was a plow and an axe, which is still retained, 
and the lettered inscription, "Missouri, Lillard Circuit." At the July term, 
1822, Duff Green was admitted to practice, of whom we have no history, ex- 
cept that after a short stay west he went to Washington, where he became a 
noted editor and writer. 

On St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1823, the circuit court was removed 
from Mount Vernon to Lexington, and was first held at the house of Doctor 
Buck. This was said to be the first house built in the town of Lexington; 
it was on the west end of lot 60 on the north side of Main street (now South), 
and was standing in 1876 when the writer wrote the Centennial history of 
this county. Just across the street, on the southeast corner of Main (or 
South) and Twenty-fourth streets, where formerly stood for so many years 
the hotel called the "Lafayette House," stood then the tavern of Elisha 
Green, in which the circuit court was also held until the building in 1824-25 
of the first court house in the public square in old Lexington. This was a 
brick building built by Col. Henry Renick, but it was poorly constructed 
and it was finally condemned, sold and July 4, 1832, was celebrated by tearing 
it down. 

On July 22, 1823, John F. Ryland, afterwards judge of the supreme 
court, and William D. McRay were enrolled as members of the bar, the first 
enrollments noted in the Renick court house; of Mr. McRay we have no 

Judge John Ferguson Ryland was born in King and Queen county, 
Virginia, November 2, 1797, and at the age of twelve the family moved to 
Kentucky where his father shortly died, in meagre circumstances. He was 
fond of books and study and his mother sent him to Forest Hill Academy 
in Marion county, Kentucky, where he secured a classical education, in- 
cluding a thorough knowledge of Latin, which he kept up through life, read- 
ing it fluently in his old age. He read law in Kentucky with Judge Hardin 
and came to old Franklin, this state, in 18 19, and entered upon the practice 
of the profession he so greatly adorned. On February 7, 1831, having been 
appointed as judge of this circuit, then the sixth, he held his first term of 
court, succeeding in office Judge David Todd, and removing to Lexington 
from old Franklin upon his appointment to this office. Lexington was his 


home during the remainder of his life. Judge Ryland was judge of this 
circuit for eighteen years and until 1848, when he was appointed as one of 
the judges of the supreme court, which office he held until 1857, when he 
returned to the practice, taking as his partner his son, John E. Ryland, after- 
wards for so many years the judge of the criminal court of this circuit. He 
was elected to the Legislature in 1866, but resigned after serving one session 
as the work was distasteful to him. Judge Ryland was a member of the 
Old School Presbyterian church, a Democrat and a Mason, holding the office 
of grand master of the grand lodge of Missouri for one term. He was mar- 
ried twice, raising a family of twelve children, three of whom became em- 
inent in the profession of their father. He died at his home in Lexington 
on September 10, 1873, after a long life of usefulness and distinction. 

On July 16, 1827, Robert W. Wells, the attorney-general of the state, 
was admitted to practice, it being a duty of that officer in those days to pros- 
ecute important cases in the lower courts. He was born in Winchester, 
Virginia, in 1795 and removed to St. Charles, Missouri, after acquiring his 
profession, about 1818 or 1819. He was the first circuit attorney in his 
circuit after Missouri became a state and was appointed attorney-general on 
January 21, 1826. He was reporter of the supreme court during his term of 
office, that being one of his official duties. Upon retiring from the office of 
attorney-general he was appointed as judge of the United States district 
court for the district of Missouri, which he held until his death, April 2, 
1865, at the ripe age of nearly seventy years. The attorney-general could 
not attend all courts in those days and assistants were appointed from the 
local attorneys, and it may be of interest to know about their duties and 
pay. Amos Rees, who has been mentioned before, did a good deal of this 
work and on November 19, 1828, Judge John F. Ryland was appointed to as- 
sist him in the prosecution of John Mays, charged with grand larceny. He 
was found guilty, was sentenced to pay a fine of one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, to "whipping thirty-nine stripes on his bare back and to stand in the 
pillory thirty minutes!!" Mr. Rees was allowed eight dollars (why eight?) 
for his services, but it does not seem that Judge Ryland received anything, 
which is not the way with such cases in these later times. 

On March 16, 1829, Joseph Davis was admitted to practice and on July 
27th of the same year John D. McRay. Of the latter we have no record, but 
"Joe Davis," as he was known, was a prominent lawyer and politician. He 
was born in Christian county, Kentucky, January 14, 1804, and came to 
Missouri with his parents in 1818. Having obtained a good common school 


education, he pursued his law studies with Gen. John Wilson, of Fayette, 
and Hon. Edward Bates in St. Louis. He was licensed to practice law when 
he attained his majority and opened an office in old Franklin, but soon re- 
turned to Fayette, where he remained through life and died in 1871. He 
served many years in the Legislature, but was defeated for Congress, being 
a Whig and living in a Democratic district. As a lawyer he was very suc- 
cessful and enjoyed a large practice. 

At the July term, 1830, Thomas J. Givens, Alexander W. Doniphan and 
William T. Wood were admitted to practice and at the November term 
Charles A. Vieder. Of Mr. Givens and Mr. Vieder we have no information, 
but the other two were very prominent in after years. 

General Doniphan, as he was better known from his command of the 
celebrated "Doniphan Expedition" to Mexico, settled in Lexington at the time 
of his enrollment, and lived here for several years, removing afterwards to 
Liberty and then to Richmond, where he died at an advanced age several 
years ago. General Doniphan was strong and vigorous mentally and physical- 
ly, being almost a giant in stature. He was a fine speaker and his success in 
his profession was largely due to that, oratory being an important part of 
the lawyer's equipment. 

William T. Wood, afterwards three times judge of this judicial cir- 
cuit, removed to Lexington in 1839 and was the fourth judge of this cir- 
cuit, serving twice in this capacity afterwards. He enjoyed a fine practice and 
succeeded Judge Henderson Young upon the circuit bench in 1855. He went 
to St. Louis in 1856 and practiced law there for several years, returning to 
Lexington about 1865. He was elected circuit judge again in 1868 but did 
not get his office until March 1, 1874, when Judge Townsley was ousted by the 
supreme court, Judge Wood having been counted out by "Count" Rodman, 
and was again elected to this judgeship in 1874, which place he held until 
December, 1881, when he retired on account of his advancing age. Judge 
Wood was a Democrat, a member of the Old School Presbyterian church, 
a good citizen and kind neighbor and as a judge he enjoyed the confidence of 
the people, as is evidenced by his many years upon the bench. Judge Wood 
was in Kansas City in 1880-82 where he was engaged in important real estate 
litigation. He was married three times and outlived all of his wives, dying 
at the home of a daughter in Lexington, May 11, 1902. 

Judge Todd held his last term of court here in November, 1830, and 
Judge John F. Ryland held his first term as successor in February, 1831. 
At the June term, 1831, Russell Hicks was admitted to practice at this bar. 
Judge Hicks, as he was better known, having been circuit judge of this cir- 


cuit from Jackson county, before the war, was born about the close of the 
eighteenth century in Worcester county, Massachusetts. His parents were 
poor and his education limited as he had to work a part of the time to pay 
for his schooling and support himself while at his studies. He came to this 
state and spent a short time in St. Genevieve and St. Louis as a common la- 
borer. He then came to Saline county and engaged in cutting cord wood, 
and at this time conceived the idea of studying law. He borrowed law books 
and studied them at night, performing manual labor in the day. He was 
admitted to the bar and went on foot to Independence where he opened a 
law office. His worth soon attracted attention and he was elected circuit 
judge in 1856. Although a Northern man, he was a very active secessionist 
and left Independence about the beginning of the war and went to St. Louis, 
where he was not very successful. After the war he went to Sedalia and 
formed a partnership with John F. Phillips and George G. Vest, which was 
of short duration. He finally settled in Warrensburg, where he died in 1875. 
Judge Hicks was one of the most remarkable men we have ever had in the 
state. In natural ability, vigor of thought and close logical reasoning he 
had few rivals. He was an attractive speaker and had the power to control 
men. He was a large, heavily-built man, with dark coarse hair, and high 
cheek bones and looked as if of Indian blood. 

From July, 1832, to July, 1833, during the construction of the second 
court house to take the place of the Renick building, court was held in the 
houses of Jesse Nave, Benedict Thomas and Mrs. Jones in the old town of 
Lexington. The new court house was a large three-story brick building, well 
built and commodious, and was the seat of justice until 1847, when the pres- 
ent building was built by Hunter & Alford, brick masons, with the stone work 
by James A. Crump. The year 1833 marked the enrollment of Richard R. 
Rees as a member of the Lexington bar and the advent of Judge Eldridge 
Burden. Of Mr. Rees I can get no information. 

Judge Burden was born in Nicholas county, Kentucky, on December 2j, 
1802, where he was left a penniless orphan at the age of seven. Gov. Thomas 
Metcalf assumed his guardianship and he was adopted as a member of the 
Governor's family. He was educated in Transylvania University in Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, from which he was graduated from the law department in the 
year 1833, removing the same year to this city. The Judge was prominent 
in politics as well as the law and was the leader of the Whig party for many 
years. He served eight years in the Legislature, was three times elected as 
president of the State Bank at Lexington and for twelve years judge of the 
probate court of this county. The Judge was likewise a Mason, a member of 



the Christian church and was prominent in all public and business affairs of his 
time. The Judge was well versed in the law, had an eminently judicial mind 
and possessed the esteem and confidence of his fellow citizens. He was mar- 
ried October 26, 1837, to Miss Patsey T. Waddell, who preceded him to the 
grave many years and died himself on January 30, 1898, leaving an only son, 
John E. Burden, who follows the profession of his honored father. 

Judge Henderson Young also located in Lexington in 1833 and entered 
upon the practice of his profession. He was born in Tennessee, was circuit 
attorney in 1841, circuit judge of this circuit in 1848, which office he held until 
his death, in 1854, at the early age of forty-three. He was the father of 
Judge William Young, the editor-in-chief of this history, and as a sketch of 
his life is published elsewhere in this book, no further mention is made here. 

At the April term, 1838, James L. English and Alonzo Thomas were en- 
rolled as attorneys, but nothing further is known of them as such. 

In 1839 Charles French, one of the most noted lawyers of this county 
as well as state, settled in Lexington, where he remained until his death. 
Like so many of the pioneer lawyers of this state, he was a New Englander, 
being born in Dunstable, New Hampshire, about the year 1797. He received 
a good English education, though not a collegiate one, studied law there and 
removed to Missouri before he attained his majority ; received his license here 
and located at old Franklin with the notable colony of lawyers which con- 
gregated there. From there he came to Lexington. He was a well-read law- 
yer, well versed in pleading, growing very indignant upon the introduction of 
the code, but became more mollified when it was adopted in its present form. 
He was not an orator in the light of these days, but in speaking, his style was 
strong, lucid and convincing. Before both court and jury he was always im- 
pressive. He was about six feet in height, of fine personal appearance, well 
proportioned and readily attracted those who saw him. He was rather reserved 
in his manner, but was very approachable and his attachment for his friends 
was warm and steadfast. He never married. His mind became deranged in 
the latter part of his life and he committed suicide by cutting his throat while 
visiting on the Powell farm south of what is now Mayview in November, 
1859, being about sixty-five years of age at that time. 

In April, 1839, William Patterson and in August of the same year 
Justinian Williams, Jr., were enrolled. 

In December, 1841, William S. Field, Worthington Larsh and Frederick 
Greenough were admitted to practice. Mr. Field continued to practice his 
profession in Lexington until the breaking out of the war between the states. 
at which time he removed to St. Louis. He had a very good practice and 


stood well at the bar. In St. Louis he did not do so well, but managed to 
maintain himself until extreme old age, when he died, which was but a few 
years ago. There was a well-known family named Larsh living in this county 
many years ago, and this Mr. Larsh was a member of it, being the son of 
Abram Larsh. Judge Waller W. Graves' father, Abram Larsh Graves, was a 
member of this family and the Judge was born and spent his childhood in the 
neighborhood of what is now Corder. Abram L. Graves, Esq., was a 
nephew of Worthington Larsh. Worthington Larsh does not appear to have 
figured much as a lawyer. 

Fidelio C. Sharp, who became one of the most eminent members of the 
Missouri bar, came to Lexington a young lawyer, just entering upon his life's 
duties, in 1843, an d entered into partnership with another young lawyer, John 
P. Campbell. Mr. Sharp was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, August 24, 
1 82 1, and his education was limited to private schools and teachers.. He 
selected the law as his vocation early in life and was admitted to the bar in 
his native town at the age of twenty-one. He remained in Lexington until 
1857, attaining the head of his profession and a large practice. Seeking a 
larger field, he went to St. Louis in 1857 ar, d entered into a partnership with 
the Hon. Jas. O. Broadhead and that firm was soon at the head of the practice 
in that city, being employed in almost every case of magnitude. In the full 
tide of professional success and in the prime of his manhood, he died suddenly 
on November 28, 1875. Mr Sharp was unequaled as a trial lawyer in the 
state ; prepared in every detail of his case both of law and facts, he was ready 
for every emergency, alert, sagacious and vigorous. He was a tall, spare 
man, with dark hair and eyes, and a face beaming with intelligence. While he 
was a firm Democrat, he always declined political honors for himself! although 
always ready to serve his party in counsel and action. 

Enrollments were small in the ensuing few years. In 1844 Robert G. 
Smart, of Independence, Jackson county, filed his commission as circuit at- 
torney. He was subsequently judge of this judicial circuit, which then in- 
cluded Jackson county, and was an able and well-known attorney and judge. 
In 1846 Edward A. Lewis was admitted and in 1847 Alexander L. Slayback 
was admitted, he having removed to this county from Shelbyville in May of 
that year. Mr. Slayback was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 181 7, attended col- 
lege at Marion College, in this state, and was admitted to the bar by Judge 
McGirk, of the supreme court, in 1838. Although Mr. Slayback is better 
known as the father of his brilliant son, Alonzo W. Slayback, he was himself 
a lawyer of fine ability and possessed great oratorical powers, which doubtless 


his son inherited from his no less brilliant father. He was an ardent Mason 
and labored assiduously in securing the location of the old Masonic College 
at Lexington and delivered the address at the laying of its corner-stone. He 
was a member of the Presbyterian church from his sixteenth year and was a 
genuine and sincere Christian. He died very suddenly August 19, 1848, in 
his thirty-first year. 

In May, 1849, J 11 ^^ John E. Ryland retired from the circuit bench and 
was succeeded by Judge Henderson Young, the third to occupy that place, and 
in that year Hon. Mordecai Oliver and Hon. Henry C. Wallace were enrolled 
as members of the bar. Mr. Oliver was evidently a casual attendant upon the 
court, as wc can not find that he ever resided here. Mr. Wallace became a 
leader of the bar and practiced his profession in Lexington and the surround- 
ing counties for fifty years with distinguished success. A sketch of his life 
will be found elsewhere in this history. 

At the May term, 1850, William Anderson, Joseph C. Anderson and 
Henry Clay Dunlap were enrolled. The Anderson brothers were young law- 
yers from Kentucky, whose father removed here from that state about that 
time and they were social and political leaders in Lexington. William Ander- 
son devoted his time more to politics and edited the Expositor, a vigorous 
Democratic newspaper in the ante-bellum days. Joseph C. Anderson took no 
particular interest in his profession and so they soon dropped out without get- 
ting very far in. 

In 1 85 1 Garland J. Blewitt and Joseph R. Troxell were enrolled as mem- 
bers of the local bar. Mr. Troxell practiced with much success for several 
years, but left before the war. "Major" Blewett remained here until his death, 
which occurred in an advanced period of old age, and took part in the work of 
his profession to a greater or less degree to the last. He was noted for his 
oratory and few men in his time were as efficient as he in moving upon the 
sympathies of a jury, he being able to evoke tears under the powers of his 
fervid and touching oratory at will. 

At the November term, 185 1, there is recorded the first resolutions of 
respect for a fellow member of the bar ever admitted to record at Lexington. 
They were upon the death of Benjamin Bray Wilson, Esq., and were presented 
by his law partner, Capt. John J. Reese, and seconded by William T. Wood, 
afterwards circuit court judge. The resolutions recite that 'Tn the morning 
of life and when a bright career of honor and usefulness was just opening be- 
fore him, he has been called to the bar of the Eternal." The late Hon. Henry 
C. Wallace, who was a cotemporary of "Bray" Wilson, as he called him, 


spoke of him in the highest terms as a brilliant and promising young lawyer 
when he was thus taken untimely from his chosen life's work. 

At the May term, 1852, John W. Bryant, for years a prominent lawyer 
of Marshall, and for a time our circuit attorney, and William B. Napton, also 
of the same place, and who five years later ascended to the supreme bench, were 
enrolled at Lexington, but probably only for some special case in which they 
were employed. William Chrisman was enrolled at the same term and he be- 
came, whether then or not is not known, a resident of Lexington and was for 
several years in active practice as a partner of Judge Samuel L. Sawyer. Saw- 
yer & Chrisman built up a large practice, but becoming dissatisfied with the 
order of things following the war, they went to Independence, where they went 
into the banking business, by reason of which and other business ventures, 
Mr. Chrisman amassed a large fortune. Mr. Chrisman was a fine lawyer as 
well as successful business man. In those days F. A. Kownslar was an active 
practitioner at Lexington, but he was not long-lived, dying at his home in Lex- 
ington in May, 1858. He owned the suburban place at the northeast corner 
of the city, now owned by Joseph Schaal, Jr., and owned after the death of 
Mr. Kownslar by Judge John A. S. Tutt. 

Judge Henderson Young held his last day of court on June 9, 1854, a 
long and heavy day's work, and died on the 23d day of the following month. 
Judge W. T. Wood, his successor in office, commenced with the November 
term of that year, making an order on the 28th day of November for the re- 
moval of the clerk's office to the (then) new building just constructed east of 
the court house proper. This building was at first one story high, but later 
had the second story added and was fitted with vaults for the second story also. 
Reece Paynter was admitted to practice at this term. 

Judge Samuel L. Sawyer, another very eminent member of the Lafayette 
county bar, was born at Mt. Vernon, New Hampshire, on November 27, 181 3. 
He was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1833 and studied law with his 
father, who was a distinguished lawyer; he was admitted to practice at Am- 
herst in 1836. In 1838 he removed to Lexington, where he prosecuted his 
legal studies further and during the time he was a clerk in the land office. He 
then entered into the practice alone, but soon formed a partnership with 
Charles French, then the leader of the bar. This made a strong firm, which 
lasted until 1855, when he and Fidelio Sharp, who has already been men- 
tioned, formed a partnership. This lasted only two years, when Mr. Sharp 
went to St. Louis and his younger brother, Lee J. Sharp, was taken into the 
firm. Lee J. Sharp removed west in 1862 or 1863 and the Judge then took 
into partnership William Chrisman, another strong lawyer. This firm removed 


to Independence in 1866 and in 1869 retired from the law and engaged in 
banking, in which they were equally successful. The subject of this sketch was 
not permitted to remain in private life, however, but was called to the circuit 
bench in 1871, in which capacity he served until 1876. He then was elected to 
Congress, but after one year's service he retired and engaged actively in bank- 
ing, in which he continued until his death. Judge Sawyer was a lawyer of 
the highest degree of excellence, was thorough in his knowledge of the law, 
quick and accurate in his judgment, a man of the highest integrity, whose word 
as well as his opinions had great weight with judge and jury alike. 

Lee J. Sharp went to Montana on account of failing health. This he 
regained and entered into active practice there and was very successful, remain- 
ing there throughout his life. 

John C. Royle, another promising young lawyer of those days, likewise 
went west for new fields and settled in Salt Lake City, where he became a 
leader of the bar and acquired and retained a large and lucrative practice. He 
died within this year at an advanced age. His son, Edwin Milton Royle, is 
widely known as an actor and successful playwright. 

Thomas H. Allen was enrolled at the November term, 1855, and became 
at once prominent, representing this county in the Legislature. During the 
war he removed to St. Louis, where he lived until his death. 

Judge William T. Wood retired from the bench at the close of the June 
term, 1856, and Judge Russell Hicks succeeded him, holding the November 
term, 1856, as the beginning of his judicial career. 

At the May term, 1857, the bar adopted appropriate resolutions upon the 
death of William Musgrove, Esq., an old and highly esteemed citizen and also 
a member of the bar, but who had given up his profession for the editorial 
life, in which he was highly successful. He was editing, at the time of his 
death, The American Citizen, a paper of ability and influence. 

At the May term, 1857, James W. McMillan, who had prepared himself 
for the law as a student in the office of William S. Field, Esq., was admitted 
to practice. He followed his profession with fair success for a beginner, but 
left about the time of the breaking out of the war and what became of him is 
not known to the writer. John W. Shotwell and William A. King, of the 
Ray county bar, were enrolled here in November, 1857. Mr. Shotwell, who 
is well known here, has appeared in our courts a number of times in important 
cases. He is still living and practicing at Richmond. 

Ex-Governor Thomas T. Crittenden came to Lexington in 1857 an< ^ com- 
menced the practice of the law. He was born in Shelby county, Kentucky, on 


January 2, 1834, and was educated at Center College. He studied law with 
his illustrious uncle, John J. Crittenden, then 'one of the great men of Kentucky 
as well as of the United States. He was admitted to the bar in Winchester, 
Kentucky, in 1856 and soon afterwards married and came to Lexington with 
his young bridge. After a short time he formed a partnership with Judge John 
A. S. Tutt, with whom he practiced until the breaking out of the war between 
the states. He and Judge John F. Philips, both of whom were ardent Union- 
ists, raised a regiment which was afterwards mustered into the United States 
service. Their regiment was known as the Seventh Regiment of Cavalry, 
Missouri State Militia. With this regiment he went through the war as its 
lieutenant-colonel. After the war he located at Warrensburg, where he went 
into partnership with Gen. Francis M. Cockrell, who had just returned from 
service in the Confederate army. They did a large business, which continued 
until both members went into politics, Colonel Crittenden being elected as 
governor of the state and General Cockrell as United States senator. From 
the office of Governor, Colonel Crittenden located at Kansas City, where he 
served until his recent death, as referee in bankruptcy. Governor Crittenden, 
having spent the most of his life in public life, necessarily shone more as a 
politician than lawyer. 

Judge John A. S. Tutt, who was the first law partner of Governor Crit- 
tenden, was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, and was educated in and 
graduated from Baltimore Academy at the age of eighteen. He came to 
Boonville, Missouri, in 1841 and studied law, for which he was licensed to 
practice in 1845. He came to Lexington in 1858 and practiced with Gov- 
ernor Crittenden until May, 1862, when he was appointed as judge of this 
judicial circuit, which office he held until 1869. Upon his retirement from 
the bench he was limited in his business to office work and the management 
of estates, on account of impaired health. In his line he commanded a large 
and paying business, and was the successful manager of a number of rich 
estates up to his death, which occurred May 27, 1884. The Judge was a large 
man, six feet and two inches in height, and of commanding appearance. He 
was a Baptist and carried his religion in his business, being a man of the 
strictest integrity and upright in character. 

William D. Beard, A. W. Jones and Charles H. Collins were admitted 
to the bar here at the May term, 1859. Judge Beard took unto himself a wife 
here and soon returned to his native state, Tennessee, where he soon became 
a leader of the bar and in time was elevated to the position of judge of the 
supreme court of that state, an office which he still holds. Judge Beard was 


one of the most brilliant and fascinating men who ever lived here and was a 
natural lawyer and orator, to which was added all the finish and culture the 
best of schools could add. "Charley" Collins, as he was best known, located 
at Waverly and was a popular and successful lawyer at that place. He was 
carried away by the tide of the great Civil war and never returned. 

Major and Judge John E. Ryland, a son of Supreme Judge John E. Ry- 
land, was admitted to the bar in 1858. He was born in Fayette, Missouri, 
July 8, 1830, and removed to Lexington in his infancy, when his father 
was appointed circuit judge. He was graduated from the Masonic College, 
and became a teacher and assistant in the college work. Studied law with his 
father and became his partner on being licensed. This firm continued until 
1873, when it was dissolved by the death of its senior member. He then took 
into partnership his younger brother, Xenophon Ryland, with whom he was 
associated until appointed judge of the criminal court of this circuit in 1880, 
to succeed Judge Hill, deceased. This office Judge Ryland held until his 
death, from cancer, in 1899. Judge Ryland was a successful lawyer in all 
of its phases. His first office was that of prosecuting attorney, in which he 
was very vigorous and efficient. As a lawyer he was active, watchful and 
painstaking and was rewarded with a large and profitable practice. As a 
judge he was kind-hearted to the weak and erring, though firm in punish- 
ing those who were deliberately wicked and persistent in the error of their 
ways. The Judge held many honors at the hands of the people and of the 
Democratic party, of which he was an active member. He served a little 
more than a year as major of the Seventy-second Regiment of the Enrolled 
Missouri State Militia. In 1876 he was a Democratic elector from Missouri 
and cast his vote for Samuel J. Tilden. He was a Mason and Knight Tem- 
plar, holding at one time the office of deputy grand master of the state. In 
religion he was a prominent and working member of the Southern Methodist 
church. He died lamented by a large circle of friends and acquaintances. 

Robert G. Smart, afterwards judge of this circuit, William Collins and 
George S. Rathbun were enrolled at the November term, 1859. Colonel 
Rathbun was born in Newburgh, Ohio, February 27, 1829, and received a 
good common school and commercial education. He studied law in Cincin- 
nati and came to St. Louis at the age of nineteen. From there he removed to 
Wellington in this county and at first taught school. He then represented 
this county in the lower house of the Legislature, as well as practiced law, 
but enlisted in the army of the South, was in the Confederate service during 
the war, and after its close came to Lexington. He was a member of the 
several firms of Green & Rathbun, Rathbun & Graves and Rathbun & She- 


waiter and commanded a fine practice which extended over many years. Deaf- 
ness, however, finally retired him from his profession as to court work. He 
then removed to Springfield, Missouri, where he was appointed register in 
bankruptcy, which office he held until his death, a few years ago. Colonel 
Rathbun was a prominent Odd Fellow and member of the Christian church. 

Judge Smart held his last term in November, i860, and was removed 
from office for not taking the oath of allegiance. He was a strong sympathizer 
with the South in its struggle and in that way called upon himself a great 
deal of hostility, which finally cost him his life, he being shot down by a 
squad of Home Guards sent to arrest him and from whom he was trying to 
escape. There was no circuit court held in Lexington from Judge Smart's 
last term until the May term, 1862, which was held by Judge John A. S. 
Tutt, who had been appointed to the office. Judge Tutt commenced serving 
on May 19, 1862. At this term of court Elisha M. Edwards and Cuthbert 
O. Smith were admitted to the bar. 

"Gov." Edwards, as he was always called, was born in Cabell county, 
West Virginia, on January 26, 1823. His father moved to Kentucky when 
he was but seven years old, where he obtained a good common school educa- 
tion and learned the tailor's trade. He came to Johnson county, Missouri, 
on November 2, 1839, where he, like Andy Johnson, engaged in his business 
as tailor and also studied law. On obtaining his license he located at Waverly 
where he remained in the practice until death a few years ago. He was post- 
master, alderman and mayor of his town and in 1876 was elected to the state 
Senate and re-elected to the position in 1880. Mr. Edwards made a safe and 
conscientious legislator and was the soul of honor. Not residing at the county 
seat, the practice of Mr. Edwards was largely an office practice, for which he 
was peculiarly well fitted, being a careful adviser and possessed of a large 
fund of that species of wisdom we call "common sense." Mr. Edwards, by 
his attention to business and his fine business qualities, accumulated a good- 
sized estate, largely consisting of farming land, which he managed judiciously. 
He was a Mason and member of the Methodist Episcopal church South. 

Cuthbert O. Smith, commonly known as "C. O.," was a graduate of the 
old Masonic College and of the law school at Lebanon, Tennessee, which 
stood at the forefront of law schools in the South before the war. He was 
a brilliant man intellectually and as a speaker was not surpassed by any of 
his college mates. He did not seem to be able to adapt himself to his chosen 
profession and abandoned it after a very brief attempt. He devoted his life 
to school teaching, for which he was well fitted and in which he was very 
successful. * He taught in the public schools of trie county until his death, a 


few years ago. Mr. Smith was a gentleman in every sense of the word, an 
interesting companion, a true friend and was esteemed by all who knew 

At the November term, 1862, A. Fitzhugh Alexander, W. M. N. Green 
and Tilton Davis were admitted to the bar. 

Mr. Alexander was born in Virginia, but removed to this state when 
a child. He was graduated from the old Masonic College, where he was one 
of its brightest students. He was a good all around scholar, was one of the 
most profound mathematicians in the state, read Latin and Greek readily, 
was a fine historian and well versed in belles-lettres. He went to New York 
in 1864, returned and went to Kansas City in 1865, but, true to the town 
of his choice, returned here, where he remained until his death. With the 
most thorough knowledge of the law as a science, his turn was rather judicial 
than forensic ; he delighted in solving the deepest problems of the law, but 
took little interest in the active trials of cases. He was a close reasoner, 
logical and consistent in all of his positions. He was known throughout the 
state as one of its ablest lawyers and in one of the instances where our su- 
preme court, by reason of being divided upon a question, could not agree 
he was called in to settle the division among them. He was thus appointed 
special justice of the supreme court in the case of Johnson County vs. Wood, 
and his very able and convincing opinion is found in 84 Mo., page 489. 

Tilton Davis came here in 1862 as a young lawyer from Kingston. He 
was very bright in his profession and aggressive and soon attained a good 
line of practice, in which he was very successful as attorney and advocate. 
He practised but a very few years and retired to take charge of his private 
business interests, which had become large and required all of his time. His 
retirement was a distinct loss to the local bar, in which he promised soon to 
be a leader. He is still living in Lexington, engaged in the coal mining 
business, but takes an active interest in the doings and sayings of the courts 
and lawyers. 

William M. N. Green was an estimable gentleman who had a small 
suburban place just south of Lexington where he engaged in market garden- 
ing. He was possessed of ambition, however, and studied and obtained a 
license to practice law. He had little aptitude for the business and it was 
limited principally to the collection of pensions and similar business. He 
died a number of years ago. 

On May 23, 1864, Xenophon Ryland and the writer were admitted to 
the bar as fledglings of the law, the former fresh from the office of his pre- 
ceptor, his father, Judge Ryland, and the latter from that of Hon. Henry 
C. Wallace. A sketch of the writer will be found elsewhere in this history. 


Xenophon Ryland was the third of the sons of the elder Judge Ryland 
to engage in the practice of the law and he promised to equal the others. 
He was born in Lexington on June I, 1844, and was educated in the private 
schools of Lexington, including the tutorship of Rev. (since Bishop) George 
K. Dunlap, the scholarly rector of the Episcopal church in this city, which 
gave him a liberal and classical education. He practiced law alone, receiving 
a liberal practice, until the death of his father, in 1873, when he became a 
partner of his elder brother, John E. Ryland, which was continued until the 
accession of the latter to the criminal bench. He was elected judge of the 
probate court of Lafayette county in 1882, and received a second term, mak- 
ing a service of eight years in that court, and in which he received unstinted 
praise on every hand. He was a member of the Old School Presbyterian 
church and of a deeply religious nature and at the termination of his official 
career as judge he qualified himself for and entered the ministry of his church, 
in which he is still engaged, being at present pastor of the church at Hig- 
ginsville. Judge Ryland has been as successful in his ministerial career as 
in his lay one and the loss of the bar has been the gain of the church. 

John S. Blackwell located in the town of Wellington in 1865 to prac- 
tise law, coming to Lexington in 1878. He was born in Anderson county, 
Kentucky, January 8, 1832, and in 1850 went to California with the great 
crowd drawn there by the reported discovery of fabulously rich gold mines. 
After mining and trading for several years, he finally determined to study 
law, for which he was eminently fitted. He was admitted to the bar in Placer- 
ville, went to Nevada, where he practised for three years and then returned 
to Kentucky, from which state he finally removed to Wellington, in this 
county. On being elected prosecuting attorney he removed to the county seat, 
where he resided until his death. He served as prosecuting attorney for eight 
years with a record for efficiency as well as economy in the expenditure of 
the people's money that has never been surpassed. Mr. Blackwell was a very 
able lawyer, was untiring in his industry and indefatigable in all things. 
He possessed in an eminent degree confidence of his fellow citizens and 
with all these things to back him, of course he had a practice which was not 
only large but successful to the fullest extent. Mr. Blackwell made enough 
money to have died rich, but he was liberal and free with his money with his 
friends as well as his family and died a comparatively poor man. He has 
left a priceless inheritance in his good name and fame which is of greater 
value than riches. Mr. Blackwell was a constant worker and adviser of 
his party, the Democratic, and gave much time and money for its success. 


He was a delegate to the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 
1892 which nominated Grover Cleveland. Mr. Blackwell was also a Mason, 
Knight Templar, Odd Fellow and member of the Christian church, to all of 
which he gave the vigor of his thought, action and support. 

A contemporary and opponent of Mr. Blackwell in many a hard fought 
battle in those Wellington days was J. Harvey McHatton, the date of whose 
admission to the bar is not of record. Mr. McHatton was a true exemplifica- 
tion of the old-time "country lawyer" with his "Kelley's Treatise on Justices 
of the Peace" and his saddle bags, traveling the circuit of the justice courts, 
in which he was truly formidable. He afterwards removed to Lexington, 
where he served as city attorney. He then removed to California, as his 
growing deafness had about prevented him from the active practice of his 
profession. This doubtless led to his death, as he was run over and killed 
by a railway train in that state a few years ago. 

At the close of the war there was quite an influx of lawyers from the 
Northern states to the South. The bar at Lexington had three additions in 
this way who were enrolled at the November term, 1865, and all of them 
were Republicans ; these were William Walker, Mark L. De Motte and James 
H. Beatty. 

Judge Walker was from Illinois and was a personal friend and acquain- 
tance of President Lincoln, although of course a somewhat younger man. 
He was in his prime when he located at Lexington and being a fine lawyer, 
a forcible speaker and gentleman of good address he easily acquired at once 
a fine practice. He took into partnership Mr. Beatty, who came to Lex- 
ington about the same time. Many important criminal cases were in the 
courts at that time and Judge Walker was employed on the part of the de- 
fense in the most of them. So strong did he intrench himself in public fa- 
vor that at the institution of the common pleas court in 1867 he was the 
unanimous choice of every one for the position of judge of that court. That 
court commenced work on July 8, 1867, and was legislated out of existence 
June 12, 1872, the circuit court being by that time arranged to attend to the 
large volume of litigation then on hand. Judge Walker was judge of this 
court during its entire history and won the favor and approbation of people 
as well as the bar by his high standard of judicial probity, justice and en- 
forcement of the law. On his retirement from the bench, the Judge re- 
entered the practice, taking as a partner Richard Field, afterwards circuit 
judge, and enjoyed a large and well-paying business. As age drew on the 
Judge quit the practice and served as police judge of Lexington, in which 
he gave entire satisfaction. The Judge died in Lexington a number of 
years ago at a ripe old age. 


James H. Beatty did not remain in Lexington for a very great while, 
but went farther west, first to Utah and then to Idaho, where after a few 
years he received the appointment to the judgeship of the district court of 
the United States for Idaho, a place he held until a very recent date. 

Mark L. DeMotte was a genial, bright and companionable man, who 
won personal favor at once. His knowledge of the law was not as thorough 
as it might have been or as he thought it was and so he soon dropped out of 
the practice and into the editorial chair of the Missouri Valley Register, the 
Republican organ of the county, a place for which he was eminently fitted. 
He made it a very newsy and readable paper, although rather extreme in its 
politics. "Colonel" DeMotte, as he .was known, served a term as prosecut- 
ing attorney and an incident in his official work in that office will give a very 
fair idea of his legal proficiency or rather deficiency. At this first term of 
court in preparing the indictments found by the grand jury, he noticed that 
they all concluded with the words, "against the peace and dignity of the 
state," and, thinking that this was a relic of antiquity, he omitted that phrase 
from all of his indictments. They were all quashed for lack of those words, 
as the constitution of the state required that they should all be closed with 
them, a bit of law which the Colonel did not know. He was politically am- 
bitious and when the state became Democratic again, he returned to his 
former home in Indiana where his ambition was gratified by being elected 
to Congress. Colonel DeMotte died at his home in Indiana a few years ago. 

Zachariah J. Mitchell, who studied law in the office of Hon. Henry C. 
Wallace, was admitted to the bar at the May term, 1867, and was taken into 
partnership by Mr. Wallace. Mr. Mitchell was a member of a prominent 
and wealthy family and had a fine education, finishing it at the University 
of Heidelberg. He became prominent at once as a lawyer and politician 
and was elected to the lower house of the Missouri Legislature. At the 
expiration of his term of office he removed to St. Louis and is now located at 
Clayton in the practice of his profession. 

Judge Tutt held the November term, 1869, of the circuit court and gave 
way to his successor, Judge Charles P. Townsley, of Sedalia. who held the 
May term, 1869. Judge Townsley was a novice at law as well as on the 
bench and went into office with considerable prejudice against him (Judge 
Wood, who ran against him. having really defeated him), which did not en- 
tirely disappear during his official term. But the Judge did really the best 
he knew how and his decisions were as a rule correct and always free from 
bias and improper motive. He was a quiet, gentlemanly man, kind and 
courteous to the bar. He was not heard of again at Lexington after his 


ouster from the office of judge (State ex rel. Atty. General vs. Townsley, 
56 Mo. 107) and the writer does not know his subsequent history; at least 
his judicial career appears to have ended. 

With Judge Townsley came William Warner, now United States sen- 
ator, as prosecuting attorney, and he was a constant attendant upon the 
courts here during his official term. The "Colonel" was a young and strong 
lawyer in those days and a vigorous prosecutor, and he filled his office with- 
out fear or favor and always with ability. 

In those post-bellum days came to Lexington also Amos Green, Esq., 
from Illinois, but, unlike those last mentioned, the Colonel was a rampant 
Democrat. The date of his admission to the bar here is not of record and 
can not be given. Suffice it to say that soon upon his advent here he became 
interested in the bulk of the litigation then in vogue. Mr. Green was a hand- 
somely dressed man, with silk hat and cane, broadcloth frock coat, polished 
manner and address, and at once impressed all with whom he came into con- 
tact. He took as a partner Col. George S. Rathbun, to carry on the large 
business which they at once built up. The Colonel was not as successful in 
his work in the courts as was anticipated and he lost much of the large 
practice he won at the outset. He then became involved in the railroad 
building which prevailed at that period of the history of this county and be- 
came very unpopular, indeed, offensive to many of his fellow citizens. He 
soon left and has since been at several places in the country farther west. 
where he probably is today. He at one time was said to have accumulated 
a large fortune in western mining operations. 

William C. Hall also came here from Kentucky in those days and prac- 
tised law for a few years and then went to Salt Lake City, where he acquired 
and still commands a good business and stands high in the estimation of the 
people as a man as well as lawyer. 

Atterson W. Rucker, a native of this county, who read law in the office 
of Green & Rathbun, was admitted, as was also his brother, Thomas A. 
Rucker, about 1869. They went to Baxter Springs, Kansas, and then re- 
turned to Kansas City, Missouri, where they practised a short time. Being 
dissatisfied, they both went to Colorado, where both have achieved an abun- 
dant success. Atterson W. Rucker is a member of the lower house of Con- 
gress from the Denver district and Thomas A. Rucker is a judge of one of 
the judicial circuits of that state. 

During this period of the heavy influx of new lawyers, young and oth- 
erwise, there were admitted to the bar Judge William Young and Henry L. 
Haynes, both natives of this county and both strong and promising young 


men, who formed a partnership under the style of Young & Haynes and con- 
ducted a successful practice. Judge Young, who is the editor-in-chief of this 
history and who receives a more extended notice in a separate sketch of his 
life, needs not a further notice in this place, more than to say that an un- 
fortunate deafness compelled the retirement from the active practice of his 
profession, one who would have most profoundly honored it. 

Henry L. Haynes did not linger in Lexington but after five or six years 
went to Ft. Smith, in what was then the Indian Territory. He has prac- 
tised his profession successfully at several points and is now located at Mc- 
Alester, Oklahoma, and still engaged in the practice. 

In May, 1869, Capt. Richard A. Collins was admitted to the bar at Lex- 
ington, but locating at Waverly. Captain Collins was an ex-Confederate 
artilleryman, a very popular and whole-hearted gentleman. He conducted a 
successful law business at Waverly and was at length rewarded for his faith- 
fulness and merits by being elected to the lower house of the Missouri Leg- 
islature. After the expiration of his term he located in Higginsville, where 
he married and afterwards removed to southeast Missouri. The Captain was 
a Kentuckian of an old and wealthy family and was a brother of "Charley" 
Collins, also a Waverly lawyer, as before stated. 

Hon. Alexander Graves was enrolled as an attorney at the November 
term, 1869. He is a Mississippian by birth and was educated in that state, 
but was graduated from the law department of the University of Virginia. 
He was but a boy at the breaking out of the war between the states and vol- 
unteered in the Confederate service and served until peace was declared, mak- 
ing a brave though youthful soldier. Mr. Graves' first argument in court 
after his admission, which was a question involving the rather complex sub- 
ject of the rights of married women, attracted the universal attention of the 
bar and stamped him as a lawyer of very great learning and ability. He soon 
entered into partnership with Col. Geo. S. Rathbun and from that time on 
has stood in the front ranks of the Lafayette county bar. Mr. Graves has 
also been prominent politically, having been elected to Congress from this 
district, and has been favorably mentioned on several occasions as a candi- 
date for the office of judge of the supreme court. Mr. Graves is still actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession and his career is still marked with 
that success which his learning, thoroughness and vigor have always won. 

At the September term, 1869, of the common pleas court, T. Chalmers 
Wood and Henry Turner, Sr., were admitted to the bar. Chalmers Wood 
was a son of Judge W. T. Wood and was a law partner for several years of 
Hon. Alexander Graves. He was an amiable gentleman and good lawyer, 


but gave tip his profession to look after the large estate of an uncle in Ham- 
burg, Iowa, where he remained until his death from consumption, a disease 
which eventually swept away his entire family with possibly one exception. 

Mr. Turner was a middle-aged prominent politician here who desired 
the license of a lawyer more as an ornament than for actual use, but it en- 
abled him to hold the office of city attorney, to which he was elected about 
the time of his enrollment. Mr. Turner was a man of strong mind and 
vigorous thought and had he given his early life to the profession would 
have made a successful lawyer far beyond the ordinary. 

In the same court at the March term, 1870, George F. Ballingal was ad- 
mitted to practice and at the September term, 1870, Alfred J. Hall was en- 
rolled. Mr. Ballingal was a young lawyer fresh from his studies and his na- 
tive state, Kentucky, seeking a betterment of his fortunes. He accepted the 
position of principal of the Lexington high school, and after his term of 
service moved on to Kansas City, Missouri, where he engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession successfully and where he still lives. 

Alfred J. Hall was a brother of William C. Hall, already mentioned, and 
entered into a partnership with his brother. He was afterwards elected pros- 
ecuting attorney, a position for which he was well adapted. He was a good 
speaker and before a jury was somewhat of a power. He removed from 
here to Independence, where his stay was short, and he joined his brother at 
Salt Lake City. He did not resume the law, however, and was reported as 
being dead a short time since. 

William P. Beck and James T. Clayton, both born and raised in Lex- 
ington, were admitted to the bar at the May term, 1871, of the circuit court. 
Mr. Beck was a highly educated and scholarly man, being educated at Colum- 
bia University, New York, and the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He 
studied law under Alexander & Chiles and after an ineffectual attempt to 
build up a business here, in which his great shyness was an obstacle, he re- 
moved to Pueblo, Colorado, where he enjoyed a fine practice and became a 
leading lawyer. He fell dead while arguing a case before the court a few 
years ago. 

James T. Clayton, after a short stay here, went to Colorado Springs 
and located, but being attracted by the coming greatness of Kansas City, 
Missouri, returned to that city, where he still resides. By his energy, ability 
and good business habits, Mr. Clayton has accumulated a comfortable for- 
tune, which he enjoys as age comes on. 

Judge Richard Field, who had married in Lexington in 1869, removed 
to that city and located there in 1872 in the practice of his profession, for 


which he was first licensed in 1865. Judge Field came from a good old 
Kentucky stock of lawyers, his father being a distinguished judge in Pettis 
county, this state, at the time of the outbreak of the war. Judge Field and 
Judge Walker, who had just retired from the common pleas court, formed 
a strong partnership in the year mentioned and forthwith entered into an 
extensive practice. This continued until the year 1887, when Judge Field 
was elected judge of this judicial circuit, which position he held until De- 
cember, 1898. Since then the Judge has been busily engaged in his profes- 
sional pursuits and the attention to his private business interests are large 
and include the presidency and management of the Morrison-Wentworth 
Bank of Lexington. The Judge's highest lines of merit are those won dur- 
ing his judicial career, for which he was evidently intended by nature. Hav- 
ing a cool, clear head, a dispassionate mind, and a thought and endeavor at 
all times to ascertain the truth and apply the unerring law, his decisions gave 
general satisfaction to both bar and litigant. 

James M. Callahan, a student in the office of Tilton Davis, Esq., was 
admitted to the bar in the same year, 1872. Mr. Callahan was and still is a 
close and hard student and his industry in working up his cases and getting 
them thoroughly prepared is remarkable as well as praiseworthy. After a few 
years here, Mr. Callahan removed to the larger field offered by Independence, 
Missouri, where he is still located and engaged in a large practice. 

About this time J. D. Shewalter, who had just received his law degree 
at the University of Virginia, located in Lexington. Mr. Shewalter was 
born and raised in this county and received a fair but not complete education 
in the country schools and the Lafayette Military Institute, the war coming on 
preventing him from completing it. While at this point let it be recorded that 
this school was the first military school established west of the Mississippi 
river. It has long since been disestablished and its building used as a resi- 
dence. It was about two miles north and one mile west of what is now 
Mayview and was established in 1859. Besides Mr. Shewalter, Judge Wil- 
liam Young and the writer were pupils of this institution, three members 
of the Lexington bar. Mr. Shewalter did not remain long but went to St. 
Louis where he made only a short stay, returning to Lexington where he 
practised for many years and established a reputation of being a fine lawyer 
and especially strong in matters involving the constitutions, state and federal. 
The tendency of Mr. Shewalter to rove took him next to Colorado, where, at 
Colorado Springs, he practised successfully for several years. Then he 
returned and located in Independence, opening a law office in Kansas City, 
and at this writing he is engaged in a horseback tour of the state in behalf 


of himself as a candidate for the position of United States senator, which po- 
sition he would undoubtedly dignify with great ability and more regard for 
the rights of the sovereign people than a majority of that august body now 
concedes. But to get there by horseback in these days of motor cars, airships 
and wireless everythings is a novel undertaking, which smacks of the days of 

M. Chaney Shewalter, a cousin of J. D. Shewalter, located about the 
same time at Waverly, where he has since resided and still resides. Mr. 
Shewalter is a brainy man and an orator of fine ability and power. He rep- 
resented this county in the lower house of the Legislature at one time and 
made his mark. Some disease or affliction of the eyes, which makes it al- 
most impossible to use them, has hindered his studies and interfered with his 
practice to such an extent as to almost retire him from active life and 
has marred what would have been, with strong eyes, a brilliant career. 

Judge Townsley was ousted by the supreme court from his office as cir- 
cuit judge and Judge William T. Wood was installed, holding his first term 
in April, 1874. Then were admitted to the bar R. Emory Doggett and T. 
Benton Taylor. Mr. Doggett was a young lawyer, a relative of Bishop Dog- 
gett and a very pleasant young gentleman, who remained only a short time 
and his subsequent history is not known at Lexington. 

Thomas Benton Taylor was born in Lexington, Virginia, and educated 
at the Washington and Lee University. He studied law under the tutelage of 
Judge J. W. Brockenbrough and was admitted to the bar in his native state. 
He went to Chicago in 1877, thence to New York City, where he practised 
for a short while, then returning to Virginia. He next came to this state 
and to Lexington; was in partnership with Judge Tutt until about 1877, 
when he removed again, this time to Fulton, where he is still living at the 
advanced age of seventy-eight. His most notable work here was done as 
referee in the chancery suit of Thomas vs. Thomas, for an accounting, which 
was a long drawn-out action and required a great deal of writing in those 
days when the court stenographer was unknown. The defendant alone was 
on the witness stand for one hundred days and parts of days. Mr. Taylor's 
work was approved in the main by the court, Judge Wood. 

Capt. Charles V. Mead was admitted to the bar at Lexington at the De- 
cember term, 1874. The Captain married a daughter of William Limrick, 
a banker in Lexington, and really made no serious attempt to practice law, 
but worked in the bank of Mr. Limrick. After a short stay here he went 
west where he died several years ago. 


Capt. A. E. Asbury, of Higginsville, and Thomas A. Seddon were ad- 
mitted to practice at the April term, 1875. Few of the Captain's friends 
know that he is a lawyer although he might have been a good one. His 
large private business as banker and capitalist has always taken all of his 
working time. Had he not been so successful financially he might have 
been a shining light at the bar. A few years ago his son and namesake 
studied and was admitted to the bar at Higginsville, but made no attempt 
to practice. He is now the manager of the large flouring mill at Higginsville, 
which is principally owned by him and his father. 

Mr. Sedden did not stay in Lexington long but went to St. Louis, where 
he probably still is. 

H. B. Hamilton was enrolled at the April term, 1876. Mr. Hamilton 
was the assignee in bankruptcy of the Lexington & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
pany, the home corporation which constructed the branch line to Sedalia now 
owned and operated by the Missouri Pacific Railway Company. Mr. Hamil- 
ton's official connection with this company caused him to have a good deal 
of business at Lexington and in the courts here, but he did no outside busi- 
ness. He eventually went west and showed his appreciation of his early life 
in Lexington by sending his son a few years ago to be educated in the Went- 
worth Military Academy and visited our city in that connection. 

Hon. Thomas P. Akers was enrolled as an attorney at Lexington at the 
August term, 1876. This was the last sad chapter in an eventful life. Mr. 
Akers was a minister of the Southern Methodist church and the pastor of 
the church at Lexington about the year 1855 or '56. He was a brilliant 
orator as well as of distinguished appearance, being over six feet in height 
and broad in proportion. He attracted public attention at once and became 
connected with the Masonic College, delivering a magnificent oration on one 
occasion in that connection. Of course such a man could not remain out of 
politics if he listened but a moment to the call of the public and so in 1857 
he was sent to Congress where he distinguished himself by his splendid ora- 
tory and finished address. He next went to New York where he became 
prominent himself as a financial leader, being at one time president of the 
Gold Board in Wall street. His sympathies in the war being with the South, 
when the crash came at the close of the war all of his fortune was swept away 
by being on the wrong side of the gold market. Away back of this in the old 
Lexington days he had at one time an attack of pneumonia, from which he 
recovered, but with a small section of a lung solidified ; this his physician said 
would some day give way and in all probability be the cause of his death. 
And so it was, when he returned to Lexington it was the beginning of the 


end ; the blocked-up section of the lung began to give away and with it the 
balance was involved, consumption set in and the massive physical frame 
weakened and consumption claimed its victim. He did not survive long, his 
last futile attempt to regain himself by entering into the practice of the law. 

The first map of Lafayette county ever published was prepared in 1876 
and distributed in the following year. Connected with the company engaged 
in this undertaking was a young lawyer named Anderson L. Drew, who was 
admitted here at the August term, 1876. After a short time he removed to 
some point in southern Missouri. Lately he has turned up in Sedalia, where 
he seems to be located in the practice. 

At the April term, 1878, John E. Burden, Robert A. Hicklin and Wil- 
liam B. Wilson were admitted to the bar. 

Mr. Burden was born and raised in Lexington and was a student at 
Bethany College, Virginia, when the war broke out. During the war, in the 
year 1862, his father, Judge Eldridge Burden, was appointed as judge of the 
probate court for this county, an office which he held continuously until the 
year 1874, being a period of twelve years. Mr. Burden went into the probate 
court as its clerk and served as such during the entire time, and with his 
quickness of mind and close application came out of the office thoroughly ac- 
quainted with probate law and procedure. He was also county recorder 
of deeds from 1868 to 1870. In 1874 he entered the law office of his father 
and undertook the study of the law as a profession and after a successful ex- 
amination was admitted as stated. He then became a partner of his father 
under the style of Burden & Son, which firm continued until not long before 
the Judge's death, which took place on January 30, 1898. Since then Mr. 
Burden has practised alone. His familiarity with the law of administra- 
tion and wills has given him a large business in those lines and in which he 
has won his best victories. But Mr. Burden has always been a close student 
and is thorough in the preparation of all his business and is regarded as a 
safe lawyer. 

Hon. Robert A. Hicklin was also born and reared in Lexington. He 
was educated at the Missouri State University and originally intended to study 
medicine as his profession, but changed his mind and read law in the office 
of Judge Tutt, who had charge of his father's estate. At one time he was a 
partner of Hon. John Welborn and they had a highly successful practice in 
criminal cases. He also practised law in Kansas City for some time. Mr. 
Hicklin represented his county in the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth general 
assemblies of the Legislature. He died a few months ago after a very short 
illness. He was a genial, kind-hearted man and had many friends who lament 
his early demise. 


William B. Wilson came from the farm to study and engage in the 
practice of the law and is a brother-in-law of Judge William Young. He 
served his county for two terms as prosecuting attorney, which office he filled 
with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. Mr. Wilson's 
continued ill health has interfered with his law business and at times has 
caused him to abandon it for the time. He has made a specialty of the law 
of real estate and examination of titles, and is regarded as one of the best 
in the county. But outside of this Mr. Wilson is a fine and well posted all- 
around lawyer and deservedly has a fine reputation. Mr. Wilson is also a 
Christian gentleman, upright, honorable and trustworthy. 

Hon. John Welborn was born in this county November 20, 1856. In 
1875 he entered the Normal School at Warrensburg, from which he was grad- 
uated two years later. In 1877 he commenced studying law in the office at 
Warrensburg of John J. Cockrell, the son of United States Senator Cockrell, 
and was admitted to practice two years later at Lexington. Mr. Welborn im- 
mediately took a high position at the bar by reason of his very great skill and 
ability. He was also a good "mixer" and had a large acquaintance among 
the people which gave him clients and friends upon the juries and great 
power and influence in jury trials. His personal magnetism took such a 
firm hold upon his friends that few could resist him. He also served a term 
in Congress, to which he was elected as a Republican from this district, but 
was defeated in his attempt for re-election. Mr. Welborn died about two 
years ago after a very brief illness and no one has ever been lamented more. 
Although his large practice brought him in large sums of money he scattered 
with a lavish hand, and died a comparatively poor man. His faithful wife, 
who had shared his adversity and triumphed in his successes, outlived him 
but a short time and soon followed him to the grave. 

Uriah G. Phetzing was admitted to the bar at the April term, 1880. He 
was educated in the public schools of this county and took his law degree 
at the University of the State of Missouri. He was born in Ohio in Septem- 
ber, 1855. On being admitted to the bar he formed a partnership with Judge 
William Walker, with whom he was associated for nine years, since which 
time he has been alone. The firm did a fine business and Mr. Phetzing has 
kept it up, having a very extensive clientage among the large German-Ameri- 
can population of the county. Mr. Phetzing is a prominent member of and 
worker for the Republican party and has been an important factor in the 
growing success of that party. Mr. Phetzing served as city attorney of Lex- 
ington from 1890 to 1892, and has often led the forlorn hope of his party 
on the ticket when defeat was certain. Lately he has received a handsome 


reward for his long service in being appointed by Governor Hadley to the 
important and lucrative office of county collector, in which even his political 
opponents rejoice. Mr. Phetzing is a good lawyer and an exemplary gentle- 

Judge Wood retired from office at the December term, 1880, and was 
succeeded in office by Judge John P. Strother, of Marshall, Saline county, 
who began at an adjourned December term on January 17, 1881. Judge 
Strother was one of the leaders of the Saline bar, a man of the highest in- 
tegrity and a lawyer of profound learning. Much was expected on the acces- 
sion of such a distinguished lawyer to the bench and no one was disappointed 
in him. On retiring from the bench the Judge removed to California, where 
he still lives and is honored in his profession in his new home. 

At the August term, 1881, George B. Price and Isaac W. Whitsett were 
admitted to practice. Mr. Price's parents removed to this county from John- 
son county and he was reared and. educated here. He was a young lawyer 
of much promise and after a short stay he removed to Kansas City and from 
there he went to the Southwest and has been lost sight of for many years. 

Isaac W. Whitsett was originally a grocer and huckster of Lexington, 
having his stand at the old Summers' (now Liter's) corner. He had a bright 
mind and a natural turn for the law and after a course of study was re- 
warded with his long-coveted license. Mr. Whitsett was a man of mature 
years when he began to practice and his success was remarkable considering 
his handicap of a lack of a sufficient education and an early training so neces- 
sary to make a thorough lawyer. Mr. Whitsett removed to Sedalia, where 
he had a successful practice. Returning to this county, he opened an office 
in Higginsville. Loss of property and the result of advancing age with a 
growing deafness overshadowed his closing days and he had finally to go 
to the County Farm, where he died in poverty about a year ago. 

George S. Rathbun, Jr., a son of Colonel Rathbun, was taken into part- 
nership by his father, with whom he was associated both here and at Spring- 
field, to which city they removed. He had a very bright mind and was a 
genial and companionable young man, but was cut short in his promising 
career by an early death at Springfield. 

William Aull was born in the suburbs of Lexington, Missouri, on August 
17, 1857, and was educated in the public schools of his native city. After 
finishing at Lexington, he entered the University of Virginia, where he entered 
the law department as well as took several special courses in history, literature, 
rhetoric and German, and was awarded his law degree in 1882. On his return 
to Lexington he at once entered upon the practice and shortly afterwards 


formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Hon. Alexander Graves, which 
continued until June, 1891. Since then he has been in the practice singly. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney of Lafayette county in 1892 and served two 
terms, four years. Mr. Aull is one of the most capable and industrious mem- 
bers of the Lexington bar and has in consequence built up a practice which is 
second to none. He is a prominent member of the Old School Presbyterian 
church and takes the deepest interest in its welfare and the spread of the gos- 
pel. He is an officer of the church, superintendent of the Sunday school and is 
one of the largest contributors to missions in the county. 

Clarence Vivian, E. F. Keyton and Isaac P. Ryland were admitted to the 
bar in Lexington in 1883. Mr. Vivian was born in Winchester, Kentucky, 
August 27, 1855, and received his preliminary education in the excellent schools 
of that state. His father removed to Mexico, Missouri, in 1869 and Mr. Viv- 
ian Was graduated from the high school of that city in 1873. He taught school 
and at the same time studied law, and was admitted to the bar by Judge Elijah 
Robinson in 1882. In 1883 he removed to Higginsville and opened an office 
there. A few years ago he was elected prosecuting attorney of this county, and 
was re-elected for a second term. On being elected he removed to the county 
seat, Lexington, where he still resides. Mr. Vivian is a fine orator and in jury 
cases is especially strong, being powerful and convincing in his appeals. With 
this gift he has built up a large criminal practice in which he has been unusually 
successful, having cleared the defendants in many difficult cases. Mr. Vivian 
is a Democrat and a member of the Christian church and in both politics and 
church is influential in work and advice. 

E. F. Keyton also located in Higginsville on coming to this county from 
Saline county, where he was born and reared. After a few years' stay Mr. 
Keyton removed elsewhere and is now practicing law in Joplin, Missouri. 

Isaac P. Ryland was born and reared to manhood in Lexington, being the 
son of Judge John E. Ryland. Mr. Ryland removed soon after being licensed 
to Kansas City, Missouri, where he has built up a large commercial practice 
for which he is peculiarly adapted. He is also the referee in bankruptcy at that 
city, an important office which he fills with satisfaction to all. 

Higginsville at that time was in its most promising youth and received 
several additions to its bar. In April, 1884, William P. Mayfield located there 
and opened an office. Mr. Mayfield was just getting in command of a good 
practice when he fell sick and died after a very short illness. 

Albert R. Strother, a son of the Judge, removed to Lexington from 
Marshall and was enrolled as an attorney at the April term, 1885. He was 
taken in as a partner by John S. Blackwell and he was a valuable assistant in 


helping Mr. Blackwell with his large line of business. But like a great many 
young and ambitious lawyers, the temptation to get into a city practice was 
something he could not overcome so he removed to Kansas City, Missouri, 
where he is enjoying the rewards of a mind deeply stored in the law and the 
ability to use it to the best advantage. 

Judge Strother retired from his office at the December term, 1886, and 
Judge Field entered upon the discharge of his duties at Lexington at the April 
term, 1887. 

Stephen N. Wilson, a law student in the office of Walker & Field, was 
admitted to the bar at the September term, 1886, and has always maintained a 
high standing in his profession, but as there is elsewhere a sketch of his life and 
services the reader is referred to that part of this history. 

At the April term, 1887, John J. Hendricks, a promising son of old Lafay- 
ette county, was admitted to practice, but the ranks being crowded Mr. Hen- 
dricks went farther west where he is still busily and successfully at work. 

In the year 1888 two other young men born and reared in Lafayette 
county, coming from the farm to study law, were duly admitted to the bar. 
These were Walker Bascom and R. Y. Prigmore. After a short stay at Hig- 
ginsville, Mr. Prigmore went to the Southwest and is now practicing law at 
some point in the state of Texas. An excellent sketch of Mr. Bascom is given 
in the biographical section of this history, where Mr. Bascom's friends and 
clients may learn further of him. 

The August term, 1889, marked the accession to the bar of two other na- 
tives who are still with us. These are Judge Thomas A. Walker and ex- 
Prosecuting Attorney Nicholas M. Houx, the latter of whom has his life more 
fully recorded elsewhere in this book. Judge Walker, after a successful prac- 
tice at the Higginsville bar, was elected probate judge at the November elec- 
tion. 1905, and is now the Democratic candidate to succeed himself in office. 
Judge Walker is a careful, well-read and painstaking lawyer, who has been 
very successful in his practice and in the conduct of the important office which 
he now holds. 

The predecessor in office of Judge Walker, Judge James P. Chinn, also 
hailed from Higginsville, and was admitted to the bar in 1890. The Judge 
held the office of probate judge for two terms, making eight years in all, and 
made a most excellent judge. Judge Chinn was born in this county June 21, 
1863, and was educated in its public schools and at the University of Missouri, 
graduating from its law department in 1889. Judge Chinn returned to Hig- 
ginsville on the expiration of his second term as probate judge and was elected 


as senator from the seventeenth senatorial district at the election in 1908, in 
which he is making a fine record. Judge Chinn is a strong Democrat and has 
but one fault — he is an old bachelor. 

At the August term, 189 1, Henry C. Wallace, Jr., H. J. Dooley and John 
M. Price were admitted to the bar. Mr. Dooley located at Higginsville, where 
he remained but a short time, and was the local attorney for the Chicago & 
Alton Railway Company at that point. 

John M. Price remained at Lexington, where he studied his profession 
and still is living and practicing. Mr. Price has given the public a long and 
satisfactory service as justice of the peace and is now serving the city of Lex- 
ington as city attorney. Mr. Price is a quiet but very industrious lawyer and 
gives his undivided attention to his business. 

The younger Henry C. Wallace, familiarly known among his friends as 
"Harry," has a separate sketch of his life given in this history and his life and 
services need not be repeated here. 

At the December term. 1891, Mel. C. James was admitted to the bar at 
Higginsville, where he is still living and is its postmaster. This takes the 
most of the time of Mr. James although he still maintains a law office and is 
a vigorous and effective practitioner. 

Charles A. Keith and Gerson B. Silverman were admitted to the bar at 
Lexington in 1892. Mr. Keith is our present efficient prosecuting attorney, 
which office he has held for two years and is now the Democratic candidate 
for re-election. A fuller history of his life and services will be found in the 
separate biographical section of this work. 

Gerson B. Silverman practised his profession for two or more years in 
Lexington and then removed to the larger and more important field offered by 
Kansas City, Missouri, where he is now enjoying a large and lucrative prac- 

The year 1893 marks the extension of the convenient service of the cir- 
cuit court by the establishment of a branch court in the city of Higginsville. 
The enterprising citizens of that place, in constructing their beautiful and 
roomy city hall, made provision for the accommodation of this court and its 
officers and two terms a year are still held there, although the business has 
not been so extensive as was hoped by its promoters. The location and cus- 
tody of the general public records at the regular county seat, make attorneys 
a little wary in bringing important actions out of the immediate reach of these 
sources of evidence so often needed in emergencies. 

James A. Kemper, who had been a resident of and in charge of public 
schools of Odessa, determined to make a lawyer of himself, as is the way with 
so many of that profession, and so qualified and was admitted to the bar in 


Lexington at the December term, 1893. He located at Odessa where he built 
up a good business, but was impelled by better opportunities offered to remove 
to Warrensburg, where he has remained ever since. Mr. Kemper is a wide- 
awake and progressing lawyer, has secured a large practice and is one of the 
leaders of the bar at Warrensburg, where he is upon one side or the other in 
almost every important case. 

Charles Lyons was born and reared in this county where his parents still 
reside, as do a great many others of the name, the Lyons family being one of 
the oldest and most prominent in the county. Mr. Lyons was graduated 
from Westminster College at Fulton in 1891, took his law degree at Washing- 
ton and Lee University in 1893 an( ^ was admitted to the bar at Marshall in 
1894. Mr. Lyons located at Lexington, going into business with Hon. John 
Welborn and since the death of Mr. Welborn has been alone in business. Mr. 
Lyons is a well-posted lawyer in every branch of the law and does a large and 
growing business. In 1905, on the closing of the Middleton Bank at Waverly, 
Mr. Lyons was appointed by Judge Davis as receiver, and he is still engaged 
in the business pertaining to that matter. This receivership has been of un- 
usual importance on account of the large amount of litigation attending it, 
all of which has been conducted by Mr. Lyons wisely and well. Mr. Lyons' 
well established business ability has been also a useful factor in that connec- 
tion. Mr. Lyons is a bachelor and has handsome apartments, well furnished 
and supplied among other things with one of the largest and best selected 
libraries in Lexington, covering all lines of literature, of which Mr. Lyons is 
a devotee as well as of the law. 

Horace F. Blackwell, a son of John S. Blackwell, deceased, was enrolled 
at the August term, 1895. Mr. Blackwell was born and reared in this county, 
receiving his preliminary education in the public schools, but afterwards at- 
tended at Bethany College, West Virginia, from which he was graduated. 
After graduation he entered the office of his father, from whom he received 
his legal education. After obtaining his license he was taken into partner- 
ship by his father and so remained until the death of the latter. Mr. Black- 
well has served with satisfaction two terms as prosecuting attorney and also 
as chairman of the Democratic executive committee for this county. Mr. 
Blackwell is alone in business and has received and is receiving a patronage 
very complimentary to his recognized ability as a lawyer. 

Harry B. Walker, who had been the principal of the Higginsville high 
school, was in the meanwhile a law student, passed an examination and was 
admitted to the bar at the August term, 1896. He did not linger, but located 
in Kansas City where he is reported as being engaged in a good practice. 


S. S. Gundlach, who had been a teacher in the Wentworth Military 
Academy at Lexington, also studied law and was admitted to the bar at the 
May term, 1897. He, like Mr. Walker, removed to Kansas City and is en- 
gaged in a good practice in that thriving city. 

Judge Richard Field held in December, 1898, his last term as judge, and 
Judge Samuel Davis, of Marshall, who had been elected at the fall election, 
held his first term in this county at the March term, 1900, in Higginsville. 
Judge Davis is still judge of the circuit and is a candidate on the Democratic 
ticket for a second re-election, and will doubtless be successful in his candidacy, 
as he is deservedly very popular. Judge Davis was born near Marshall, Mis- 
souri, on the 17th day of April, 1847. He was educated in the public schools 
of his county and at the noted Kemper School at Boonville. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1869 and was prosecuting attorney of Saline county for four 
years, from 1873 to 1877, which office he filled with great credit. He was 
also a member of the twenty-ninth and thirtieth General Assemblies, and was 
one of the best known members in those bodies. Judge Davis has also been 
mentioned and had a good following as a candidate for the office of judge of 
the supreme court of Missouri. The Judge is a fine all-around lawyer, just 
such a one as his office requires, and he has given general satisfaction by his 
administration of the law. 

W. L. Cheatham, who was reared near Bates City in this county, was 
admitted to the bar at the December term, 1899, and after a short period of 
practice, he went farther west where he is still engaged in the duties of his 

Thomas J. Duling was a practicing lawyer at the bar here at this period, 
but the date of his admission is not obtainable as it was not made a matter of 
record. Mr. Duling died in Lexington several years ago. He was a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church South, and a Democrat. He never married. 

Pearl L. Smith, who was reared near Waterloo in this county, was ad- 
mitted to the bar at the April term, 1902. After a short practice in Lexing- 
ton, he removed to Excelsior Springs, from which he went to Golden City, 
Missouri, where he is at present located. 

James G. Russell was admitted to the bar in 1899, and has been having a 
good commercial practice but loss of hearing has caused him to give up his 

James L. Roberts was admitted to the bar at Lexington in 1905, but did 
not engage in the practice here. He is a member of the firm of Barber & 
Roberts, a rising young firm. Mr. Roberts is also the official stenographer 
of this circuit. 


In the last few years there have been admitted to the bar the following 
attorneys, who have their future before them and their histories to be 
written by some later writer. These are A. H. Whitsett, of Lexington, and 
W. M. Ilgenfritz, George C. Chamberlain and George W. Stagen, of Higgins- 
ville. Mr. Ilgenfritz, who came here from Sedalia, is making a good start on 
his part by being the Republican candidate for prosecuting attorney at the 
coming election. 

It has not been feasible to work the history of the criminal court in this 
chapter in its regular order of time, and it will be given at this point. A 
criminal circuit composed of the counties of Pettis, Saline, Johnson and Lafay- 
ette was created by the Legislature in 1875 with power in the governor to ap- 
point the first judge. Pettis had as its candidate William H. Hill, Saline, 
John B. Breathitt, Lafayette, Judge William Young, and these three counties 
had a delegation each at Jefferson City asking the appointment, and each 
working hard for its favorite. Governor Hardin was at a loss to decide and 
finally enquired who Johnson county favored. Johnson county had not been 
heard from, so a telegram was sent to the lawyers at Warrensburg asking the 
question. They got together and concluded to ask the appointment of Henry 
Neill, an attorney of that city, and so wired : "Johnson county favors Neill." 
The telegraph operator at Jefferson City in writing out the answer, in writing 
Neill wrote it in this manner "Heill," which the Governor read "Hill" and 
gave the appointment accordingly, Judge Hill appearing to have the support 
of two counties. Judge Hill had been probate judge of Pettis county and so 
was not without judicial experience and conducted his office very creditably. 
His health gave away and with it finally his mind and he was unable to attend 
the October term, 1880, of his court. On the opening of court the lawyers 
present elected the writer to hold the term under the law and he held court 
until October 18, 1880, when the news came announcing Judge Hill's death, 
which created a vacancy in the orifice. Judge John E. Ryland, who was a can- 
didate for the office and was elected to it, was at once appointed by Governor 
Phelps to the place and he took charge of the court and finished the term. 
This office Judge Ryland held up to December, 1898, and was succeeded by 
the present judge, John A. Rich, of Slater, Saline county, who held for his 
first term the February term, 1899. Judge Rich is a candidate for re-election 
for the second time and will surely be elected. Judge Rich was born in Lib- 
erty, Missouri, July 12, 1855. and was educated in the public schools of 
Clay county and at Central College, in Fayette county, Missouri. He served 
as assistant prosecuting attorney for Saline county before being elected to the 


bench of the criminal court. Judge Rich is a Democrat, a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church South, an excellent lawyer, an impartial judge 
and an exemplary citizen in every respect. 

The writer has attempted to make this history as complete as possible, 
but, in spite of all the care taken, doubtless some names have escaped, which 
if true is to be regretted. The records of the circuit court fail to show in many 
instances the enrollment of well-known lawyers and of course must fail to 
show the enrollment of others whose names are not so familiar. The writer 
acknowledges with gratitude the very great help to him has been, ex-Supreme 
Judge W. V. N. Bay's, "Bench and Bar of Missouri" (St. Louis, F. H. 
Thomas & Co., 1878), the "U. S. Biographical Dictionary — Missouri" (Kan- 
sas City. Missouri, Wilson & Co., 1878), and the "Biographical Record of 
Lafayette and Saline Counties" (Chapman Bros., Chicago, 1893), for a great 
many facts which it would be impossible otherwise for him to obtain. 

The facts have been given, as all history should be, in regular chrono- 
logical order as far as possible, and that is in the main correct, but some dates 
which the writer has obtained may be not absolutely correct and allowance 
must be made for typographical errors which it is impossible to prevent and 
which may occur even after the manuscript has left the hands of the writer. 
The chronology and dates may, however, be relied upon as fairly correct and 
the writer hopes that this little history may be useful and interesting to the 
present generation and may be used by its successors in continuing to brighten 
it, from time to time as the years roll on, what the successors have added to 
that record. Perhaps William Aull, Jr., or Henry C. Chiles, who are awaiting 
the next state bar examination, or Warren Sherman, who soon will be, who 
will be the next lawyers added to this long list, may be the next historian. If 
so the writer hopes that the task may be as pleasant and interesting as it has 
been to him. 


By J. H. Straughn, M. D. 

In looking into the history of the men who were the pioneer physicians 
of Lafayette county one is impressed with the character of many of them. 
They were intelligent, resourceful, sturdy men, made powerful by the hard- 
ships they endured. They were active in the development of the country 
and influential in their respective communities. Many of them were well edu- 
cated, not only in medicine, but in the sciences and literature, and it was 
not uncommon for the physician of the earlier period to be able to preach a 
good sermon as well as practice medicine successfully. 

The relation between physician and patient was then very close. The 
physician was not only the medical adviser, but frequently the general adviser 
and friend and had a deep personal interest in his patient and the family into 
which he entered in a professional capacity. 

The practice of medicine with the pioneer physician was oftentimes dif- 
ficult work; the roads were frequently all but impassable and the only mode 
of travel was on foot or horseback. There were no bridges and it was often 
necessary to force the horse to ford swollen streams. During the sickly sea- 
son many of the physicians were in the saddle, with but little rest, both day 
and night, going from one patient to another over the thinly settled country. 
Many times the people were poor and had but little with which to pay for 
medical services, although, as a general rule, they were honest and paid what 
they could. 

While all the physicians of Lafayette county have not been of the high- 
est order, the majority of them have been intelligent, well educated, gentle- 
manly men, well up to their times in professional attainments. This has been 
true of the physicians of the county from the beginning, and is no less true 

Wonderful strides have been made in the healing art, each decade wit- 
nessing the introduction of new methods of practice which have, by experi- 
ment, been proven superior to former methods. And the accomplishments 
of the past, wonderful as they are, give promise of still greater progress in 
the future. 


The first physician to settle in Lafayette county was Dr. Nathaniel C. 
Mitchell, who was born in Cocke county, Tennessee, November 26, 1801. He 
came to Missouri with his family in 1816 and located near Lexington in 
1824 and began practicing his profession, being the first person in the county 
to exercise the duties of that vocation. Doctor Mitchell was elected a mem- 
ber of the state Legislature and after serving one term was elected to fill out 
the unexpired term of William McCausland, who had resigned that position. 
Doctor Mitchell died at the old homestead near Lexington September 24, 
1 88 1, at the age of eighty years, honored and esteemed by a large circle of 
friends and acquaintances. 

Dr. Perry G. Buck settled in Lexington in 1832. He was born in Roches- 
ter, New York, and died in Lexington in 1835. 

Dr. M. W. Flournoy settled in Lafayette county in 1833. He was a 
very eccentric man, as the following anecdote will prove : On one occasion he 
fell out with a man named "Wash" Ewing and he became so enraged at his 
adversary that he thrust his hand down in his pocket and, drawing out a 
handful of silver coin, threw it in his enemy's face, which was considerably 
cut and bruised by the assault, and then turned and walked away, leaving 
his enemy to pocket the insult, which he immediately proceeded to do. 

Dr. William H. Ruffin was an intelligent and accomplished physician and 
a polished Southern gentleman of the old school. He was a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania in the year 1838. He settled in Lexington in 
1847; in 1849 he went to California, returning to Lexington in 1852. He 
served as a surgeon in the Confederate army during the Civil war. He re- 
turned to Lexington in 1875 and a few years later removed with his family to 
Choctaw county, Alabama, where he died April 25, 1879. 

Dr. William C. Webb was born in Orange county, Virginia, February 

5, 1825. He settled on a farm near Dover in 1836. Doctor Webb was a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania. He practiced medicine in the 
county near Dover up to the time of his death, March 4, 1896. Doctor Webb 
was a very intelligent man, a skillful and accomplished physician and one of 
the most courteous and kindhearted men I ever knew. 

Dr. Samuel T. Meng was born in Buckingham county, Virginia, March 
13, 1813. He was a graduate of the medical department of the University of 
Missouri in 1847. He settled in Dover in 1853. He performed the first lapa- 
rotomy which was ever performed in the county and the operation was suc- 
cessful. Doctor Meng died in Dover after a long and useful life, October 

6, 1880. 


Dr. William A. Gordon was born in Kentucky in 182 1. He began prac- 
ticing medicine in Lafayette county in 1849. In i860 he was elected to the 
Legislature. During the Civil war he became a surgeon in the Confederate 
army. In 1873 ne was elected county collector and was subsequently re- 
elected and served a second term. Doctor Gordon was one of the most hon- 
orable and high-minded men I ever knew. His devotion to principle, espe- 
cially to his religious beliefs, was so great that I believe he would have suf- 
fered martyrdom rather than renounce them. 

Dr. Joseph G. Chinn was born in Bourbon county, Kentucky, April 1, 
1797. Doctor Chinn was during his youth a soldier in the war of 1812, tak- 
ing part in the battle of the river Raisin. He was a graduate of the Transyl- 
vania University, Lexington, Kentucky. Doctor Chinn joined the Christian 
church in 1830 and organized the first church of that denomination in Ken- 
tucky. He was a skillful and judicious physician and practiced his vocation in 
Lexington, Kentucky, and in Lexington, Missouri. He was elected mayor of 
both cities and ended a long and useful life honored and esteemed by a host 
of friends September 7, 1891, in the ninety- fourth year of his age, in Lex- 
ington, Kentucky. 

Dr. John B. Alexander was born in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1820. He 
settled in Lafayette county in 1846, near Higginsville. He removed to Lex- 
ington in 1851, where he practiced until his death, in 1888. Doctor Alex- 
ander was a learned and intelligent physician. He was a walking encyclo- 
pedia of useful knowledge and information. He was one of the finest and 
most entertaining conversationalists I ever met. He was well informed on 
every subject. 

Dr. Richard G. Buckingham was born in Troy, New York, September 
14, 181 6. He was a graduate of Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1836. He came to Lexington in 1843, where he practiced nearly 
twenty-three years. He was one of the founders of the Baptist Female Col- 
lege of Lexington. About the close of the Civil war he moved to Denver, 
Colorado. He was elected a member of the Territorial Council and subse- 
quently became mayor of Denver. He was a refined, polished gentleman 
and a competent and skillful physician. 

Dr. C. Dorsey Baer came to Dover from Virginia in 1856. He entered 
the Confederate army at the beginning of the war and served as a regi- 
mental surgeon in the command of General M. M. Parsons. He was a fine 
surgeon and performed a great many important operations. 

Dr. Jesse F. Atkison was born in Gallipolis, Ohio, and settled in Lex- 
ington in 1846. He was a prominent man in his profession and enjoyed a 
large practice. He died in Lexington on the 6th day of April, 1882. 


Dr. Paschal H. Chambers was born in Kentucky February 16, 1824. 
He was a graduate of the University of Louisville in 1850. He began prac- 
tising his profession in Dover, where he remained several years, after which 
he removed to Lexington, where he died December 22, 1896. Doctor Cham- 
bers was an intelligent and skillful physician, an elegant gentleman and a de- 
vout Christian. 

Dr. P. S. Fulkerson was born in Lee county, Virginia, in 1827. He 
first practiced medicine in Lafayette county on Texas Prairie. Subsequently 
he removed to Wellington. While a resident of Wellington he was elected 
county collector, to which office he was re-elected, serving two terms. After- 
wards he resumed his practice, which he pursued until his death, which oc- 
curred December 16, 1905. Dotor Fulkerson was a very skillful and suc- 
cessful physician and a most excellent man. Requiescat in pace. 

Dr. Robert C. Carter was born near Richmond, Virginia, January 12, 
1838. When a mere lad he emigrated with his widowed mother from Vir- 
ginia to Knoxville, Tennessee, in wagons, and from thence by steamboat to 
the Missouri river and up the Missouri river to what was then called Sea- 
brook's landing, now known as Berlin. This was in 1849 and the family 
settled in Dover. Doctor Carter took the degrees Bachelor of Arts and Mas- 
ter of Arts at the University of Missouri in i860. He graduated at the Mis- 
souri Medical College in 1868. Doctor Carter was a great student, an ac- 
complished and successful physician and a devout Christian. He was a man 
whom I was proud to call a friend. 

Dr. James Henry Straughn was born in Johnson county, Missouri, May 
30, 1839. After attending school in his native county, he entered the Jef- 
ferson Medical College of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and after spending a 
year in that school next attended the Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, 
Missouri, (now the medical department of Washington University) and 
graduated from that school March 3, 1885. He then located in Ray county, 
Missouri, and practiced medicine two years and at the expiration of this 
time he moved to Lexington and has continued in the practice of medicine to 
this date. In 1891 the Doctor was elected as coroner of Lafayette county 
and by virtue of this office was made county physician ; he was re-elected and 
served a second term to the entire satisfaction of his constituency. In 1897 
he was appointed pension examining surgeon and served out the term of his 
commission creditably and at the present time is a member of the board of 
health of the city of Lexington, and last, though not least from a professional 
viewpoint, Doctor Straughn was elected and served a term as president of the 
Lafayette Medical Society and is one of the landmarks and nestors of the 




profession in Lafayette county, no one enjoying more of the confidence and 
esteem of his fellow citizens. 

[The above paragraph was kindly furnished by a fellow practitioner 
of the county.] 


Unless otherwise stated, it will be understood that the physicians whose 
names are here given represent the "regular" school of medicine. 
N. B. Payne (homeopathic), Lexing- J. F. Mackie, Odessa. 


T. B. Payne (homeopathic), Lexing- 

H. M. Lissack (homeopathic), Lex- 

C. T. Ryland, Lexington. 

J. Q. Cope, Lexington. 

G. W. Fredendall, Lexington. 

M. G. Roberts, Lexington. 

A. J. Chalkley, Lexington. 

J. D. Ball (colored). Lexington. 

E. J. Kempf (osteopathic), Lexing- 

J. H. Straughn, Lexington. 

J. J. Fuelkerson, Lexington. 

W. A. Bracklein, Higginsville. 

W. C. Webb, Higginsville. 

T. A. McLennan, Higginsville. 

C. W. Ott, Higginsville. 

E. S. Harris, Higginsville. 

E. A. Hoefer, Higginsville. 

W. A. Porter, Higginsville. 

W. D. Barclay, Odessa. 

Henry Williams, Odessa. 

George Williams, Odessa. 

J. W. Lightner, Odessa. 
J. W. Goodwin, Odessa. 
Paul Clayton, Odessa. 
J. A. Schneider, Concordia. 
F. Schreiman, Concordia. 
F. D. Leiser, Concordia. 
O. G. Oetting, Concordia. 
John A. Mann, Wellington. 
F. W. Mann, Wellington. 
Doctor Masse, Wellington. 
W. G. Harwood, Dover. 
E. F. Gaines, Bates City. 
J. G. W. Fisher, Alma. 
J. W. Horner, Alma. 
Doctor Kelling, Waverly. 
Doctor Williamson, Waverly. 
E. F. Martin, Corder. 
Lewis Carthrae, Corder. 
Lewis Carthrae, Jr., Corder. 
C. W. Moore, Corder. 
C. A. Nickell, Mayview. 
R. B. Watts, Napoleon. 
Doctor Boone, Aullville. 
Doctor Rice, Chapel Hill. 


From the best obtainable sources, the writers of this volume are only 
able to give the following bit of history concerning the Lafayette Medical 
Society : 


At Lexington, in 1852, a medical society was organized with about 
twenty members. Monthly meetings were held and much interest mani- 
fested for a time. Matters concerning the treatment of various diseases 
were discussed with much ability and research — especially that class of ail- 
ments that then troubled the people of the county. It sent as its delegates 
to the American Medical Association at its session in St. Louis in May, 1854, 
Drs. J. B. Alexander and J. F. Atkison. During the Civil war the society 
went down and most of the records were lost. Doctor Alexander was for 
many years its worthy secretary. 

In June, 1865, a meeting was called to meet at the court house for the 
purpose of organizing another medical society, to be "composed of resident 
physicians of the city and county." One object stated was to establish by 
joint interest a medical library, which all might consult, of such costly books 
and charts as one physician could not well afford to purchase. Of this meet- 
ing Dr. W. P. Boulware was president and Dr. J. W. Teader was secretary. 
A committee, consisting of Doctors Atkinson, Cooley and Alexander, was 
appointed to draft by-laws. No other record can be found of this society and 
it probably did not exist long enough to form very much interesting history. 

Again in November, 1869, in the court house, there was a meeting for 
organizing a similar society of doctors. Dr. J. F. Atkison was called to the 
chair and Dr. O. F. Renick was chosen secretary. This, too, had a brief 

In 1879 a "Lafayette County Medical Society" was formed at Higgins- 
ville, which for a number of years held its regular meetings at different 
places within the county, some of which were held at Higginsville, Odessa, 
Mayview and Lexington. A good society is still in existence. 

On August 10, 1864, the doctors of this county adopted a rule to in- 
crease their charges fifty per cent, for medicines and medical services, owing 
to the general increase in prices. It may be interesting to note here who 
were then practicing medicine at that date : William T. Lamkin, M. M. Rob- 
inson, A. B. Hereford, D. K. Murphy, O. F. Renick, R. D. Ragland, W. H. 
Ruffin, J. Bull, J. F. Atkinson, W. P. Boulware, George W. Love, J. B. Alex- 
ander, F. Cooley, G. W. Young, John Vaughn, T. S. Smith, S. P. Smith, 
M. Chapman, Thomas Bolton. 

In 1864 Gen. W. S. Rosecrans passed through Lexington on his way to 
the little Blue, and while here appointed Doctor Boulware as surgeon, in 
charge of the Federal hospital in the Anderson house, Doctor Anderson then 
being on duty in St. Louis. 



The newspapers of any given community have long since been recognized 
as an index of the people residing within such territory. Not excepting the 
pulpit and rostrum, the press of this country has been the greatest influence 
in forming public opinion, for nearly all persons read newspapers, while but 
a minority, unfortunate as the fact is, attend church or patronize the public 
lecture platform. The daily, weekly and monthly papers and periodicals are 
to be seen in every town, hamlet and farm house in the intelligent sections of 
the nation. While it must be admitted the class of population in a community 
sometimes influence the writings of the local editor, yet, as a rule, the Ameri- 
can newspaper editorial writer has a high aim and usually leads instead of 
being led ; hence he builds up a community in all that tends to make a people 
noble, progressive and morally good. The state of Missouri now has more 
than one thousand newspapers, and Lafayette county comes in for sixteen 
publications, including three college journals. 

In the preparation of this chapter the author has quoted as his authority, 
on early-day papers, from "Chiles' Centennial History" of the county, as 
well as from a recent article on early newspapers in Missouri in a recent num- 
ber of the Missouri Historical Review. 

The first newspaper established on Lafayette county soil was styled the 
Lexington Express, the date of its prospectus being October, 1839. Its 
editor was Charles Patterson and it was printed at first from the office of a 
paper printed at Liberty, Clay county, Missouri, which was then the only 
paper published west of Boonville and Fayette. In the month of November, 
that year, Mr. Patterson went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and purchased his printing 
material ; but on account of the low stage of water in the Ohio, his press was 
not shipped until the following February, reaching Lexington in March. 
He was assisted in his business enterprise by Messrs. James and Robert Aull. 
Eldridge Burden, Samuel B. Stramacke and Gen. James H. Graham. The 
initial number came forth from the press March 4, 1840. When the pros- 
pectus was issued Henry Clay was expected to be the Whig candidate for the 
approaching presidential campaign ; but at the Harrisburg convention Gen. 


William Henry Harrison received the nomination and the Express hoisted 
his name at its mast-head. This paper was a weekly visitor to many of the 
homes of Lafayette county until 1861, under the successive administration of 
the following : Charles Patterson and Jacob M. Julian ; Patterson. Julian and 
John R. Gaut ; Patterson, Julian and William Musgrove, Sr. ; W. M. Small- 
wood and Julian, and Julian and R. C. Vaughan. During a part of i860 and 
1 86 1 it was issued as a daily, by Smallwood and Julian. Early in 1861 — 
first year of the Civil war — it suspended, and the material was in the custody 
of Ethan Allen at the time of the siege of Lexington. With it he printed an 
"official bulletin," containing the reports of all the Confederate officers the day 
following the surrender of Colonel Mulligan. 

Hence it will be observed that Lafayette county has had the benefit of 
local newspapers for more than seventy years, barring the few years of sus- 
pension at the time of the Civil war period. 

Of the founder of the pioneer paper — Patterson — it should be added that 
after he sold his paper here, he went to Warrensburg, and from there to 
Waverly, Missouri. He is the grandfather and great-grandfather of the 
Patterson boys who have conducted papers at Marshall and Slater. Of John 
R. Gant, let it be said that he was one of the ablest, truest men Lafayette 
county ever had. Later he became a steamboat clerk. Julian died at San 
Diego, California, about 1902, as we are informed by W. G. Musgrove, of 
Kansas City, who is the son of one of the early editors of the Express. 

The second newspaper in the county was the Telegraph, a Democratic 
paper, established in Lexington in 1845. In its first issue the editor remarked 
that he "aimed at the political redemption of the country." The Whig con- 
temporary encouraged him by saying that he "might as well aim at the moon 
with a pop-gun." After six months' struggle, the founder sold out to William 
T. Yoemans and James R. Pile, and in 1846 they sold to S. B. Garrett, who 
changed the name to the Lexington Appeal. Its publication ceased in 1850. 

The next paper in the county was at Lexington, known as the Advertiser; 
it had but little circulation and less influence among its readers. The date of 
its starting was 1845 — * ts obituary is not to be found now. 

The Democratic Journal was started at Lexington in 1848. Harrison 
B. Branch was the publisher. He was a great admirer of Thomas H. Benton 
and made the Journal one of the strongest Benton papers in the state. In the 
fall of 1850 George C. Bronaugh came to Lexington from Hopkinsville, Ken- 
tucky, where he had been editing The People's Press, and bought the Journal, 
changing the name to Western Chronicle. Dr. Montgomery Bryant, later 


state marshal of Missouri, became the editor and proprietor in 1852. Under 
his control it was an anti-Benton paper. It suspended publication in 1855. 

The American Citizen was established in 1855, by William Musgrove, 
Sr. It advocated the principles of the Know-Nothing party, but after two 
years died with its founder. 

In 1856 the Expositor was started by Yost & Stofer, who in 1858 were 
followed by William Anderson as editor. It was a stanch Democratic organ, 
and survived until the latter days of the autumn of 1861, when the material 
was mostly carried away by members of the First Kansas Regiment of Volun- 

The Missouri Cumberland Presbyterian was established at Lexington in 
1850, edited by Rev. J. B. Logan. Later it was removed to St. Louis, where 
it was continued until 1874. About this time it was bought by the General 
Assembly and removed to Nashville, Tennessee, where it was still published 
as late as 1882. 

The first German paper within the county was the Lafayette Pioneer, 
established in i860 at Lexington, by Philip Reichert, but was short-lived. 

About 1858-59, and continuing a year or more, was established the 
Visitor, a weekly edited at % Waverly by Charles Patterson, the pioneer editor 
of Lafayette county, who established the Express in 1839. 

Another paper published at Waverly about i860, was the Waverly Ex- 
press, the true history of which is now out of record and almost out of mem- 

The Citizen's Daily Advertiser was started by Howard S. Harbaugh in 
i860, but his editorial career was cut short because of his advocacy of Abra- 
ham Lincoln for President. He it was who was notified by the "Knights of 
the Golden Circle" to leave the state within six days or they would hang him. 
He left and afterwards became editor of the Chillicothe Constitution. 

At Lexington, when the Civil war broke out in 1861, there were but two 
newspapers in the city, the Express and the Expositor, and they soon discon- 
tinued on account of the war. In 1862, however, H. K. Davis established the 
Lexington Weekly Union, which supported Gen. George B. McClellan for 
President in the 1864 campaign. In the year 1865 it was changed to the Lex- 
ington Weekly Express, but the next year — 1866 — gave way to the Caucasian, 
then owned by Jacob M. Julian, Ethan Allen & Company, the "company" 
being William Musgrove, Jr. The control of this journal was in the name of 
legion, including, Peter Donan, Allen, Donan and Charles J. Nesbit ; Allen ; 
Jacob T. Child, and William Musgrove, Jr. ; Donan. Reavis, Andrew Donan 


and William G. Musgrove, Jr., all having a hand in its management until it 
was finally merged into the Intelligencer in 1875. It was always Democratic 
in its politics. 

In June, 1864, was established the Lexington Weekly Journal, by C. C. 
CorBnberry, who was the editor as well as publisher. Politically, it was a sup- 
porter of the Republican party, supporting Lincoln for a second term as Presi- 
dent. A bit of history is connected with the founding of this paper, which 
should be recorded and handed on down to other times and other people. 
Some of the radical Union men of Lexington thought they should have a news- 
paper of their own, so they clubbed together and raised the money for that 
purpose. The treasurer was Henry Turner. William H. Bowen went to St. 
Louis and purchased the printing outfit, also bringing home with him a printer 
to take charge as foreman. It was soon discovered that they did not have 
enough material, so they soon raised three hundred dollars more and sent the 
printer to St. Louis to buy more type. During 1864, when Price raided this 
part of Missouri, the paper was stopped and the type all knocked into "pi" by 
the guerrillas. In April, 1865, Col. Casper Gruber bought the material, and 
on the 29th he issued the first number of the paper. But that was several 
weeks after the assassination of Lincoln, for whose candidacy it had been 
originally established as a party organ. 

The Lafayette Advertiser was edited by Rev. Crawford, a Methodist 
minister, although his name did not appear. Colonel Gruber s name stood at 
the head as "proprietor and assistant editor." About the end of 1865 it was 
purchased by Dr. F. Cooley and Lewellyn Davis. The name Was soon changed 
to that of the Missouri Valley Register and in 1867 Samuel S. Earle bought 
Cooley's interest. In 1868 Col. Mark L. DeMotte bought out Earle and in 
1869 Edwin Turner purchased Davis' interest. It was a Republican paper, 
and during the 1872 state election campaign it had sharp controversies with 
the Intelligencer, then edited by L. W. Groves, he being the Democratic editor 
of the city. This resulted in hasty words of harshness between the two men 
when upon the street, and finally Edwin Turner shot and killed Groves, at the 
corner of Laurel and North streets. This was on November 8, 1872. Turner 
immediately surrendered himself to the authorities and was by Sheriff Taub- 
man taken to Kansas City for confinement, for fear that Groves' friends would 
break into the home jail and lynch Turner. A change of venue was had and 
he was tried in Kansas City. After being in jail there more than a year, he 
was finally acquitted on the ground of self-defense, the testimony of Dr. J. F. 
Atkison and others showing that Groves had a cocked pistol in his hand when 
he fell. 


The ''Missouri Valley" part of the paper's title was dropped, leaving- it 
the Lexington Register. In 1874 Henry W. Turner bought Col. DeMotte's 
interest, but the latter continued as editor until 1877. During the winter of 
1874-75 the office was destroyed by fire, but the paper never missed an issue. 
After De Motte left the editorial chair in 1877 tne paper was owned by Ed- 
win Turner and Cam. B. Wilson, until August, 1881, when W. G. Phetzing 
took the editorial management. Politically, the paper was always straight, 
uncompromisingly Republican. H. W. Turner was appointed postmaster 
in 1877, and re-appointed in June, 1881. Bascom & Keller then became the 
editors and proprietors and were not over-successful in the publication and in 
1890 it suspended publication. 

The Lexington Intelligencer, the organ of Democracy, was established in 
April, 1 87 1, and was founded by Judge William Young, John T. Smith and 
R. B. Vaughan, with Mr. Young as its editor. Soon after its establishment, 
Lafayette W. Groves purchased Smith's interest and succeeded to the editor- 
ship, which place he ably filled until his tragic death, in November, 1872. 
During the autumn of the same year, John S. Davis bought an interest in the 
paper and became its publisher, it being edited by Michael Steele and Henry L. 
Haynes until its consolidation with the Caucasian, as before mentioned, in 
1875. It was later owned by the Intelligencer Printing Company, managed 
by Ethan Allen and W. S. Musgrove, Jr. After the consolidation, Capt. A. 
A. Lesueur was its editor. In 1879 Mr. Lesueur was elected as a member of 
the state Legislature. In 1881 he was chosen president of the Missouri Press 
Association. .The original cost of this plant was fifteen thousand dollars, 
being equipped with a Cincinnati cylinder press and two Gordon jobbers. The 
plant was then run by steam. 

The following has been the chain of men at the helm on this paper since 
A. A. Lesueur : Ethan Allen and W. G. Musgrove from 1880 to 1891 ; James 
E. Payne, 1891-92; H. J. Groves and W. G. Musgrove, 1893-4-5 and 1896; 
H. J. Groves and I. G. Neale, 1897-8; W. G. Musgrove and I. G. Neale, 1899- 
1900; I. G. Neale, 1901-02; I. G. Neale and E. N. Hopkins, 1903 to 1907; 
O. R. Sellers and A. W. Allen, present editors. 

The Dispatch, a sprightly little daily paper, made its appearance in that 
disastrous year, 1873, but, owing to the financial panic that swept from ocean 
to ocean, it went the way of all the earth. 

The Lafayette County Advance was established at Higginsville July 9, 
1879, by George E. King, of St. Joseph, Missouri, and for the first year was 
conducted by William P. King and H. H. Luce. It was then purchased by 
H. H. Luce and Frank L. Houx, who conducted the business about four 


months. Houx's interest was then bought by Mrs. Frances M. Venable, of 
Savannah, Missouri, the mother of H. H. Luce, and then the Advance Print- 
ing Company was made the title of the company. Politically, it was Demo- 
cratic, but more especially devoted to Higginsville and Lafayette county. It 
is still successfully published. 

The Aullville Times was established in 1870, edited by W. H. Winfrey, 
but it only survived a year. 

The Odessa Herald was established and its first issue appeared on No- 
vember 13, 1880, by D. Reddington, formerly of the Mexico Herald (Mis- 
souri). It later merged with another paper. 


The following are the newspapers published in Lafayette county at the 
date of the publication of this history : 

Lexington Intelligencer, Lexington Nezvs, Lexington Lexingtonian, Lex- 
ington Advertiser , Corder Journal, Waverly Nezvs, Higginsville Jefferson- 
ian, Higginsville Advance, Higginsville Thalbote (German), Odessa Ledger, 
Odessa Democrat, Concordia Concordian, Wellington News. 

Of the history and founding of these journals it may be stated that the 
history of some has already been given, while the facts about the remainder 
will here follow : 

The Lexingtonian, of Lexington, was established August 21, 1909, by 
Glover Branch, under the business title of Publishing and Printing Company. 
In politics the paper has always been Republican. Glover Branch is the 
editor and president and secretary of company. The paper is a live local 
Weekly journal reflecting much credit upon its founder. As a local paper it 
ranks second to none in Lafayette county. In size, it is a four-page folio, 
twenty-four by thirty-six inches. It is run from improved presses propelled 
by electricity. It brought the first type-setting machine to this county. Its 
present foreman is Frank Bowman, who has been connected with the press of 
this city many years, and knows how to conduct all departments of the news- 
paper business. 

The Lexington Nezvs was established by Edwin and Frank Bowman, 
April 11, 1889, who conducted it until June, 1904, when they sold out to W. D. 
Meng and C. G. Marquis, who conducted it a short time, then sold to its pres- 
ent proprietor, B. C. Drummond. It is a Democratic paper, devoted to local 
news of Lafayette county, and especially Lexington city. It may ever be 
counted on as working for the best interest of the Democratic party. 


The Corder Journal was established January 22, 1909, by Thomas D. 
Bowman. It is a neat five-column six-page paper and is run from a press 
propelled by a gasoline engine. In politics it is an independent journal, fully 
up to the standard of excellence found in Lafayette county. Its editor is the 
founder of the paper. 

There was a paper published here in 1881 by E. A. Hawks, but nothing 
can now be learned of its history. 

The Missouri Thalbote, a German newspaper, now published at Hig- 
ginsville, was established in Lexington in April, 1871, by William P. Beck. 
During the next years it frequently changed proprietors. They were R. Wil- 
libald, John G. Fischer, Egid Kist and Daniel Schlegel, until, in 1878, Albert 
Althoff succeeded in the proprietorship. He removed the paper to Concordia 
in October, 1880. For a few years F. Bruening, one of the present owners, 
was associated with A. Althoff who, in May, 1886, sold the Thalbote to Hen- 
ry C. Schwartz. In 1888 Richard P. Sevin, who had been associate editor 
and manager of the paper, became its proprietor. In September, 1893, tne 
paper was removed to Higginsville, this town being the center of its circula- 
tion territory. R. P. Sevin sold the plant, in September, 1894, to Graeff 
& Henkel, and in February, 1896, became again its owner in partnership 
with H. C. Schwartz. The latter sold his interest in the publication in June, 
1899, to Fred. Bruening, and since then Sevin & Bruening have been, and 
now are, the proprietors. The Missouri Thalbote is an eight-page paper, 
fifteen by twenty-two inches, with an "Agricultural Journal" as supplement. 
The plant is housed in its own quarters, thirty-two by sixty feet, equipped 
with modern machinery. A German family paper, it is read in almost every 
household of the members of the twenty-seven German churches in Lafay- 
ette and western Saline counties. In politics the paper has always been 
Republican, but not radical in its views, and fair to all. It is one of the 
best and most successful German weeklies in the West. 

The Odessa Democrat was established in 1883, at Odessa, Missouri. 
Its founder was J. R. McChesney ; other editors have been Milton Drum- 
mond, W. E. Ewing, W. L. Bales, and the present editor and owner, A. J. 
Adair. Politically, it is a Democratic organ ; in form, a six-page home print, 
run from presses propelled by a gasoline engine. Circulation, one thousand 
one hundred and forty. It has connected with it a first-class job printing 

On February 2, 1889, the first issue of the Wellington Monitor, the first 
newspaper printed in Wellington, by William C. Thornton, appeared. This 
paper was printed on a marble slab — part of an old tombstone — by means of 


a rubber roller passing over the sheets. Pieces of boards, with holes bored 
through, were hung on the ends of the axle of the roller and a box filled with 
rocks, to give the necessary weight, nailed to the lower end of the boards. 
The printing office was in the upper room of the old William Corse store, 
erected of logs on the west side of the public square in about 1841. 

The next newspaper of Wellington was the Globe, established December 
16, 1893, by W. S. Graves. The third paper was the Qui Vive, established 
December 17, 1894, by B. C. Drummond, who later located at Odessa and 
founded a paper there. The next newspaper adventure at Wellington was 
by the establishing of the Wellington News, by Mr. Logan in 1893. It is 
now owned by L. E. Heath, or rather he succeeded the News and started the 
present paper, the News, about 1908. Mr. Heath formerly owned the Wa- 
verly Times. 

At Waverly the history of the press has been quite varied. The first 
attempt at journalism there was in about 1859, when the Waverly Visitor 
was established by Charles Patterson. It was a Whig organ and a red-hot 
political sheet. It lasted but about one year. Then the Waverly Express 
came into existence, with this same Whig as its editor and proprietor. Later 
he sold to a Mr. Frazee, who in 1870 was joined by W. H. Peters, of Illinois. 
It seems to have been a Democratic sheet at the last. The abstract or chain 
of Waverly papers seems, then, to be as follows: The Visitor; the Express; 
the Watchman; the Gazette ; the second Times; the News. The last Times 
was a seven-column folio, published by L. E. Heath for about one year, and 
in 1908 he removed to Wellington and founded the Wellington News. The 
present Waverly News was established by Dr. George B. Williamson. It is 
on its second year of publication and is a five-column quarto, creditably 
printed and edited in an acceptable manner to the community. 

The Lexington Daily Advertiser was established as an experiment on 
December 5. 1898, by Samuel W. Williams. It is circulated free to the ex- 
tent of over nine hundred copies in Lexington each week day in the year, 
and depends on its advertising and job patronage for its support. It has made 
a signal success and has been conducted to this date. It gives the daily im- 
portant news and goes by carriers to the homes of Lexington people. It is a 
small sized folio and about one-half devoted to local news and the balance 
to neat display advertisements. 


The following appeared in one of the early issues of the Lexington Ex- 
press in August, 1843 : 

"The steamboat 'Edna' arrived here yesterday, in two days, fifteen hours 


and thirty minutes, including all stoppages for wood and to discharge freight. 
This is the quickest trip ever made by a steamboat from St. Louis to Lexing- 
ton, if we remember correctly." 

"On the Fourth of July, at Harrisonville, Van Buren county, Judge 
Ryland addressed a temperance society. At the close of the address, sixty- 
five persons signed the pledge, and during that evening five others, making 
seventy in all, and this makes two hundred in the county to date. A good 
Fourth of July movement, this. A temperance society was organized at 
Clinton, Henry county, during the last term of court. Rev. Henry Ward 
addressed the meeting. Judge Ryland also added a few remarks, after 
which eighty-four persons signed the pledge. Let the good cause advance!" 

At a Whig celebration on the Fourth of July, 1843, there were thirteen 
toasts given, including the following: "The Union — When time is wound up, 
then, and not until then, may its days be numbered." "Tom Benton — In 
politics about a match for Joe Smith in religion." "The Town of Lexing- 
ton — Nature has done her part — let the people do theirs, and be satisfied with 
the Dutchman's one per cent., instead of two." "Our County — Rich, beau- 
tiful and nealthy — the asparagus bed of upper Missouri." "Woman — The 
jack-screw of creation." 


The Concordian was established by H. Homer Luce, who published the 
first number September 8, 1893. It was then an eight-column folio, inde- 
pendent in politics. In the summer of 1894 Capt. G. N. Richards purchased 
the paper and changed it to a Republican journal. The Captain sold the pa- 
per to the present owner and publisher, John J. Bredehoeft, Jr., March 17, 
1896, the latter having worked as compositor for Mr. Richard since Febru- 
ary 16, 1895. At that time there was a job press and an old Washington- 
Howe hand press in the establishment. In 1897 the size of the paper was 
changed to a five-column quarto, and in 1907 a complete Campbell power 
press was installed and since the fall of 1908 a gasoline engine is used for 
power. Business, newspaper as well as job work, is good. The Concordian 
enjoys a good circulation. 

At Mayview, the newspaper business has had a hard struggle. The first 
attempt there at local journalism was when the little paper, the name of 
which has now been lost sight of, was established by Floyd Schooley. It 
only continued for a short time and went the way of many small town sheets. 


The May view Progress was established in January, 1898, by John Plat- 
tenburg. It was a six-column folio and a very newsy, creditable local news- 
paper. In March, 1900, it was sold to Lafayette Groves, of the Higginsville 
Leader, and later the subscription list was turned over to the Intelligencer of 
Lexington. Mayview has no paper now. 



Banking at an early day was not of as much importance as in modern 
days. Then business was carried on more on the barter plan and there was 
not the demand for banking houses as there is now. However, the system of 
conducting banking has materially changed, and for the better, since the first 
banks were established in this county. Under the old state banking laws, 
depositors were not assured that their money would be forthcoming, when 
wanted, at the cashier's window. "Wild-cat," state and private bank paper 
notes were the general rule. Hence, the farmer used to trade his stock and 
grain, receiving "checks," and these were in turn taken by merchants and 
wholesale dealers in payment for goods. Taxes and postage were about the 
only things that gold or silver was needed for, and even for such uses, metal 
money was so scarce that often as high as forty per cent, was paid for its use 
for a few months. At a very early day in this part of Missouri, furs, pelts 
and whisky went current for money ; later tobacco and hemp served the same 

The first banking business transacted in Lafayette county was at 
Lexington, in 1845, when a branch of the State Bank was established. The 
presidents of these several state banks in Missouri were elected by the Leg- 
islature in joint-session. The first to hold this office at Lexington was Col. 
Lewis Green; the second was Lieut. -Col. James Young; third, Judge E. Bur- 
den, who served six years. There were, possibly, two more before the sys- 
tem was changed, and the "state" part of this Lexington bank was finally 
removed to Louisiana, Pike county. This change was made during the Civil 
war days. The Morrison-Wentworth banking house succeeded to the busi- 
ness of the old State Bank (branch). It was this bank from which the 
Union and Confederate governments in Missouri both demanded, and finally 
seized, almost a million dollars. It was mostly recovered, however, and an 
interesting account of the affair will be found in the War chapter of this 
volume. When the money was taken, in 1861, by orders of Gen. John C. 
Fremont, the bank was known as the Farmers Bank of Missouri. 



This banking concern was the first private bank started in western Mis- 
souri. It was established in 1849, by Robert Aull, and was successfully con- 
ducted many years. It finally merged into the Lafayette County Bank, which 
was established December 28, 1870, by John Aull and others. As a matter of 
fact, the first attempt at banking was carried on in the Aull mercantile house, 
the Lexington store being one of a series of stores in this state and in the 
edge of Kansas. People who had more money than they knew what to do 
with in business left it with Mr. Aull for safe keeping as early as 1843, an d 
from this custom he finally engaged in the real banking business. Thus it was 
that Robert Aull commenced banking in earnest in 1845, and in 1848 he built 
a bank building, the same now being Joseph A. Wilson's civil engineering 
office, at No. 820 Main street. After a short time Mr. Aull was offered the 
presidency of the Farmers' Bank of Missouri, at a salary of ten thousand 
dollars, and accepted it. He continued there until the breaking out of the 
war, when he embarked in the same business at St. Louis. After accepting 
this position, he left his private business — that of the Aull Banking Company 
— in the hands of George Wilson, who had been his cashier. In 1870 what 
was known as Aull's Savings Bank was incorporated and operated for sev- 
eral years as such, but in a short time it was sold to what was known as 
the Lafayette County Bank, with James Aull, John Aull, George Wilson, 
George Wilson, Jr., J. A. Wilson, Maria Pomeroy and John C. Wood as in- 
corporators. The first officers were George Wilson, Sr., president; John 
Aull, vice-president; James Aull, cashier, and Joseph A. Wilson as assistant 
cashier, but who later became the cashier. The capital invested in this con- 
cern was twenty-eight thousand dollars. It did a successful, safe and sound 
banking business, and withstood the great panic of the country, virtually sav- 
ing others in Lexington from closing their doors. This banking house con- 
tinued until it retired from the business on its own motion in 1899. 

During the panic of 1873, the banks of Lexington agreed that no single 
depositor should draw over twenty-five dollars in any one day, and in this 
way all were safely taken through the stringency, with no loss to anyone. 

The old Farmers' Bank of Missouri had a capital of one million dollars 
in gold and they issued paper money to the amount of three million dollars 
and were able to pay off dollar for dollar at all times. The old State Bank 
first transacted business in what later became known as the Aull mansion 
on Limestone street and Highland avenue; later, about 1855, they built the 
brick building now occupied by the order of Elks, on Main street. 


At Aullville there was established a branch bank from Higginsville, 
about 1 89 1, but it is now out of business. 

The present banking facilities at Aullville were brought about by the 
establishment of the Aullville Bank in 1905. Its first officers were: W. N. 
Davis, president ; Henry Henning, vice-president ; H. H. Lohoefener, cashier. 
The capital is fifteen thousand dollars, and general deposits in 1910 amount 
to fifty thousand dollars. Its present officers are : John M. Handly, presi- 
dent ; Julius Maring, vice-president ; H. H. Lohoefener, cashier. The di- 
rectors are John M. Handly, E. H. Handly, John E. Holtcamp, Julius Mar- 
ing, H. H. Lohoefener, Cord Meyer and H. C. Angelbeck. 

At Waverly, banking was conducted by the old Waverly Bank prior to 
the building of the railroad through this county. When the road reached 
Marshall, Saline county, the proprietors of the bank all moved to that city and 
engaged in business at that point. Then, in about 1881, the Middleton Bank 
was established at Waverly and flew high for many years, doing a safe, con- 
servative banking business, until in May, 1905, through the dishonesty of its 
cashier, the institution suspended, paying off the depositors about sixty-three 
per cent of their claims. Its cashier was supposed to have been called 
urgently to see a relative in Kentucky who was ill nigh unto death. This 
was five years and more ago, and up to date he has failed to return and 
adjust matters. The failure was for about one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars. The stockholders lost all and many depositors suffered 
as well. In the same month of this failure, the present banking house — the 
Waverly Bank — was established, with a capital of twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars. It has already carried as high as eighty-five thousand dollars in de- 
posits, notwithstanding the community was badly shaken by the failure of 
the old banking house. Dr. W. S. Woods, of Kansas City, held a controlling 
interest in the new bank until May, 1910, when he sold to W. J. Althouse, of 
Cameron, Missouri. The only officers this bank has had are as follows: 
H. G. Neider, president; J. W. Wessel, vice-president; J. S. Croswhite, M. D., 
cashier ; W. H. Wessel, assistant cashier. This bank occupies the old bank 
building used by the Middleton Bank. 


The first attempt at banking at the village of Mayview was when the 
American Bank of Higginsville established a branch at this point in the early 
eighties. Thomas T. Puckett was its cashier and manager. This continued to 
successfully operate until the law was so changed that branch banks were 
no longer allowed in Missouri. 


The next bank at Mayview was known as the Bank of Mayview. It was 
established about 1892 and continued in business until January 7, 1897, when 
it suspended and was closed by the inspector of banks. For a time Thomas 
T. Puckett was the assistant cashier in this bank, but resigned before its 
failure. The failure caused but little loss on the part of depositors, as in 
the adjustment ninety-seven and one-half per cent was paid out on all claims. 

The present bank at Mayview is the Farmers Bank of Mayview, that 
was established March 21, 1905, with ten thousand dollars of capital. Its 
officers originally were: President, J. S. Calfee; vice-president, J. A. Cal- 
fee; J. C. Calfee, cashier. At this date (June, 1910) the officers are: Ed 
S. Butt, president; Daniel Hoefer, vice-president; A. J. Hoefer, cashier. The 
capital is still ten thousand dollars, while the amount of deposits in June, 
1910, was fifty-three thousand dollars. 


The first banking at Corder was transacted by the Bank of Corder, or- 
ganized about 1880, which continued a couple of years and sold to the 
American Bank, of Higginsville, and it was then operated as a branch bank 
under the old law then existing. In 1892 it was established as the Columbia 
Bank, with ten thousand dollars capital. They operated till 1903, when it 
merged with the Corder Bank, that had been organized in 1891. 


Corder was the scene of a bank robbery in 1895 which came about 
as follows : It was in the hot days of August, when two men came to the 
bank and, at the point of a revolver, demanded of cashier William M. Groves 
what money the bank possessed at that time, which, fortunately, did not ex- 
ceed a thousand dollars. The robbers having secured from the drawer and 
vault all but a small amount, which was overlooked, made their way out of 
town on horses. One of the men was from Kentucky and had resided around 
Lafayette county some months and had let a young man about twenty years 
of age into the secret of robbing this bank. They divided the money when 
far out of town, going then in a northerly direction. Soon as the alarm 
could be sounded men and horses were on their path, but only after a long, 
hot chase did they succeed in capturing one, — the young man, — who was 
surrounded and had become almost exhausted by the heat. He was taken 
back to Corder, placed in the hands of the deputy sheriff, who had arrived 


about nightfall. He insisted on taking him to Lexington to the county jail, 
for safety, but the gathering mob insisted on taking him from the officer and 
hung him, not far from where the robbery was committed, while the principal 
bank robber went back to Kentucky. The clue given to the latter by his 
youthful accomplice caused his arrest in Kentucky, and had it not been for 
the aid of friends in that state he would have been brought here and tried, 
but as it was, he was allowed to escape and the matter was forever dropped. 


According to the Missouri Bank Directory of July, 1909, the following 
record is made concerning the banks of this county at that date : 


The Commercial Bank was organized in 1884, and has a capital of sev- 
enty-five thousand dollars. Its deposits on the date above named were five 
hundred and thirty-three thousand dollars. The president was E. M. Taub- 
man; cashier, W. J. Bandon. 

The Lexington Savings Bank was established in 1869; has a capital of 
fifty thousand dollars ; deposits amounting to four hundred thousand dollars. 
Its president is Walter B. Waddell. 

The Morrison-Wentworth Bank succeeded the old (branch) State Bank, 
and was organized in 1875. It has a capital of fifty thousand dollars; de- 
posits amounting to eighty-seven thousand dollars. Its president is Judge 
Richard Field ; cashier, Samuel J. Andrew. 

The Traders Bank was established in 1893. Its capital is fifty thou- 
sand dollars ; deposits to the amount of two hundred and seventy thousand 
dollars. Its president is W. G. McCausland ; cashier, B. R. Ireland. 


The State Bank of Dover was established in 1906. It has a capital of 
ten thousand dollars ; deposits amount to twenty thousand dollars. Its presi- 
dent is H. L, Corbin; cashier, O. G. Congdon. 


The Napoleon Bank was established in 1902 and has a capital of ten 
thousand dollars; its deposits amount to sixty thousand dollars. Its presi- 
dent is W. Strodtman ; cashier, F. L. Guy. 



The Wellington Bank was organized in 1888 and has a capital of ten 
thousand dollars ; deposits to amount of two hundred and thirty-three thou- 
sand dollars. Its president is J. A. Mann; cashier, H. B. Corse. 


The Aullville Bank was organized in 1905. Its capital is fifteen thou- 
sand dollars; deposits, forty-six thousand dollars. Its president is J. M. 
Handly; cashier, H. H. Lohoefener. There was a branch bank from Higgins- 
ville started here about 1891, but is not in business at this date. 


The Concordia Savings Bank was established in 1873. It now has a cap- 
ital of twenty-five thousand dollars ; deposits amounting to eighty-three thou- 
sand dollars. Its president is A. E. Burns ; cashier, H. Ficken.- Its first 
president was H. H. Lohoefener, and F. L. Flanders was cashier. It was 
reorganized in 1898. Mr. Ficken has served as cashier over thirty-five years, 
and was the victim of the bank robbery in August, 1878. 

The Farmers Bank of Concordia was established in 1901, with a capital 
of thirty thousand dollars. Its president was G. F. Brackmann, and its cash- 
ier is W. A. Brackmann. The last-named is still serving, but the president 
is now J. P. Lohoefener. 


The Corder Bank was established in 1891. Its capital and surplus is now 
thirty thousand dollars; deposits amount to one hundred and thirty-nine thou- 
sand dollars. Its president is G. A. Ferking; cashier, William M. Groves. 


The Alma Bank was established in 1884. The present capital is twenty- 
five thousand dollars ; surplus, seven thousand six hundred dollars ; indi- 
vidual deposits, eighty-five thousand dollars. Its officers are, J. W. Horner, 
president; P. H. Koppenbrink, vice-president; T. C. Marshall, cashier. De- 
cember 30. 1896, this bank was robbed in the night time of one thousand 
four hundred dollars, the vault doors being blown off by explosives. The 
burglars were never captured. 



Higginsville, an important place in this county, is well supplied with 
excellent banking facilities. 

The American Bank was established in Higginsville in 1878. It has a 
capital of fifty thousand dollars ; deposits amounting to one hundred and 
ninety thousand dollars. Its president is A. E. Asbury ; cashier, H. F. 
Campbell. , 

The Bank of Higginsville was organized in 1882. Its present capital 
is sixty thousand dollars; deposits, three hundred and forty-four thousand 
three hundred and ten dollars. Its president is Charles Hoefer; cashier, 
Daniel Hoefer. 

The Farmers Bank at Higginsville, which was established in 1908, has 
a capital of thirty thousand dollars; deposits amounting to fifty thousand 
dollars. Its president is L. T. Land ; cashier, J. A. Woestmeyer. 


The Bank of Odessa was organized in 1880. Its present capital stock 
is fifty thousand dollars; deposits run as high as two hundred and twenty- 
five thousand dollars. Its president is J. C. Calfee; cashier, T. R. Taylor. 

The Farmers Bank was established in 1883, with a capital of thirty thou- 
sand dollars. Its officers are: J. T. Ferguson, president; H. C. Armstrong, 
vice-president; B. Elliott, cashier. Its present deposits are about two hun- 
dred and thirty thousand dollars, while they have a capital of eighty thou- 
sand dollars. 

The Merchants Bank was organized in March, 1910, with a capital stock 
of twenty-five thousand dollars. 


The Waverly Bank was established, upon the failure of the old banking 
house already described, in May, 1905, with a capital of twenty-five thousand 
dollars; its deposits have already reached (1910) eighty-five thousand dollars. 
H. G. Neider is president and Dr. J. S. Crosswhite, cashier. 


The Bank of Mayview was established as the Farmers Bank in 1905, 
with ten thousand dollars capital. Its present officers are Ed. S. Butt, presi- 
dent ; A. J. Hoefer, cashier. 



Away back in the days when Lafayette county was yet called "Lillard 
county," and bearing date of August 6, 1822, the name of Lexington as 
applied to the county seat of this county appears of record. This record 
refers to certain road commissioners appointed "to lay out a road from Lex- 
ington by way of the upper ford of the Big Sniabar creek to Stokely's Ferry, 
on the Missouri river." The next place it is mentioned is in the record speak- 
ing of John Nelson, Markham Fristoe, Ira Bidwell and Jacob Catron, who 
"shall lay out a road from Lexington to intersect the road leading from the 
Salt works to Jack's Ferry." This ferry had been established by William 
Jack, in 1819, its landing place being a short distance below the mouth of 
Graham's branch, or near the foot of what later was made Commerce street, 
which part of the bluff was paved and graded down to the boat landing of 
that date. But the river had changed so greatly in its channel by 1880 that 
it was fully a half mile north from this point and solid land intervened, as it 
does today. The Missouri Pacific railroad now runs for more than a half 
mile where then flowed twenty feet of water. 

The legal beginning of Lexington, as a platted village, referring to "Old 
Town," and which was located about a mile and a half from the river at 
Jack's Ferry, is described in the first pages of the first plat book of Lillard 
county as follows : 
"State of Missouri, County of Lillard, ss : 

"We, James Bounds, Sr., John Duston and James Lillard, commission- 
ers in trust for Lillard county, do certify this to be a correct map and plan 
of the town of Lexington, as surveyed and numbered and sold according to 
the numbers, and sold on the 8th day of April, 1822. 

"James (X) Bounds, 
"John Duston, 
"James Lillard." 

These lots were seventy-five by one hundred and forty-five feet, streets 
seventy-five feet wide, with alleys sixteen and a half feet wide. 


Mt. Vernon, the original county seat, was situated on the southeast 
quarter of section 23, township 51, range 26, on the bluff half a mile east 
of the Tabo creek and about three-fourths of a mile from the Missouri 
river, at a point (probably) where had once stood Fort Orleans, an old 
French trading post, from which point ran the trail on west into what is 
now Kansas, and which at the date it was made the seat of justice for 
Lillard county was but a small collection of rude cabins. This place was 
where the four Indian tribes and French traders were wont to meet and 
smoke the pipe of peace. In the French it was "Terre Bonne," good land, 
or good place. The Americans named it Mt. Vernon, after the home of the 
illustrious president, George Washington. This place, however, was never 
platted. Within one month after the county seat commissioners had been 
appointed they had selected and platted the new county seat and sold many 
of the lots. The last term of court was held in Mt. Vernon in November, 
1822; the first held in Lexington was in February, 1823, in Doctor Buck's 
house, which was the first structure erected in Lexington ("Old Town," as 
now styled). 

As a large proportion of the early pioneers had emigrated from Ken- 
tucky, the new town was named in honor of the city of that name in Ken- 
tucky. Hence it will be observed that the city of Lexington dates back 
eighty-eight years, and while there is much to be written of it, yet the un- 
written history — that forever lost — would fill volumes of interesting matter, 
had the true record of transpiring events been carefully kept by the genera- 
tions of busy builders in the thirties, forties and fifties. Much concerning 
the first decades of the history of this city will be found in the various 
chapters on county organization and county government. 

What was styled "Wetmore's Gazetteer of Missouri" (by Harper 
Brothers, New York), published in 1837, says that Lexington was one of 
the towns from which outfits were made in merchandise, mules, oxen and 
wagons for the Santa Fe or New Mexico trade. The land office was also 
located at Lexington in those days and this brought many travelers and 
home-seekers here. 

The Old Town, however, did not long hold sway, for it was found best 
to locate another platting to the west of the original town site. On June 
5, 1849, tne county court ordered that the public square in Old Lexington, 
together with the county buildings, be sold at auction the following August. 
In 1847 tne present court house was erected in part. A city charter was 
granted to Lexington in 1845 and a State Bank (branch) was established 
here. The first addition to the town of Lexington was laid off by General 


Graham and George Houx, who measured the lots with a level made of a 
plank with a small vial on the end. Heavy timber was then standing where 
Lexington now stands, and it was believed that as Wellington was imme- 
diately on the river front and had already gained some prominence as a 
good landing for boats, that unless something was speedily done it was 
destined to outstrip Lexington. Hence this addition and a subsequent one 
were platted. 

The history of the early churches and schools has been given elsewhere. 

Prior to the Civil war Lexington enjoyed a very extensive trade. It 
was the outfitting point for western trains and there were no railroads within 
the county, hence the greater portion of the produce consumed in this sec- 
tion was sold or exchanged at this place. The river boats were very numer- 
ous and well-filled crafts of heavy merchandise, especially groceries, were 
billed to this point and from here distributed throughout the county. When 
the Civil war broke out Lexington was accounted one of the liveliest busi- 
ness centers in all western Missouri, but that great conflict gave it a set- 
back which in some ways it has never fully recovered from, while in other 
ways it has steadily marched along with the proud strides of our latter-day 
civilization. It certainly has been long noted as a fine educational center, and 
is today one of the foremost in its public and semi-public schools. For a 
complete account of these schools and colleges the reader is referred to 
other chapters in this volume. 


A charter was secured for a city government in Lexington in 1845, 
and Eldridge Burden was elected the first mayor. It operated under this 
special charter until 1902, when by a vote of the citizens it was made a city 
of the third class, and has so remained. The last mayor under the special 
city charter was O. Winkler, and the mayors under the present city system 
have been O. Winkler and the present incumbent, Thomas Walton. 

The present city officials are: Thomas Walton, mayor; James N. 
Price, city marshal; John Hedge, police judge; Joseph Tribble, assessor; 
John M. Price, city attorney; Albert Fegert, clerk (his father, Jacob, served 
eight years before him and was stricken with blindness and his son was 
appointed, serving till the present date) ; Jacob Fegert, treasurer ; William 
C. Duncan, street commissioner; Joe A. Wilson, city engineer; Albert James, 
city collector. The present prison keeper is W. A. Gaffin and the chief of 
the fire department is N. Hammer. 


The city councilmen are: First ward — Jerry Shinn and Lee Hopper; 
second ward — Henry Mountain and William F. Neet; third ward — William 
S. Marrs and French Slaughter; fourth ward — C. W. Hicklin and John M. 

The first town building, or city hall as it is sometimes called, was situ- 
ated in Old Town on lands set apart for that purpose and can be used for 
no other purpose. The old building still stands, but is not in use by the city. 
The second building was near Young's livery barns on block No. 45, on 
Ninth street. The present beautiful city building, on the southwest corner 
of the public square, where once stood the old market house, was erected 
in 1905-06 at a cost of thirty-five thousand dollars, including twenty thou- 
sand dollars of a bond issue running twenty years. It is a splendid munici- 
pal building, erected of brick and surmounted with an imposing dome cov- 
ered with tile, and embellished with a series of dazzling electric lights, in 
three colors. Here are the city offices, the fire department, city scales and 
weighmaster's office, police department and council chamber. 

Paving was first attempted on a modern scale in Lexington in 1902-03, 
and now there are two and one-fourth miles of brick and cement paving 
within the city limits. There is also three-quarters of a mile of rolled 
macadam and two miles of old macadamized streets, making a total of five 
miles of paving within the city limits. 

The city prison is situated in the basement of the new city building and 
contains six modern cells. 


Before the county seat had really been removed to its present location, 
Lexington had made some steps toward settlement. Two miles to the south- 
west the Baptist denomination had erected a log church. Solomon Cox soon 
built a mill, utilizing the water power derived from Tabo creek, and soon 
after Lexington was founded a man named Ray built a small horse mill in 
Lexington, west of the public square. Later he added to this a wool carding 
machine, but the entire mill was burned in 1833 or 1834 by a sweeping con- 
flagration. About this time T. Waddell built a mill below the old Lexington 
ferry — then known as Jack's ferry. John D. Stothart opened the pioneer 
store in Lexington, selling his first merchandise soon after the first lots had 
been surveyed. Pioneer George Houx came to the county in the twenties 
and started what proved to be a successful saddlery business. In 1822 John 
Aull, a brother of Robert Aull and Mrs. E. M. Pomeroy, came in to help 


build up the new town. Jacob Nottingham, a blacksmith, was among the 
very earliest in the town ; also George Foster and Daniel McDowell. Mr. 
Aull was the earliest commission and trading merchant. He erected a large 
storehouse on the river front and carried on a very profitable business for 
many years. In 1830 came Gen. A. W. Doniphan, then but a young lawyer. 
Here he laid the foundation for his future career as an eminent jurist, states- 
man, soldier and most excellent type of manhood. After the Mexican war 
he moved to Ray county. 

It may be stated that in 1830, or about that year, the following persons 
were transacting business in the embryo city : John Aull conducted the only 
well-stocked store; Ed. Ragland had the only other store, and was about 
closing up his business ; George Houx, saddlery ; Jacob Nottingham was the 
only "village smithy" ; John Gooch was a gunsmith, who was ever busy, for 
a gun was kept in every household ; General Graham followed the trade of a 
hatter, while the tavern was kept by Elisha Green, where entertainment was 
furnished "to man and beast." 

The first steamboats to ascend the Missouri as far as Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, were three, which included the "Western Engineer," and they passed 
by Lexington, stopping for business purposes, in either 1820 or 1821. Prior 
to that time the river boats were of the simple keel-boat pattern and were 
propelled by men with long oars. 

Later on, there were numerous warehouses erected along the river front, 
in which both hemp and tobacco products were kept in large quantities. 
Charles Bowring, of Wellington, now has in his possession the names of more 
than three hundred freight and passenger boats that stopped at that town, as 
well as at Lexington, in the palmy days of steamboating. 

When the Civil war broke out Lexington had a population of about four 
thousand. Almost every branch of business was here represented. 

In 1848 Henry Smith commenced the operation of a flouring mill at 
Lexington, and the plant was still doing an excellent business in 1880, when 
it shipped its product mostly to St. Louis, where it brought fifty-eight thou- 
sand dollars, besides what was disposed of at Lexington. 

H. and F. Winkler established their furniture factory at Elm and South 
streets in 1856. Up to 1870 they operated without much machinery, but 
then added modern machines. In 1880 they had invested twenty-four thou- 
sand dollars in their plant and large lumber yards connected with their fac- 
tory enterprise. This plant is still in successful operation, now being long 
past its half century mark. 

The Caucasian files of 1870 give the following industrial enterprises in 


Lexington at that date : Marshall & Easter, flour and meal ; W. J. Kerdoff, 
same ; one woolen factory ; Excelsior Stove Factory, by Morrison ; Jordan's 
foundry; D. Russell & Company, carriages; J. Cloudsley & Company, same; 
Nicholson & Hall, wagons, plows, etc. ; McFadden, wheat fans ; J. S. Mor- 
ton, earthenware; one soda factory; three lumber mills; one marble yard; 
three hemp hacklers ; three large brewing plants ; three brick yards ; ten boot 
and shoe makers ; four tin and copper workers ; six tailor shops ; one furni- 
ture factory; three cabinetmakers; good pottery and terra cotta Was being 
made by Morton & Taylor. 

It may be stated, in passing, that Lexington has never boasted of her 
factories, but has a just pride in her educational institutions, and of later 
years her large bituminous coal mining interests. Her retail trade has al- 
ways been excellent, and her stores and the class of business men will rank 
well with any within the state, considering the size of the city. 

At an early day, and in fact up to within a few years, the city has en- 
joyed a good wholesale and jobbing trade in several lines. But as trade 
centers have changed, and Kansas City and other points have made such rapid 
strides, Lexington has become more of a home retail town than in earlier 


Up to about Civil war days, possibly a little later, where stands the 
beautiful city building, there was a large market house, where all manner of 
country produce was sold, bought and exchanged. What is now styled Frank- 
lin avenue was then known as Market street, and all along Ninth, Tenth and 
Eleventh streets were erected sheds and booths and rough buildings constitut- 
ing the "market yards." There hundreds of teams were wont to congregate 
and sell their products. With the change of times and customs, this market 
was abandoned, whether wisely or not remains a debatable question, for far- 
ther to the east in this country the market place is still looked upon as the 
proper place in which farmer and town folk may trade, one with the other. 
However, it is supposed that the present-day grocer provides many of the 
conveniences which the old market place afforded. But could the old grounds 
where once stood the many stalls and market house, proper, but talk, what a 
tale they could unfold of a people long since gone from earth's shining circle. 

A local historical writer recently wrote the following on the early busi- 
ness interests of Lexington : 

"As the population increased the town gradually extended toward the 
river, and the one street leading to the boat landing was the Old Broadway, 


by the "Nickell Home" (hotel). That block soon became the business center 
of the town. On one side was the book and music house of John and William 
Pigott, the hardware store of the Reinhard brothers, and on the other the 
grocery stores of Kinney & Ogden, Chadwick and Henderson, and the only 
public assembly hall, the "Arcana," now occupied by the Eagles lodge. What 
is now the Elks hall was then the Farmers' Bank, established by Mr. More- 
head. Along the bluff the people were beginning to build their homes, and on 
the river front warehouses were springing up. That of Oliver Anderson 
stood at the foot of Tenth street, and the McGrew Brothers' hemp factory 
at the foot of Broadway." 

The present business interests of Lexington are confined to the retail 
stores, of which there are many first-class establishments in the various lines ; 
also such shops and smaller factories as wagon shops, brick yard plants, roller 
mills, brewery, marble works, furniture factory, etc. The coal mining inter- 
ests near the place are large. 

The educational institutions have called a high class of citizens to this 
point, and there are found hundreds of charming homes within the corporate 
limits of the city. 


The Lexington fire company was formed January 25, 1844, before the 
town had been incorporated. B. H. Wilson was the first president. In 
September, 1850, a lot was bought from Henry Flynt for three hundred and 
fifteen dollars. This was on Laurel street, and there an engine house was 
built, and there the town offices were kept several years. When the war came 
on the company went down, but was reorganized at the close of the struggle, 
with Robert Hale as its first president. In 1872 attempts were made to sell 
the old hand engine and get a "steamer," but the scheme caused the company 
to get into a squabble and finally the company was disbanded again and the 
city had no department until many years later. In 1878 Miss Elizabeth Aull 
donated from her ample means one hundred dollars to this company. In 
1880 the record shows that in the old town there was, on Clark street, an 
engine house containing an old-fashioned twelve-man-power engine and some 
other equipments. The building was erected in 1856 by the Sons of Temper- 
ance for their own use as a hall. 

The present fire company was organized in 1903, and now consists of 
a central engine house, connected with the city building. One splendid team 
is kept, and the chief and his assistant are paid by the month, while the re- 


mainder of the company are simply volunteers made up from the citizens. 
The water works furnishes the supply of water needed and the cost to the 
taxpayers is now forty cents on every hundred dollars worth of property 
assessed. There are now sixty-five fire plugs used in the city and about 
fourteen hundred feet of good hose are kept intact, with other necessary 
equipments, such as hooks, ladders, etc. The cost for water is now one hun- 
dred and thirteen dollars and seventy-five cents each three months, which 
includes all the water the incorporation uses for various municipal purposes. 


Lexington is now a second-class postofnce station and shows a large 
volume of business. The greatest advancement made in this office and its 
management has been under the outgoing postmistress, Delia Crowder, and 
her father (now deceased), J. M. Crowder. Under them it has come to be 
a second-class office ; three rural delivery routes have been established and an 
appropriation had in Congress for the building of a new postoffice, which, 
with the grounds, will cost fifty-two thousand dollars. It is true that Frank 
Bowman, who served as postmaster under President Cleveland in 1894, as 
soon as he was legally at liberty to espouse the cause, commenced in his news- 
paper work to push out for many changes, which included some of the 
achievements of the office already named. It is to this able newspaper writer 
that we are indebted for a complete list of all postmasters serving in Lexing- 
ton from the first establishment of the office in 1821. The subjoined is the 
result of his task: 

August Thrall (first postmaster), appointed May 21, 1821, by James 

George B. Wilcox, September 22, 1823, by James Monroe. 

James Scott, date not given. 

James Aull, August 30, 1826, by John Quincy Adams. 

John T. A. Henderson, December 23, 1839, by Martin Van Buren. 

William H. Russell, June 16, 184 1, by John Tyler. 

Thomas W. Morrow, January 31, 1845, by James K. Polk. 

William Long, February 15, 1849, D Y Zachary Taylor. 

Levi Black well, May 15, 1849, by Zachary Taylor. 

Ninian W. Letton, September 26, 1850, and July 15, 1852, by Millard 

Montgomery Bryant, April 18, 1853, and February 23, 1854, by Frank- 
lin Pierce. 


John S. Long, October 17, 1856, and February 10, 1857, by James 

Joseph Moreland (not commissioners), March 12, i860, by James Bu- 

Mrs. Frances Long (not commissioned), March 31, i860, by James 

Joseph Moreland, May 21, i860, by James Buchanan. 

Dr. John B. Alexander. April 1, 1861, and July 16, 1861, by Abraham 
Lincoln; also June 16, 1865, and April 11, 1867, by Andrew Johnson. 

George W. McKean, November 8, 1869, ar, d December 22, 1869, by 
U. S. Grant. 

Mark L. De Motte, December 10, 1874, by U. S. Grant. 

Henry W. Turner, March 16, 1877, by R. B. Hayes; also May 5, 1881, 
by James A. Garfield. 

Putnam S. Fulkerson, May 5, 1885; also January 13, 1886, by Grover 

Jennie J. Berrie, January 16, 1890, by Benjamin Harrison. 

Frank Bowman, June 4, 1894, by Grover Cleveland. 

James M. Crowder, May 1, 1898, by William McKinley, and May 1, 
1902, by Theodore Roosevelt. 

Delia Crowder, February 9, 1906, named to fill out father's unexpired 
term (who died), and June 28, 1906, by Theodore Roosevelt. 

John K. Taubman, June 23, 1910, by William H. Taft; term expires 
June 23, 1914. 


Lexington was first supplied with artificial illuminating gas by the Lex- 
ington Gaslight Company, incorporated in 1875, by Tilton Davis, J. S. Am- 
brose and Charles H. Boyle, with the former as president. The capital was 
fixed at fifty thousand dollars. The works are located on the corner of Pine 
and Shawnee streets. The works were constructed by Ambrose & Boyle in 
1881; a new company bought and took charge of the plant, consisting of 
A. D. Cressler, president ; R. R. Dickey, secretary and treasurer and superin- 
tendent ; E. H. Dickey, A. C. Cressler and J. Longdon. In 1882 the com- 
pany had four miles of piping laid ; sixty-five street lamps and ninety private 
gas consumers. Five hands were then employed, and private customers paid 
four dollars per thousand feet. About 1903 this company was merged into 


the electric light company and the two are operated today under one manage- 
ment. The gas rate is now one dollar and twenty-five cents per thousand feet 
to private customers. The city is well lighted by both electric and gas lights. 
Lexington was first provided with the electric current for lighting pur- 
poses in 1894, when the electric light company was granted a franchise. It 
soon absorbed or merged with the gas company and now has two complete 
modern plants, they being owned by a private stock company. 


It was in 1884 that Lexington city granted a franchise to a company 
organized that year to construct city waterworks. The first president of this 
corporation was J. C. McGrew, who was followed by William Morrison, and 
he in turn by W. G. McCausland. The present officers are: President, 
Gus Haerle; vice-president, L. C. Yates; secretary and treasurer, John 
Chamberlain. Mr. Yates has been superintendent for twenty years. The 
stand-pipe on the hill where was fought the famous Civil war battle of Lex- 
ington, is of a capacity of a third of a million gallons. The pumping station 
is near the Missouri river, from which the water supply is obtained. The 
company now has twelve miles of main piping in the city and about five miles 
outside the corporation. The capital stock of the water company is one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 


A company was formed at Lexington in 1865 for the purpose of pros- 
pecting for petroleum oil, but the same did not materialize to any considerable 
extent. The capital stock was five hundred thousand dollars in shares of one 
hundred dollars each. The test was made on the McCausland farm, ten miles 
southeast of Lexington. E. Winsor, of Lexington, was the manager. Oil 
was found at the depth of several hundred feet, but not in paying quantities. 
This experimental well for oil was sunk in the vicinity of the present-day 
Confederate Soldiers' Home, near Higginsville. 


On April 21, 1884, the city council of Lexington granted an ordinance 
by which a franchise was granted to William Ewing, Alfred R. Leard and 
John C. Young, Sr., for the purpose of operating a street car line. It was 


laid down that year, commencing near the Nickel Home (hotel) and con- 
tinuing down Main, Franklin and South streets to the old Missouri Pacific 
freight .and passenger depot. It was not a high grade road, being built from 
the old narrow-gauge rails used on the line once running to Kansas City from 
Lexington. Early in the nineties, when the council required an even-surfaced 
street, it was found that the tow path made by the mules which drew the street 
cars was objectionable and, the property never having paid, the track was sold 
to Ed McGrew and pulled up and shipped to St. Louis for junk, since which 
time the travel has been carried on by means of a hack line between the city 
and the depots. 


Lexington has ever been noted for her educational institutions and not 
the least of these is the public school. To have had the advantage of these 
excellent common schools has insured one a good education. The early schools 
of Lexington have already been treated in the educational chapter, hence will 
not be here mentioned. The state constitution of 1865 established a school sys- 
tem new and all untried in its workings. The first school meeting under the new 
plan held. in Lexington was on September 8, 1866, and from the official record 
the following has been extracted : "Pursuant to notice previously given and 
by authority of an act of the general assembly of the state of Missouri, ap- 
proved March 29, 1866, the qualified voters of the sub-school district No. 1, 
township 51, range 27, in Lafayette county, Missouri, assembled at the school 
house Saturday, September 8, 1866. and organized by appointment of William 
Boyce as chairman and John W. Waddell as secretary. The following named 
persons were then put in nomination for the office of school directors, viz. : 
Jesse F. Atkison, Jacob A. Price, Robert Taylor, Edward Winsor. The polls 
were then opened and forty-one votes were cast. Jacob A. Price was declared 
duly elected director for three years, Robert Taylor for two years and Ed- 
ward Winsor for one year from this date, September 8, 1866." 

Another meeting was held on the 10th of the same month and Jacob A. 
Price administered the oath of loyalty to Edward Winsor, and Edward Win- 
sor administered the oath of loyalty to Robert Taylor and Jacob A. Price, 
this being in conformity with the law concerning disfranchised citizens of 
the state by reason of the disabilities invoked by the part that some had taken 
in the Civil war. 

In September, 1866, F. Ballingall was elected principal and Anna M. 


Dowden as assistant. The pay of the former was one hundred and twenty- 
five dollars and of the latter forty dollars per month. 

In 1867 a school enumeration was taken and the result was shown to 
be: White, males, five hundred and sixty-one; females, five hundred and 
seventy ; colored, males, two hundred and twenty-two ; females, two hun- 
dred and twenty-three — a total of one thousand, six hundred and seventy- 
six. By 188 1 it had increased to only one thousand, seven hundred and sev- 
enty-one, while the general census showed the city to have four thousand, 
three hundred and sixty-seven people residing in it. 

Sub-district No. 1 had erected in it a two-story building costing six 
thousand dollars. Its location was on the corner of Forest and Boundary 
streets, in "Irish town." Sub-district No. 2 had a building on Ridgeway 
street, which had been erected prior to the Civil war, costing about five 
thousand dollars. Sub-district No. 3 in 1881 had a building at the corner of 
Mulberry and Franklin streets, costing six thousand dollars. A large building 
between Main, Cross and Franklin streets was being rented in 1881 for the 
use of the colored children. Prof. George M. Catron was then principal of 
the high school and assisted by Nannie Shaw. 

It was not until 1886 that the Lexington schools were put under a 
superintendent. The persons holding such positions have been Prof. T. G. 
Lemon, for one year; H. D. Demand, for thirteen years; C. A. Phillips, and 
the present superintendent, Prof. Melvin J. Patterson, succeeding those al- 
ready mentioned 

In 1890 the citizens voted twenty-five thousand dollars in bonds to erect 
buildings. The next year Central high school and the Taylor school buildings 
were completed and the Douglas school repaired and enlarged. 

In 1902 the sum of ten thousand dollars was voted in bonds. Out of 
this the Arnold building was erected and a heating plant provided for the 
Central building. The high school course of study was revised so that one 
graduating from the school could enter any college or university in Missouri. 

In 1903 the total enrollment in Lexington schools was over one thou- 
sand, two hundred, those in the high school being ninety-five, while the total 
enumeration in the city was one thousand, six hundred and thirty-five. At 
that date there were in the school library two thousand, five hundred and fifty 
volumes, mostly reference books. 

For a few years all was comfortable, when the growth of the schools 
again made larger quarters a necessity. In November. 1905, four per cent 
bonds for fifteen thousand dollars were issued by the board for the purpose 
of making an addition to the Central building. This addition was ready for 



occupancy by September, 1906. With the rapid growth of our schools, we 
were again crowded, and, to relieve the congested condition, the board issued 
bonds for twelve thousand dollars to make an addition to the Arnold school. 
This handsome up-to-date building of eight rooms was opened for occupancy 
in March, 19 10. It is equipped with all modern appliances for the comfort 
of teachers and pupils. 


Elected. Ret 

Jacob A. Price 1866 

Robert Taylor 1866 

Edward Winsor 1866 

John E. Ryland 1867 

A. H. McFadden 1868 

Ethan Allen 1868 

L. Davis 1868 

M. L. DeMott 1868 

Jacob A. Price 1868 

Thomas R. Potter .... 1869 
Dr. W. P. Boulware. . . 1870 

N. Powell 1870 

H. J. E. Ahrens 1871 

George S. Rathbun. . .1871 

A. H. McFadden 1872 

M. L. DeMott 1872 

H. L. McHatton 1873 

J. R. Davis 1875 

J. A. Price 1876 

B. T. John 1879 

J. F. E. Winkler 1880 








Elected. Ret 

C. E. Ballard 1880 

B. H. Wilson 1880 

J. R. Davis 1881 

Robert Taylor 1883 

William H. Chiles .... 1883 

Robert Taubman 1883 

G. P. Venable 1884 ■ 

T. J. Bandon 1885 

Charles G. Ludwigs . . . 1886 
Harry W. Turner .... 1886 

Ethan Allen 1888 

W. B. Hamlet 1889 

R. B. Dickey 1890 

Albert F. Winkler .... 1894 ■ 

B. T. Wiley 1898 

J. R. Moorehead 1898 

Joseph L. Long 1901 

John T. Bush 1904 

E. J. McGrew 1906 

C. E. Yingling 1908 

William J. Bandon . . . 1909 





The following showing was made in the report of the state in 1909: 
There was a total enumeration of one thousand, eight hundred and fifteen ; 
total enrollment, one thousand, two hundred and fifty-four; average daily 
attendance, nine hundred and seventy-six ; number of teachers employed, 
twenty-eight; total assessed valuation of district, one million, five hundred 
thousand dollars. 




In this connection it may be of some historic interest to note what was 
recently published concerning the early select schools of the city of Lexington, 
the same being from the pen of one of the present corps of teachers in the 
city schools, Florence W. Arnold : 

Ingleside is associated in the minds of the older people with the earliest 
educational interests of Lexington. Here Miss Jane Long, a Virginia lady 
of "the old school," opened a "Seminary for Young Ladies," as early as the 
forties. East, on the Dover road, the Misses Niven, three picturesque old 
ladies, had a boarding school, known as the "Miss Niven's School," the pur- 
pose of which was to add to the ordinary branches of education, the accom- 
plishments music, painting and embroidery. In 1843 the Rev. Jesse Green, 
of the Methodist denomination, moved with his family to Lexington, and 
was one of the first to make his home on "the bluff." Here, Mrs. Green 
opened a "Select School for Young Ladies." The boys were not to be less 
favored than the girls in educational advantages. On the north side of the 
road, where stands the Ethan Allen house, was a log cabin in which Mr. 
Plunkett, a very rotund old gentleman, opened a school for boys of all ages. 
Farther northwest on a hillside was Mr. Van Doran's "School for Boys." 
There were many "Dame Schools" for small children, one of the most popu- 
lar of which was that of Mrs. Sally Long and her two sisters, Misses Gabe 
and Mary Frank Hawkins. The little old school house still stands on the 
corner of South and Tenth. 

The early settlers were people who could afford to give their sons and 
daughters the best educational advantages, but many of those coming later 
could not. This led to the organization of a free school, whose small begin- 
nings are almost legendary, no records having been kept. The humble little 
embryo which dared to exist against protest, grew so slowly that none could 
foresee its magnificent future, when to its strength the town would owe the 
training of its manhood and its womanhood. This is what the Annual has 
gathered : 

The first board of directors, Silas Silver, James Wetzel and Robert Hen- 
derson, opened the free school in the old two-story brick on the site of the 
present Taylor school. The building had four rooms and a vestibule just 
large enough for a staircase. There were two doors ; from the west the boys 
entered the lower rooms ; from the east the girls went upstairs. The lower 
floor was in charge of Joseph Shaw, assisted by Mr. Hull. Mrs. Jesse Green 


was principal of the upper floor, with Mrs. Buchanan as assistant. Virtually 
there were two distinct schools. Mr. Wetzel and Mr. Henderson were suc- 
ceeded by General Graham and Mr. Sutherland. The coming on of the Civil 
war in 1861 closed the schools, as neither directors nor teachers were willing 
to "take the oath," and people gave little thought to the education of their 

In 1866 the schools were opened again and here we find the first records. 


At an early day there were doubtless many hard windstorms in the 
vicinity of Lexington, but perhaps none that exceeded the violent one of 1869, 
which was chronicled in the Registered, local journal of Lexington, July 15, 
1869, as follows: 

"On yesterday (Wednesday) at about two o'clock P. M. our city was 
visited by the most terrific hurricane ever known in this part of the country. 
The oldest inhabitant says the like has never been seen. For a few minutes 
before the gale began there was some appearance of rain, and the merchant* 
had pretty generally taken the goods from their doors. With the first few 
drops of rain the hurricane began, and at the first onset sent the shingles flying 
through the streets. It came at the beginning squarely from the west and 
went roaring through the length of Main street with frightful results. 

"The large three-story warehouse on the levee, at the foot of Pine street, 
was completely unroofed and the roof carried a considerable distance up the 
bluff; the walls were considerably damaged. Further up, Winsor's hemp 
factory, partly unroofed ; McGrew's hemp factory unroofed. The chimneys 
at the saw mills were blown off and the building much injured. Up in the 
city the house that is not injured is the exception. Arcana hall is unroofed ; 
Mr. Easter's residence unroofed ; Catholic church partially unroofed and 
walls injured ; the woolen factory of Schaefmeyer & Peck wholly unroofed 
and walls injured; the south wall of the Virginia hotel was blown down and 
the roof torn completely off; Schwartz grocery store partially unroofed and 
front blown into the street; residence of H. Turner, Jr., partially unroofed; 
Tevis' building, on the corner of Main and Pine streets, occupied by Mr. 
Tevis, druggist, on the first floor, and by the Caucasian office on the third 
floor, was unroofed at the beginning and the roof deposited in the street in 
front of the court house, afterward the upper part of the wall on Pine street 
tumbled in on the Caucasian's type and cases, the hands and proprietor made 


their escape ; Eastwood's house was partially unroofed ; Haberkorn's stable 
was blown down ; a new frame house, near the colored Methodist church, was 
blown down; the chimneys of the Methodist Episcopal church South were 
blown off and the cupola partially twisted around ; Adamson's and Benning's 
stables were blown down ; Masonic College partially unroofed, a frame build- 
ing near it wholly unroofed ; John E. Ryland's house was badly damaged ; 
a timber was carried more than eight hundred feet and driven through the 
brick wall of a house, striking Mrs. Findlay and breaking her shoulder blade, 
which it is thought will cripple her for life; Longdon's house unroofed; 
Carroll's and Easter's house partially unroofed ; Mrs. Pomeroy's house wholly 
unroofed and otherwise damaged. 

"Over on Ridgewater street Mr. Farrar's stable was blown down; John 
Cowie's house unroofed and seriously injured ; Pat Michell's house knocked 
off its pins and slid down the hill ; John Hagood's house twisted almost off 
its foundation. Add to these as many more, and then the outbuildings, the 
porches, the awnings, the chimneys, the signs, the windows, etc., which tum- 
bled with their broken glass, then some idea can be had of the extent of the 
damage. We forgot to state that a piece of the roof of the Presbyterian 
church blew off and fell over Market house and dropped before Scott's 
grocery. We think safe in saying that one-half of the large trees in the city 
are blown down. Singular though it may seem, fruit trees which in the 
morning were hanging full of fruit were found, after the hurricane, to be 
entirely stripped of fruit and leaves." 


Facts Furnished by Charles M. Bowring. 

Clay township, named in honor of the great Whig leader, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, was organized November 7, 1825, its name being suggested by 
W. Y. C. Ewing. Notwithstanding the instrument recorded concerning the 
formation of this township had eight full pages of description, yet the name 
of the county does not appear in the same once. The description of the town- 
ship was as follows : 

"Beginning in the middle of the Missouri river, opposite the mouth of 
little Sny-e-bairre, thence up said creek to where it intersects the range line be- 
tween ranges 27 and 28 ; thence with said range line to the southern boundary 
of the county; thence west with said county line to the middle of the main 
channel of the Missouri ; thence along down the middle of said river to the 

So far as any county record is concerned these lines have never been 
changed, although there has been a legal question about a portion of the 
boundary lines within recent years, which some time the courts will have 
trouble in adjusting. 

When Lafayette county received its present boundaries in 1834 the above 
described west line of Clay township became the west line of the county, with 
Jackson county to its west. 

An election was ordered held in Clay township at the house of Robert 
Renick, with Henry Renick, W. Y. C. Ewing and John Whitsett as the 
judges. Bryant Sanders was elected the first constable, and he was sworn into 
office February 14, 1826. It was ordered that "Bryant Sanders, as captain, 
Edward F. Hix and James Hicklin be appointed patrols in Clay township 
for one year." 

It has been claimed by many persons, and there appears to be some foun- 
dation therefor, that originally Clay township extended from the range line 
between ranges 27 and 28, west to the county line, and from the township line 
between townships 48 and 49 north, to the Missouri river, the present boun- 
daries commencing on the said river at the mouth of the Little Sniabar creek 
and running thence up said creek to the line between ranges 27 and 28; 


thence south with said line to the township line between townships 48 and 49 ; 
thence west to the county line ; thence north to the Missouri river ; thence 
down said river to the place of beginning, having been thus established for 
the accommodation of the voters of the east part of Clay township to enable 
them to vote in Lexington after the burning of the bridge over the Little 
Sniabar creek by General Blunt near the close of the Civil war. This, how- 
ever, is not certain. 

The principal streams are the Big Sniabar and Little Sniabar creeks, so 
named from the fact that they both empty into the Sni, or that part of the 
Missouri river flowing on the south side of Wolf's Island, just below Welling- 
ton, and not into the main body of that stream. The name "a-bar" takes its 
origin from that of a Frenchman named A. Barrie, who tradition says was 
found camping at the mouth of the larger creek when Messrs. Lewis and 
Clark made their trip up the river in 1808, and to which stream they gave 
the name of Elegant Water Fire Prairie creek, so named from the fact that 
it flows through a scope of country in Jackson county known as Fire Prairie 
Bottom, also passing through the northwest part of the township and emp- 
tying into the Missouri river a short distance below the northeast corner of 
Jackson county. 


It seems that the first settlement in Clay township was in the year 1819, 
and at some place near the present site of the city of Wellington. It was 
effected by Ruth Renick, Samuel Renick, William Renick, Young Ewing and 
Col. Henry Renick, who came with their families from Barren county, Ken- 
tucky, but their coining was certainly but little if any in advance of Richard 
Edmonds, William Edmonds, Redin Crisp, Jonathan Hicklin and his sons, 
Jonathan and James, of Tennessee; also Thomas Hopper, Kelem and John 
Young, of Indiana. Jonathan Hicklin entered the northwest quarter and 
Richard Edmonds the northeast quarter, all in section 22, township 50, range 
28, located immediately south of and partly within the present corporate lim- 
its of Wellington, in the year 1821, and this little settlement was styled (no 
one now knows why) Tyro. Others who came in at about that date were 
Gen. William McRay, Col. William C. Ewing, John Wallace, Baker Martin, 
Abner Martin, William Young and three sons, William, James and John, all 
of whom had families, and who located in the north part of what is now 
Clay township. Baker Martin entered the southeast fractional quarter of 
section 16, township 50, range 28, January 29 and February 10, 1821. John 


Wallace entered the southwest quarter of the same section. In January, 
1825, the southeast quarter, and, in March, the southwest quarter of frac- 
tional section 15 was entered (now a part of Wellington) by Abner Martin 
and Hugh McAfferty, respectively, from the United States government. Mc- 
Afferty established a tanyard on the branch immediately south of Welling- 
ton, and since known as Tanyard branch, while in 1832 Peter and Jacob 
Wolfe cleared off a small piece of land on the river bank just east of the 
northern terminus of Cherry street, and commenced the sale of cordwood to 
passing steamers, and soon began to add other articles to their stock in trade 
to supply the wants of the settlers in the neighborhood. Subsequently they 
moved up town and carried on an extensive business for several years. These 
were not, however, the first merchants, for it is certain that David Bum- 
gartner had opened a store previous to that of the Wolfes. 

In the meantime other parts of Clay township were being settled by 
others, including Lina Helms, who located and erected a water mill on the 
south bank of the lake, since bearing his name, and near the present site of 
Waterloo, in 1822. 

Previous to 1835 came in for settlement Anselm Harner, Elias Barker, 
William and Allen Jennings, of Tennessee; Joseph Green, Isaac Gann and 
Joseph White, and a few more also came by the last named year. The Rev. 
Robert Sloan was among the first school teachers in Cass county, and also 
taught an early school in a log house at the site of present Greenton. 

A water mill was built and operated on the Big Sni by Mr. Cobb. 

June 1. 1840, William Early gave the site, furnished the material and 
did the work or paid others to perform it, to erect the old Union church 
building, to be used by any denomination. This stood at or near the corner 
of lot No. 35 of the Suburban addition to the city of Wellington. The first 
sermon was delivered by Rev. Jacob Gillespie, in the autumn of that year. 


The various places for burying the dead in Clay township have been as 
follows : The first was the Renick graveyard, the Worder graveyard, the 
Thomas Hopper graveyard, Martin graveyard, Arnold graveyard, the Green- 
ton cemetery, the Strapp graveyard. Mount Olivet cemetery, Fishback bury- 
ing ground, in section 12, township 49, range 29; Pleasant Prairie grave- 
yard, Bates City graveyard, Methodist churchyard at Napoleon, the Anderson 
graveyard; also a burying place on section 16, township 49, range 28; one 
on the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 21, township 49, 


range 28 ; one known as the German Evangelical cemetery at Wellington, and 
another burial place on the northeast quarter of section 12, township 49, range 
29. Within these silent cities repose the remains of many of the pioneer band 
that first settled this township. Some have been well cared for, while others 
have been greatly neglected. 


Lina Helms built the first water mill in Clay township, near his residence 
at the foot of the hill, a short distance east of Waterloo, in 1822, this being 
followed in 1857 by a steam-mill on the west bank of Helm's lake, about 
a half-mile west of the mill already mentioned. James Martin was the pro- 
prietor of this saw mill. 

In 1852 a saw and grist-mill was erected by Turner Williamson, a mill- 
wright, for Messrs. Richard Carr, Beal and Joseph Tidball. This stood on 
the Missouri river on what is now called lot No. 34 of the Suburban addition 
to Wellington. 

In 1857 Gideon Mayne and John C. Hum built and operated a steam 
saw-mill two hundred yards down stream from the Carr mill, and in 1867 
they added flouring mill machinery, or rather it was added by James T. 

Thomas Cobb built a water mill that in later years was known as the 
Moot mill, on the Big Sniabar creek, on section 12, township 49, range 49. 
Soon after the Civil war this property passed into the hands of Messrs. Moot 
and Putney, who added steam power, and when water was too low s L eam 
was used. 

In section 32, township 50, range 28, there still remain traces of the old 
mill-race dug by David Folks, constructed between two sharp bends in the 
Big Sniabar creek. 

The first portable engine used in Clay township was employed by a Mr. 
Sourwine, and the same was used in sawing lumber and threshing wheat in 
different parts of the township. 


In the summer of 1875 Preston B. Roberts, of Independence, Missouri, 
and C. F. Eames, of Kansas City, who owned a controlling interest in the 
Wyandott, Kansas City & Northwestern, a narrow gauge road then in opera- 
tion between the two places just named, contracted with John McCarty, of 


Leavenworth, Kansas, for the construction of the roadbed already located 
and surveyed out by George W. Vaughn to a point twenty-six miles east of 
Independence and one mile east of Wellington. The work of construction 
being almost all completed during the fall and winter of that year, the graders 
reached the Lafayette county line, in the northwest corner of Clay township, 
during the latter part of the month of February, 1876, and passed eastward 
in April. The first train of construction material came to Wellington at 
two P. M., April 27, the twenty-six-mile contract being finished some two 
weeks later, when a "Y" was constructed east of the Big Snia creek, near 
where now stands the house of Mrs. Sarah Bryant. The road was finished 
to Lexington late in the fall of that year. The name was changed to the 
Kansas City & Eastern and was thus operated until the middle of October, 
1878, when it was purchased by Jay Gould and operated as an independent 
line and feeder until October 26, 1879, when it was made a part of the Mis- 
souri Pacific system, but continued a narrow gauge road until Sunday, August 
13 (possibly the 20th), 1882, when it was changed to a standard gauge road, 
all in one day's time. It then became a part of the Lexington branch of the 
Missouri Pacific. In 1901 it was reconstructed and became a part of the 
River division of the same system, and has since been thus operated. It has 
very low grades, hence is said to be a very profitable branch of this great 


Of the numerous hamlets, villages, towns and cities of this township 
it may be stated that Wellington is the larger of them. 

In the year 1837, on May 8th, Jacob Wolfe and Isaac Bledsoe presented 
their petition to the county court of Lafayette county, setting forth and de- 
tailing the wants, needs and necessities therefor and making prayer and ap- 
peal that a charter be ordered and granted to them and other citizens residing 
in the territory for the creation, marking out, defining the metes and bounds 
thereof, and the establishment and maintenance of a town and village within 
the scope of country and settlement then commonly known as Tyro neigh- 
borhood, which prayer was at once granted and said charter duly issued to 
them, locating the town site on a part of the southwest and a part of the 
southeast quarter of section 15, township 50, range 28, and suggested by 
Clinton Bledsoe, to be named and known as Wellington. On August 23d of 
that year the plat of the new town of Wellington was acknowledged before 
and filed with William Spratt, county clerk, by the said Jacob Wolfe and 
Isaac Bledsoe, and on August 26th the same was in like manner acknowledged 


by Peter Wolfe, Micajah Littleton and Catharine Littleton, and on Septem- 
ber 4th was duly recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds in Book E, 
at page 388. There were at this time several business enterprises already in 
operation. Among others, David Baumgarner, Littleton, Wolfe & Company, 
and Frame & Richardson were all doing a general merchandise business ; 
Peter and Jacob Wolfe were conducting a wood yard on the river front; 
John Adkins was conducting a hand-made chair factory; Hough McAfferty 
and James Renick were running their tanyard (established first in 1830) in 
full blast on the branch of that name immediately south of town, and Baker 
Martin was conducting a still house on the same branch almost directly 
south of where now stands the German Evangelical church. 

On May 12, 1839, Jubal CundifT and family arrived from Virginia and 
at once began the work of putting in a rope-walk from the south side of the 
limits of the town southward along what is now the west side of Hinkle's 
addition to Wellington. Pharas Ferrell also came from Harper's Ferry, Vir- 
ginia, and engaged in the tailoring business on lot 8, he having the distinc- 
tion of being Wellington's first postmaster. 

The oldest house now (1910) standing in town was erected by Isaac 
Bledsoe for a dwelling in the year 1838, at the southwest corner of Fourth 
and Pine streets. The first native-born citizen was a daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. John Adkins, born May 20, 1838, while the first death was that of David 
Bumgardner, September 10, 1839, the funeral being conducted by a minister 
of the gospel, John Emmons. 

The first sermon preached in Wellington was by old "Uncle Ike," a slave 
belonging to Col. James Lauderdale, in the upper room of the log building 
known as "Morality Hall," standing at the northwest corner of Walnut and 
Fifth streets, on Sunday, June 9, 1839. 

The first marriage in town was that of Dr. William M. Bowring and 
Harriette Ann, daughter of Jubal and Nancy H. Cundiff, occurring January 
10, 1 841, Jacob Gallispie, minister of the gospel, officiating. 

Doctor Bowring was the first doctor of the neighborhood. He came 
from York, Pennsylvania, in 1832, served in the Black Hawk war, then 
came to this county and commenced the practice of medicine in Greenton 
late in the fall of that year. Two years later he came to Wellington, where 
he remained until his death, April 30, i860. 


Wellington was first incorporated as a village in 1855 I reincorporated in 
1859, an d so continued until i860 or 1861. The war came on and no munic- 
ipal form of local government was maintained until October 7, 1885, when 


it again assumed the role of a village, and thus continued until November 6, 
1 89 1, when it became a city of the fourth class. 

Its mayors have been (under city government) : Thomas E. Chinn, H. 
E. Duebbert, John F. Larkin, William J. Carpenter, S. C. Archer, John A 
Mann, J. F. Bryant, Alexander Denton. 

Its population in 1900 was five hundred and fifty. 


Just the date of opening the first postoffice in Wellington is not now 
known, but the following have served as postmasters in the order in which 
they are here given : Phares Farrell, Richard Lomax, Davis K. Ducks, 
Katherine Ducks, John F. Larkin, 1887; Ff. E. Wille, 1892; Josiah Mann, 
1893; Hugo Duebert, 1897; Robert Linss, H. G. Larberg, commencing 
1902 and still holding the office. In 1903 two rural free delivery routes were 
established, one being about twenty-five miles and the other twenty-three 
miles in length. 

Wellington has now a Methodist Episcopal, German Evangelical and 
two colored Methbdist churches. Its only lodges are the Odd Fellows, Red 
Men of America, United Mine Workers and Woodmen of the World. 


From an early date Wellington has been a good milling point for both 
saw and flouring mills. The Carr mill was erected in 1854 and burned in 
1896, along with its grain warehouse. It was rebuilt and is now owned by 
the Sweet Springs Milling Company. It is a modern steam roller milling 
plant. In 1893 its boiler exploded and caused the death of two men, Frank 
Albin and J. R. Johnson. But for the fact that the helper was a mute and 
could not be understood, the accident could have been averted. It occurred 
August 16, 1893, blowing the boiler two hundred and sixty-eight feet up the 

In 1857 was built a saw mill, which burned about 1867. It belonged 
to James T. Dorton. 

Another mill was erected in 1855 by James Martin, run until about 
1870, and then removed from town. 


Wellington has been frequently visited by the fire fiend. The most de- 
structive of these conflagrations have been these: March 4, 1872, Louis Ff. 
Day's (old Russell) warehouse was destroyed, with five thousand bushels 


of wheat. This, in its palmy days, was the finest warehouse along the entire 
Missouri river. 

April 21, 1873, the saw and grist mill of James T. Dorton was burned 
by an incendiary, it was believed. It was erected in 1858. 

December 9, 1873, eight business houses and the Odd Fellows building, 
on the north side of the public square, were burned. They were superseded 
by large livery barns, and these were destroyed by fire in 1893. Two livery 
barns now occupy part of the ground where these business houses once stood. 

A fire destroyed the city jail, the Methodist parsonage and city council 
hall, with a number of dwellings, all at the same time. 

In 187 1 J. D. Houston's drug store, Louis H. Day's tobacco factory and 
the dwelling of J. E. Meyer, on the south side of the square, were burned. 

April 8, 1 86 1, a store building and the postoffice were burned. Yet. 
strange to relate, no effort has ever taken shape by which the city might be 
protected, in some measure, against the great losses it has sustained. No 
waterworks or home fire company has been organized to respond to the 
alarm of fire. 


Banks — Wellington Bank (state). 
Newspaper — Wellington Neivs. 
Hotel — Krutsinger Home. 

Physicians — Dr. John Mann, Dr. Frank W. Mann, Dr. Masse. 
Real Estate and Abstractor — Charles M. Bowring. 
Dentist — J. C. Burgess, D. D. S. 
Drugs — John E. Mann. 

General Dealers — R. L. Mann, Julius Schinke, H. P. Larberg, W. A. 
Brown, George Bookaska. 

Grocery and Meats — Theodore Ostoff. 

Meats and Flour — Larkin Son. 

Hardware — Julius Schinke, Robert Linss. 

Furniture — Julius Schinke. 

Implements — J. L. Rinebeck, A. W. Carter. 

Livery Barns — Emmett Burgess, Schabarg Bros. 

Mills — City Flouring Mills. 

Grain Dealers — Isaac Vance, City Flouring Mills. 

Lumber Dealers — J. C. Jones & Company. 


Live Stock — I. Vance, George Hackley. 

Millinery — W. A. Brown. 

Blacksmiths — H. W. Carter, J. Linebeck. 

Harness — Robert Linss. 

Bakery — J. F. Campbell. 

Boots and Shoes — J. H. Westermann & Company. 


This place, situated on section 14, township 49, range 28, was founded 
by Joseph Green, from whom it derived its name, in about 1835. A post- 
office was established that year, with Mr. Green as its postmaster. Finis 
Ewing opened and operated the first store of the hamlet. In 1858 a school 
house was erected, costing about one thousand, two hundred dollars. The 
first physician to practice here was Dr. William Bowring, who later moved 
to Wellington, where he practiced until his death. In 1859 a cemetery was 
located on the same section as the village of Greenton and is still used. With 
the building of the various lines of railroad, this place quit growing and 
nothing of importance remains there at this date. 

Many years ago Mrs. Catherine B. Roberts, who was born in Kentucky 
in 1820 and moved here at the age of four years, wrote the following con- 
cerning the pioneer settlement in Greenton valley : "The original settlers 
in this valley were James, Moses, Joshua and Henry Campbell, John and 
tucky. These all appeared in 1820 and located on section 22, township 49, 
range 28. Isam Manion and Athaliah Finch were the first to be united in 
marriage, Rev. Finch performing the ceremony. Rowland Hughes was the 
first male child born, in 1826. Martha Hughes, the daughter of James M. 
Hughes, was born the same year. John Hughes, who died in 1826, was the 
first person to die in the settlement. Doctor Buck was the first physician. 
Rev John Warder, of the old-school Baptist denomination, was the first 
preacher here. The first school was taught by a Mr. Bowman in 1828, on 
section 22. The first cloth Woven was by Mrs. Henry Campbell. Indians 
were numerous then, but quite harmless. For the history of the churches, 
see chapter on churches in Lafayette county. 


Napoleon is situated in the extreme part of Lafayette county, twelve 
miles west from Lexington, on the Missouri river, and on the line of the 
old narrow gauge, but now the standard gauge Missouri Pacific railroad. 


Its original platting was executed in 1836 by William Ish, Nathaniel Tucker 
and others. Originally it was styled "Poston's Landing." Samuels & Ish 
started the first business in the hamlet and John A. Poston opened a dry 
goods store. During the panic of 1837 the town was virtually abandoned. 
In 1854 Dr. James Belt went to the place, which he found deserted as a busi- 
ness point, except one log house and a log store building. He at once began 
to improve the place and called his town "Lisbon," but the postoffice never 
changed its name. In the early eighties, owing to the fine landing facilities, 
Napoleon shipped more grain, stock and merchandise than other points be- 
tween Lexington and Independence. In 1881 there were the following busi- 
ness interests : One dry goods and grocery, two blacksmith shops, one 
general store, two physicians, two shoemakers, one undertaker, two hominy 
mills, one dry goods and shoe store. The town was replatted in 1856 by 
Dr. Belt. The postoffice was suspended from about 1840 to 1858, when D. 
K. Murphy was serving as postmaster. The first school house was built in 
1858 at the cost of two hundred and fifty dollars. Dr. D. K. Murphy (the 
postmaster) was the first to practice medicine in the new town. He came 
from North Carolina and later removed to Greenton. A mill was established 
at Napoleon in 1868 by John F. Roberts. In 1876 a stave and heading fac- 
tory was built at Napoleon. It was thirty-five by seventy feet in size and its 
machinery was propelled by an eighty-horse-power steam engine. The total 
plant cost fourteen thousand dollars. Twenty hands were employed and the 
twenty thousand-dollar per year output was sold at Kansas City. 

With the passing of the years, the change in surroundings, etc., Napo- 
leon is still but a small hamlet, with little business interests, aside from its 
shipment of stock and grain and the ordinary local retail business conducted. 


Bates City, in the southwestern part of Clay township, was platted in 
1878 on the line of the Alton railroad, and the next year a postoffice was es- 
tablished, J. F. Eneberg being the first postmaster. The first house was built 
by L. B. Kelley, while Mr. Eneberg started the first store. An eight-hundred- 
dollar school house was erected in 1881 and the first teacher received twenty- 
five dollars per month. The first regular physician was Dr. M. W. Flournoy. 
(See church chapter for religious items on this village.) 

Bates City today consists of the following interests : The ordinary shops 
and smaller places of business, with two good-sized general merchandise 
stores. It is situated on the electric trolley line being constructed from Kan- 
sas City to St. Louis. 



The town of Waterloo, in this township, is midway between Wellington 
and Napoleon, on the railroad and on the Missouri river. Its founder once 
remarked, "Napoleon and Wellington are both dead, but Waterloo still flour- 
ishes," he having reference to the three great military names, Waterloo, 
Wellington and Napoleon, intimating that the towns of Wellington and 
Napoleon, like the great military characters, were dead, while his town was 
much alive ; but time has proven his mistake, in the main. Waterloo was 
platted on section 18, township 50, range 28, October, 1905, by Joseph A. 
Edmonds, Sr. 


Among the incidents worthy of here being recorded are the following: 
During the Civil war days James Johnson, who lived at Bates City, was 
killed by a band of "Kansas Jayhawkers," supposed to have been at the in- 
stigation of a negro, whom he had once whipped while acting as constable 
in his township. The act was forced upon him by law, but the dire spirit of 
revenge upon the part of the black man caused him to call upon these troops, 
who took Mr. Johnson to a barn and there hung him until he was dead. 
Such were the horrors brought about by war. 

In 1858 occurred another crime against civilization and humanity, the 
whipping of a white man for the offense of hiding a slave — a runaway negro 
— under some sheaves of oats. The man was tried by a jury of twelve men, 
and a sentence of "forty lashes, save one," was the decision of the jury. 
Robert Stowall, the man whose office it was to execute this sentence, was 
killed in 1863 — five years later — under the following circumstances: A 
troop of Kansas soldiers came through the town, and one of their number 
recognized a citizen of the town, saying, "How are you, John?" Then the 
troop went to Stowall's house and called him out and shot him. Although 
no one recognized any of the soldiers, it is supposed that the killing was at 
the instigation of the man who secreted the negro in the oats. 



Dover, which is the north-central subdivision of Lafayette county, is 
bounded the same as it was in July, 1848, "commencing at the mouth of Tabo 
creek, in the middle of the main channel, where the same empties into the 
Missouri river; thence up said creek with the middle of the main channel 
thereof, to where the same crosses the township line betwen townships 49 
and 50, in range 26; thence east with said township line to where the same 
intersects the range line between ranges 24 and 25 ; thence with the said 
range line north to the Missouri river ; thence with said river to place of 

The first mention of this township was in February, 1836, when it was 
ordered by the county court "that Tabo township be hereafter known and 
designated by the name of Dover township." It then constituted most of the 
territory now embraced within Dover and Middleton townships, and the 
same was all a part of Tabo township. 


Early French traders had called several places Terre Bonne, or good 
land. As the American settlers came in new names were given and the old 
ones localized and spelled by the sound, rather than according to the original 
Fresh meaning, and also often shortened in sound, thus, Ta Beau. It was 
next Anglicized into Tabbo, and finally Tabo, and limited to a small creek, 
instead of naming and describing a region of country. Such is thought to 
be the evolution of the name Tabo creek, which now forms the boundary be- 
tween Lexington and Dover townships. 


The first attempt at settling this portion of Lafayette county was ninety- 
three years ago, in 181 7, by John Lovelady and Solomon Cox, at a point 
one-half mile west of the present village of Dover. The same season W. R. 


Cole and James Bounds located one and a half miles to the west. Solomon 
Cox immigrated from Virginia, settling in section 29. Cole was from the 
same state and settled on section 30. James Bounds, Sr., James Bounds, Jr., 
and Obediah Bounds came in from Tennessee, settling in section 31 in 1818. 
Christopher Jago, William Carpenter and John Parkerson, of Tennessee, 
came in 18 19. Z. Linville. a Stonite preacher, and Martin Trapp, a Reformed 
preacher, called by some at that day a Stonite preacher, but who later became 
Campbellites or Disciples, came in 1818. 

What was known to old-timers as the "Long Grove settlement," was 
brought about by Martin Warren and his sons, who arrived in 1824, locat- 
ing in section 23, township 50, range 26. Following these came Samuel 
Walker, Adam Sensibaugh, John Ennis, Thomas Buckley and Richard Col- 
lins, all natives of Kentucky, and who came about 1826, locating on section 
26. In 1827 came Alexander H. Page, of Kentucky, whose son furnished 
the memoranda of this early settlement paragraph. 

Johnson's Grove settlement was effected in Dover township and derives 
its name from the first comers there. Two William Johnsons, cousins, located 
there in 1827 and 1828. No others came into the community until 1835. 
In 1 84 1 came William Burns, of Virginia, and William Bell and Joseph 
Roberts, of Kentucky, located near there. 

The first physician to practice among these pioneers was Dr. W. I. 
Seeber, who came in 1842 or 1843. practicing until his death in 1872. 

The first church was erected by various denominations and known as 
"Oakland church," which was finally torn down in 1880. Prior to this the 
settlers went ten miles to Dover to worship. 

The first school house in the vicinity was built of logs, near the Oak- 
land church, in {843, the expense being subscribed by the pioneer band. In 
this building, the first term, there were seventeen pupils, whose parents had 
to pay a dollar a month each for their attendance. 

Oakland postoffice was also established about this time (1843), with 
M. C. Burns as postmaster. The office was discontinued many years ago. 

The nearest flouring mills were at "Brown's," in Saline county, and 
Webb's horse mill, at Dover village. At many of these mills, so-called, the 
sifters were made of horse hairs or deer skins. Around the vicinity of Dover 
township lingers many a pleasant romance and memory of events both prior 
and subsequent to the great Civil war period, which cost the township so much 
of wealth in money and bloodshed, and for the time made the township al- 
most desolate, but which today has come to be, among the eight divisions of 
Lafayette county, one of the most prosperous. 



Prior to railroad days the boat landings along the Missouri included 
*hose of Berlin, Edwards, Dover, etc., the true history of which, with the 
passage of steamboating, has almost been forgotten. An inland village of 
some historic importance is Page City, on the Missouri Pacific railroad, within 
Dover township. It was laid out by Joseph H. Page in 1871, on twenty 
acres of land belonging to himself, and eleven acres belonging to his brother, 
G. R. Page. It has never amounted to more than a station point, with small 
business interests. 

Edward's Mills, now known as Hodge postoffice and railroad station, is 
situated on the river front, down stream from Dover, and is a mere station 
and hamlet of no considerable commercial importance. 

Berlin, another old landing, has woven about it some early history of 
importance. The following incident, connected with war days, is from the 
files of the Lexington Union, of September 19, 1863 : 

"As the steamer 'Marcella,' on her upward trip, yesterday, approached 
Berlin landing, in Dover township, twelve miles below Lexington, she was 
ordered to land by about sixty bushwhackers. There being no protection to 
the pilot house, and about fifty revolvers pointed at the trusty pilot, he could 
do nothing but obey. The boat had no sooner landed than she was boarded 
by the monsters. They robbed the boat and passengers of nine hundred 
dollars, and several cases of boots and shoes and clothing. They then 
searched the boat and found four soldiers belonging to Colonel Siegel's regi- 
ment of Union troops, Fifth Missouri State Militia, residents of Lexington, 
who were on furlough and on their way here. Their names were Martin 
Fisher, Charles Wagoner, Edward Knobbs, Chris Seely. They took them 
off the boat and into the woods a short distance, where they were placed in 
line and inhumanly fired upon. Fisher, Knobbs and Seely were instantly 
killed, but Waggoner, not being hit, ran and hid, and finally made his escape." 


Corder is a sprightly town of about one thousand population, a station 
on the Chicago & Alton railroad, in Dover township. It was laid out in 
1878, and incorporated in 1881. The first house was erected by the first 
postmaster, W. J. Leise ; he also conducted the first general store in the place. 
The first physician was Dr. Lewis Carthrae. The first mayor was G. W. 
Neithercut. Corder today is a good trading point and has the following 
business interests : 


Hotels — American House, the Corder Hotel. 

Drugs — C. A. Benton, Fred Morgan. 

Hardware — H. F. Kleinschmidt. 

General Merchandise — Smith Brothers, C. H. Niemier. 

Grocers — W. L. Tichnor. 

Shoe store — Hefter & Morgan. 

Harness shop — Frank Schulz. 

Blacksmiths — Berry See, Ludwig & Kalthoff. 

Furniture — H. F. Kleinschmidt. 

Grain dealer — A. J. Ferking. 

Lumber dealer — George F. Rogge. 

Banking — The Corder Bank. 

Dentist— C. M. Tindall, D. D. S. 

Physicians — Dr. Lewis Carthrae, Sr., Dr. Lewis Carthrae, Jr., Dr. E. M. 

Creamery — Corder Creamery Company, A. C. Heins, manager. 

Brick and Tile Works — William Nieman. 

Meats — Hefter & Wollenman. 

Restaurant — A. F. Garnett & Company, Jesse Humphrys. 

Newspaper — The Corder Journal, T. D. Bowman, proprietor. 

Cement Blocks — Ludwig & Kalthoff. 

Millinery — Miss Ella Ewell. 

Jeweler — B. E. Kidd. 

Coal Mines — Diamond Company, Corder Coal Company, Hohenwald 
Brothers and Anton Stoling. 

Real Estate and Insurance — C. E. Corder. 

Livery Barn — Gaines & Hammel. 

Feed Store — William Wilson. 

Telephone Insulator Peg Factory. 

Poultry — A. C. Heins. 

The fraternal societies of Corder are the Masonic, Modern Woodmen, 
Red Men of America, Miners' Labor Union. 

The churches are the Baptist, Methodist Episcopal South, Christian, 
Catholic, Evangelical Lutheran and German Methodists. 

A brick school building was erected at a cost of thirteen thousand dol- 
lars in 1909. It contains six rooms and a large auditorium. 

The cemetery in use is the one located a half mile to the northwest of 
town called Calvary, and which is owned by a stock company. 



Corder was incorporated by the county court, as a village, February 7, 
1 88 1, the petition being signed by W. J. Leise, G. W. Barr and twenty-two 
other inhabitants. The village officers at this date are : George F. Rogge, 
mayor; Thomas G. Bowman, clerk; S. W. Reynolds, assessor; Joseph N. 
Mendenhall, marshal ; D. J. Jackson, K. P. Kramer, Fred Morgan, George 
Ham, aldermen. 

This place became a city of the fourth class in June, 1908. At one time 
Corder had a small system of water works, but finally their tank was burned 
and was never replaced. The town is now at the mercy of the flames. 

The postmasters who have served at Corder from the date of estab- 
lishing the office have been : W. J. Liese, Martin Liese, William Williams, 
John T. Gordon, A. Bortsfield, James Y. Brand, E. F. Martin, who has 
served since 1897. In 1903 two rural routes were started, twenty-four and 
twenty-six miles each in length. The office is fourth class. 

One of the most disastrous fires of the town was that of May 25, 1910, 
when the opera house ("Theatorium), built of brick and two stories high, 
was burned. It was the property of S. M. Reynolds and he only carried 
enough insurance to partly cover his loss. Miners' Hall was burned by the 
same fire and a frame structure belonging to William Morgan, in which a 
millinery store was located. Total loss, eight thousand dollars. 


Dover was platted on section 29, township 51, range 25, August 7, 1835, 
by John Duston. It is beautifully situated on the eminence of the bluffs to 
the south of the Missouri river, about one and a third miles distant, by 
wagon road. Its railroad station, on the Missouri Pacific line (river divi- 
sion), is on the river front. It is one of the old boat landings in the county, 
and has much interesting history connected with it. In the palmy days of 
steamboating Dover held a prominent place in river traffic. At a very early 
date there was a log church built at Dover jointly by different religious de- 
nominations. Churches and schools were in the minds of the pioneer band 
that started to build Dover, and this influence has gone on until the present. 
The town has never made rapid growth, but always has been a good trading 
place, made up of enterprising, hospitable citizens, who believe in living and 
letting others live. The present population of Dover is about two hundred 


and fifty. It supports Christian, Baptist, Catholic and Methodist churches, 
histories of which appear under proper church headings. For its school his- 
tory see elsewhere. 

Dover Lodge, No. 122, of the Masonic order, was instituted in May, 
1850, but about 1880 moved to Corder. The present fraternity of Dover is 
that of the Odd Fellow order. 

The place was incorporated in 1897. Among its mayors have been: 
Capt. W. A. Redd, R. P. Howard, George Zysing, Samuel Pile, L. B. Cole, 
R. P. Howard. The present trustees are : R. P. Howard, Jewett Redd, B. 
L. Vaughan, George F. Zysing, William Pauling ; clerk, Jewett Redd ; mar- 
shal, S. C. Hodges. 

Among the postmasters of Dover may be named, since 1854: Messrs. 
Thomas Miller, S. S. Vangelen, James Clayton, William Meng, John Plat- 
tenburg, James Clayton, Mrs. E. J. Stolte. 

Among the retail dealers and professional men of Dover in the years 
gone by should not be forgotten: In 1857, the general dealers were Platten- 
burg & Howard, Charles and Samuel Whiting; Peter Thoma. Dr. Caleb D. 
Baer, druggists; Joseph Wiles, hotel keeper; a flour mill, that in 1865 was 
run by F. C. Vivion, was in operation, but was abandoned in 1867, since 
which there has been no mill in Dover. 

In 1858, the business of Dover was in the hands of: Judge Plattenburg, 
George B. Warren, James Howard, general stores, and John Ridge, village 

At the close of the Civil war the business factors were: Plattenburg 
& Howard, Edgar Ashberry, Robert Cox, general dealers, and Samuel Meng, 


At the date of this book being published the following conducted the 
business of Dover: Redd Brothers (Jewett M. and H. T. Redd, sons of 
Captain William A. Redd), who succeeded their father, who established his 
business first in Waverly and in 1897 removed to Dover. The other general 
dealer of the village is George Zysing. The drug business is now conducted 
by E. Zysing, who succeeded R. W. Ashworth in 1906. The physician of 
Dover in 1910 was Dr. R. P. Howard; liveryman, B. W. Vaughan; hotel, 
R. P. Howard ; blacksmith, Joseph Bertrand ; pool hall, B. Gray. 

The Dover State Bank, established in 1906, with a capital of ten thou- 
sand dollars, Henry Corbin, president, and O. G. Congdon, cashier, is the 
only bank Dover has ever had. 



The first corn mill and distillery in the county were near present Dover 
village, and they were erected by a Mr. Bowers. 

A log church was built at Dover by different denominations. Early 
ministers there were : Revs. Trapp, Linville, Ewing, King and Robert Mare. 
The three last named were Cumberland Presbyterians. Rev. Ransome Clark 
was also a pioneer "Old School" Baptist. Union meetings were frequently 
held and the pastors left it to the converts to decide which denomination they 
should finally join. 

The first marriage in Dover township was that uniting John Lovelady 
and Mary Cox, daughter of Enoch Cox. This was in 1818, and it is thought 
to be the first marriage in the county after actually organized as Lafayette 

The first births were twin children of the first couple united in marriage, 
as above mentioned. 

The first death in the township was Martin Tripp, in 1820; the next was 
William R. Cole, and both were buried in the cemetery near Dover, which 
Mr. Cole had laid out himself. 

The pioneer school of this section was taught in a log house just south 
of the village of Dover in 1822, by George Marquis, who soon afterwards 

The first physician was Doctor Buck, of Massachusetts. 

The first weaving of cloth in Dover township was by Mrs. John Love- 
lady and Mrs. Solomon Cox. 

The first public school district was formed in May, 1840. In 1909 the 
total enrollment of pupils was eighty-one ; teachers employed, three ; aver- 
age wages paid, forty-two dollars and fifty cents ; valuation of district, one 
hundred and sixty -five thousand dollars ; tax levy, sixty-five cents on a dollar. 


By James P. Chinn. 

Davis township was organized May 3, 1830, and then included all of 
present Freedom and portions of Middleton and Dover townships. Its orig- 
inal boundaries were defined by the county court as follows : "Beginning 
on the county line between Saline and Lafayette counties, at the section cor- 
ner between 2 and 3, township 50, range 24, thence west to the middle of 
range 26, in township 50; thence south to the section corner of 12 and 13, 
township 48; thence east to the range line between 25 and 26; thence south 
to the southern boundary of Lafayette county, which is the middle of the 
main channel of the Osage river; thence down the middle of said stream 
to the range line between section 23 and 24; thence north with said line 
to the place of beginning." 

These lines do not exactly correspond with any of the township lines 
in the county at this date, except the east line, which forms the boundary 
between Lafayette and Saline counties. It was estimated that there were 
forty-eight taxable families within the above-defined territory at that time. 
The first township election was ordered held at the house of Benjamin 
Johnson; and Martin Warren, Sr., Axel H. Page and John Smeltser were 
appointed judges. 

A change was effected in the territory of Davis township on July 4, 
1848, when the new township of Middleton was established, and the bound- 
aries of Dover township fixed in their present places. These changes cut off" 
some of the territory of Davis township, when its new boundaries were fixed 
as follows : "Commencing at the township line, between townships 49 and 
50, where said line crosses the boundary line between Lafayette and Saline 
counties, thence with said township line west to where the same crosses 
the main branch of the Tabo creek ; thence with the main channel of said 
creek in a southern direction, to where said creek crosses the section line 
between sections 9 and 10, in range 26, of township 49; thence with said 
section line south to where the same crosses the main branch of Davis creek; 


thence with the main channel of said Davis creek to the boundary line be- 
tween the counties of Saline and Lafayette; thence with said line north to 
place of beginning." These lines have never been changed since that date 
in 1848. 


The honor of becoming one of the very early settlers in Davis township 
belonged to Joseph Collins, who located at a place since called "Bear's Grove," 
situated near section 13, township 49, range 26. The exact date is not now 
known, but it was certainly between the years 1825 and 1830, as he had to 
do with the organization of this sub-division of the county. 

Alexander P. Hogan, William Anderson and Uriah Gladdish, natives of 
Kentucky, who settled on sections 35 and 36, of the same township and 
range, and Capt. William Beatty, Maj. S. G. Neal, William Collins, Madison 
Taylor, Thomas and James Smith, William and Menona Dyer, and William 
Hickman, who settled in that neighborhood previous to 1840. 

Maj. George P. Gordon, who later resided on section 18, township 49, 
range 24, stated that Simon Bradley and Jesse Cox came to that neighbor- 
hood as early as 1820, settling on sections 17 and 18, respectively. He also 
remembered that Mesdames Bradley and Cox did the first weaving of cloth 
in that vicinty. From that time on settlement was made too rapidly to under- 
take, at this late day, to trace the locations and names. 


The first marriage ceremony in this township was performed at the 
home of Mr. Anderson, where his daughter was united with William Still. 

The first male child born was Henry Anderson, the son of Ira and 
Columbia Anderson; he was born in 1841. 

The first person to die within Davis township was a Miss Davenport, 
about 1843 ; she was buried in the old Couch graveyard. 

Among the earliest physicians in the township was Dr. W. W. Higgins, 
who later removed to Montana. 

The first ministers of the gospel reported here were Rev. George Craw- 
ford, of the New School Presbyterian faith, and Rev. Peter Williams, a 

The first religious services were conducted in the Beatty school house, 
near Bear's Grove, prior to 1840. In 1841 the Tabo Presbyterian church 
was organized at the same place. 


The first school held in Davis township was at the Beatty school house, 
built in 1838. George Rhoades and Judge Lucian Cary were among the 
first persons to teach there. From fifteen to twenty-five pupils attended these 
schools and a salary of forty dollars per month was paid. The school house 
was built of logs and was conducted on the subscription plan. On section 36, 
about 1843, a log school house was erected by Elijah Gladdish. There 
twelve or fifteen pupils attended the first term taught ; the teacher was Eliza- 
beth Martin, who received ten dollars a month and boarded around, as was 
the almost universal custom in all early schools. 

It is also claimed that Mrs. Elizabeth Gladdish wove the first cloth in 
the neighborhood, bringing her wool from Kentucky. 

The pioneers had to go from twelve to twenty miles to mill, and fre- 
quently would be cut off from their homes by high water and were obliged 
to camp by the roadside several days until the waters receded. The trading 
point was then Lexington, as was also the postoffice until about 1846, when 
Hempland postoffice was established, with Major Neal as postmaster. 

The necessities of this pioneer band were indeed few, and were supplied 
chiefly by their own exertions. Occasionally, when they desired a little 
"store" sugar, tea, coffee, etc., they were obliged to go to Dover, in Dover 
township, several miles distant. The supplies came up the Missouri river in 
keel boats and were landed at that point. 

One remarkable thing about the political complexion of this township 
in 1844 was the fact that out of the sixty-three votes polled that year (it 
being the William Henry Harrison "Tippecanoe" campaign), sixty were 
Whigs, from which party the Republican party later came into existence. A 
premium was offered for the largest Whig vote, and Davis township took the 
banner. It should be understood that at that early date Missouri was largely 

Davis township is well watered and drained by little streams. The 
largest of these pretty streams is Davis creek, which has many tributaries. 
The township is now highly cultivated and the finest fields of corn and grain, 
as well as bearing orchards and all that go toward making up a magnificent 
rural scene, abound on every hand. 

At an early date wild game was very plentiful in this section of Lafay- 
ette county. In going a few rods from his house, pioneer Harvey Higgins 
frequently started up from three to five deer. Colonel Mulky once started 
four black bears up within less than two hundred yards from his cabin 
home. He succeeded in capturing two of them. Elk and buffalo were fre- 
quently seen roaming at will over the township and catamounts were often 


killed. Some panthers were known in the vicinity, but to no considerable 
numbers. There were no regular roads in those early days, but all traveled 
by courses and trails. The boys would frequently have a big deer hunt, 
kill as many as eight deer, and get home to dinner. 

Note. — In an historical item penned in 1881 by Ira D. Anderson, he 
laid claim to the following facts concerning Davis township, which does not 
quite coincide with the "first events" already given, but it is here given, 
for possibly the statement is correct : 

"William Collins, senior, a soldier of the Revolutionary war from Caro- 
lina, and his son and sons-in-law, in all amounting to eight persons, con- 
stituted the first settlers of what is now Davis township. These located in 
1825. The first marriage was Martin D. Warren to Miss Dillingham. The 
first male child was James Anderson, son of William H. and D. Anderson. 
Nancy, daughter of Larkin and Sarah Graham, was the first female child 
born in the township. Rev. Thomas McBride, of the Christian church, was 
the first preacher in the township." 

Concerning the population of Davis township, it may be stated that in 
June, 1880, there were reported in the United States census reports two 
thousand nine hundred and forty-four inhabitants within the township. 
Coming down to 1900, the same authority gives the township as having four 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, including Higginsville. The forth- 
coming census reports will no doubt show a goodly increase to these figures. 

The schools and churches having been included in separate chapters in 
this volume, — those of the entire county forming chapters by themselves, — 
it will not be necessary to mention them in this connection. 


The present farmers have come to be of the prosperous type and one or 
two poor crops do not cripple and discourage them as such things did the 
farmers of thirty years ago. Yet for the most part the farmers even then 
had much success, as will be seen from the following account written in 
1880. "Christopher Ellmaker has an orchard consisting of about two hun- 
dred trees, some of which have been planted forty years. He recently gath- 
ered from these thrifty apple trees one thousand bushels of choice fruit. 

"His wheat crop during the same year yielded him an average of twen- 
ty-five bushels per acre, while in other parts of the township it ranged from 
thirty to forty bushels per acre." 

"George G. Elsea has an orchard of one hundred and fifty apple trees, 
some of which are more than forty years old, and they produced him two 
hundred bushels of fine fruit this year." 


"An orchard of Alfred P. Lewis that was set out in 1845, an< ^ con " 
tained one hundred apple trees, raised four hundred bushels in 1880. Of 
the different varieties may be named the Ben Davis, the Genitan, Winesap 
and the Missouri and Newtown Pippin." 

The above is only given to show the conditions that existed in this town- 
ship as long ago as 1880. With such climate and soil it is no wonder that 
land sells from one hundred to one hundred and fifty dollars per acre, within 
easy access of market towns! 

Of the extensive mining interests in this township, the reader is referred 
to the chapter on Geology in this volume. It may be said in this connec- 
tion, however, that the coal mines in Davis township, underlying the fertile 
farming lands, makes the property more than double in value. The mines 
are found here and there over the township, but more especially in the 
vicinity of Higginsville. where the mining operations are very profitable. 


Davis township, in common with all the townships in Lafayette county, 
came in for her share of the deeds of violence and bloodshed during the 
memorable years of the Civil war. Among these may be recalled, with no 
little interest, the following : 

A Federal paymaster, having in his possession fifty-five thousand dol- 
lars, which he was transporting to Marshall, Saline county, Missouri, with 
a guard of twenty-five men, commanded by Captain Perry, had stopped at 
the residence of Alfred P. Lewis for the purpose of remaining over night. 
While there, they were attacked by a company of bushwhackers, led by 
Dave Blount, who captured the vehicle which contained the money, securely 
locked up in a strong box, and its guard of three pickets. Not knowing 
the value of the money treasure in their possession, the bushwhackers took 
their horses and, bidding the three men to follow, started to retreat. One 
of them refusing, he was deliberately shot down in his tracks, the ball en- 
tering his back and coming out of his right breast. He lived only twenty- 
six hours. Mr. Lewis gave all the assistance he could, but was powerless 
to save his life, but made his last moments easier by his tender treatment. 
The bushwhackers rode off with the horses and the two other Federal 
guards, paroling them and allowing them to join their comrades the fol- 
lowing day. 

In the month of September, 1862, John Grisom was fo*nd murdered in 
the Davis Creek bottoms, on the premises of Christopher Echoff. Grisom 
was a resident of Saline county. 



Higginsville, the only incorporation within Davis township, is beauti- 
fully situated on the Chicago & Alton and Missouri Pacific railroad lines, on 
sections 1 and 6, township 49, ranges 25 and 26. It was platted, as seen by 
the county plat books, by Henry and Carrie Higgins (from whom the place 
derived its name), August 14, 1869. In 1900 the federal census gave it a 
population of two thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. 

A postoffice was established at this point in 1870, with A. B. E. Lehman 
as postmaster. He also had the honor of putting in the first store for the 
sale of general merchandise, the firm being known as Lehman & Son. 

A frame school house was provided in 1879, at a cost of one thousand 
two hundred dollars. Thirty-five pupils attended this first school in Higgins- 
ville, which was taught by Miss Anna Reese, who received for her services 
fifty dollars per month. 

It is generally conceded that the first marriage in the town was Lewis 
Henke and wife, whose maiden name is not known to the writer. They 
were made "man and wife" by Justice of the Peace George Osborne. 

Michael Kelley is said to have been the first male child born in Hig- 

The first death to be recorded in the town was Lewis Henke's infant 
son, who was buried in the Evangelical burying ground. 

The earliest physician in the place was Dr. C. W. Seeber, who remained 
many years and enjoyed a lucrative medical practice. 

In 1880 the town supported a newspaper, a bank, two steam flouring 
mills, a steam elevator and grain warehouse, two freight and passenger sta- 
tions, eight churches, a fine graded public school, a select school, several 
civic societies, a lumber yard and more than twenty other business houses. 
Its population was at that time about eight hundred. 


In the month of June, 1910, the following constituted a majority of 
the business factors of Higginsville : 

American Bank, Bank of Higginsville and Farmer's Bank of Higgins- 

Hotels — The Arcade Hotel and Merchants Hotel. 

Physicians— Dr. W. C. Webb, Dr. W. A. Braecklein, Dr. T. A. Mc- 
Lennan, Dr. E. A. Hoefer. Dr. W. A. Porter, and Dr. Charles W. Ott. 


Dentists — Dr. G. C. Chamblin, Dr. O. A. Jones, Dr. G. H. Frey and 
Dr. J. E. Lyons. 

Attorneys — W. M. Ilgenfritz, G. W. Stegen and James P. Chinn. 

Druggists — J. E. Koppenbrink, Forest Fields and Braecklein & Detert. 

Hardware Dealers — Samuel Downing, J. Ff. Knipmeyer, Ritter Broth- 
ers, E. W. Mollenkamp and Edward Freese. 

Livery Barns — Wilson & Layne and W. H. Lewis. 

Lumber Dealers — Tempel & Schoppenhorst and La Crosse Lumber Com- 

Stock Buyers — William Kelly, Wash Johnson and Henry Breipohl. 

Brick and Tile Works — Canterberry Brothers. 

Produce Houses — Swift & Company and J. W. Clayton. 

Groceries — J. W. Endly, M. E. Herd, Freitag & Rabsahl, Forest Mc- 
Cord, Walter McElroy, Ed Edwards and F. D. Alexander. 

Furniture Dealers — Hoefer & Meinershagen and A. H. Hader. 

Clothing Store — A. Mendelsohn. 

Department Stores — T. M. Lake & Sons and Kuhne Brothers Mercan- 
tile Company. 

Jewelry Stores — Tucker Jewelry Company and Inglis & Huber. 

Photographer — A. T. Peterson. 

Milliner — Mrs. S. P. Peacock. 

Mills — Higginsville Milling Company. 

Telephones — Lafayette Telephone Company and Citizens Telephone 

Higginsville was incorporated in 1876 and Abram Wade was made its 
first mayor. It was incorporated as a city of the fourth class in 1886 and 
the following have been the mayors since that date : Jesse Hargrave, John 
W. Branch, Thomas A. Walker, H. C. Schwartz, A. B. E. Lehman, Daniel 
Hoefer, J. H. Rigg, E. W. Mollenkamp. Present city officials : Charles 
Gladish, mayor; John Sparks, city clerk, and G. W. Stegen, city attorney. 

The city of Higginsville owns its waterworks and electric light plant, 
which is a modern and up-to-date plant in every particular, and the city also 
owns one of the most modern city halls to be found anywhere in a city of its 
size. Higginsville has an excellent volunteer fire department. A postoffice 
was established in 1870 and the following have served as postmasters: A. 
B. E. Lehman, John W. Endly, Sam Kleinschmidt, H. C. Schwartz, M. C. 
James and Frank Thrailkill. There are now four rural delivery routes run- 
ning out from Higginsville to the surrounding territory. The longest route 
is twenty-eight miles, the others about the same length. Higginsville is a 


second-class postoffice. Total number of mails received each twenty-four 
hours is eleven. 

In June, 1864, Civil war days, a character known as "Bill" Anderson, 
with more than twenty men, met a detachment of Captain Burrough's com- 
pany of militia on the farm of William Whitsett, near Mt. Hebron church. 
The detachment consisted of about thirty-seven men and three wagons, of 
five mules each, being en route from Camp Lexington to this township with 
some provisions. A short, bloody encounter was had, in which nine of Bur- 
rough's men were killed outright and five mortally wounded. Only one of 
the Anderson men was injured. The bushwhackers shot the mules and 
burned the wagons. 

In 1862 Captain Leffenwell's company of militia surrounded a Mr. 
Sutherlin and his son, Samuel McMahan and Zenith Redd, on Mr. Suther- 
lin's place, and a short skirmish ensued, in which McMahan, Redd and three 
or four militiamen were killed. Mr. Sutherlin and son made good their 
escape. The latter two had served in the Confederate army for six months, 
then engaged in bushwhacking for some time, and finally returned to the 
Confederate service. 

In September, that year, "Bill" Anderson, with thirteen men, met four 
of Col. Henry Neill's men — Evan Phillips, William Iddings, William King 
and Mr. Meyers — on the Lexington road east of the Big Sni. The bush- 
whackers took them on into Washington township, in the vicinity of May- 
view, and there shot them. Their remains were found about four weeks 
later. Such were some of the horrors of war. 

For an account of schools and churches in Washington township, the 
reader is referred to chapters on Education and Churches, in this volume. 



Freedom township is in the southeast corner of Lafayette county, and 
is bounded on the north by Davis creek; on the east by the county line; on 
the south by the south line of the county and on the west by Washington 
township. It dates its organization from June n, 1832. The county court, 
after defining its boundary and naming it, ordered an election at the house of 
James Wilkinson, but for some now unknown reason said election was never 
held. May 27, 1833, the court appointed Livingston Wilkinson as constable 
of Freedom township, until the next general election. In August, 1833, the 
court changed the township lines, the wording of the record being: "Begin- 
ning where Davis fork crosses the eastern county line, then up the same 
(stream) to the line between ranges 25 and 26; thence south to the middle of 
township 45 ; thence due east to the line between Saline and Lafayette coun- 
ties; thence north with said line to place of beginning. Supposed to contain 
about thirty taxable inhabitants." 

In 1834 Johnson county was erected, thus fixing the south line of this 
county, and about the same date nine more sections were added to the west 
end, thus completing the township's area as it stands today. 


Eighty-five years ago the first white man invaded the territory embraced 
within Freedom township. His name was Patrick Henry, who effected a 
settlement in the eastern portion of the township. A little later, the western 
portion of the township was settled by Samuel and John Scott. James and 
Chris Mulkey located in what became known as Mulkey's Grove, about two 
and a half miles southeast of the present village of Aullville. Classed as 
early comers to the township may be named these : Doctor Davis, Nat. 
Davis, William Davis, David Mock, Jacob Phillip, George and David Wel- 
born, Brooks Wellington, John Walker, James Atterberry and Daniel Green- 
wood. These nearly all located around the old town of Freedom. 

In an early account of the settlement of Freedom township from the 
pen of William Bright, the following has been extracted : 


"Joseph Johnson, of Indiana, but native to Kentucky, was among the 
original settlers in the township to which he came in 1829. Noah Rigg in 
the same year settled on section 13, township 48, range 24. Then William 
Bright bought Noah Rigg's farm, and entered the balance of the section. 

"The first marriage was that of Noah Rigg to Elizabeth Johnson. Jo- 
seph Rigg was the first male child born in the township. The first female 
child born was Ellen Bright, daughter of William and Artimesia Bright. 
She was also the first to die in this township, and was buried at the old 
Johnson graveyard. The first regular physician was Doctor Thornton, a 
Kentuckian. The pioneer school was in a building on the farm of William 
Bright and there James Campbell taught the first term of school. This school 
house was made of logs and was 'raised' by the neighbors." 

The present population of Freedom township is about three thousand 
eight hundred. For an account of its schools and churches see respective 
headings in the general chapters of this volume. 

The township is traversed, through its northeastern portion, by the Lex- 
ington and Sedalia branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad, with station 
points at Aullville and Concordia. 


Freedom (now a defunct village of this township) was laid out in i860, 
by Franklin Mock, on section 9, township 48, range 25, and made a matter 
of public record. William Kane erected a store building, two stories high, 
forty by twenty-four feet, in which he carried on a general merchandise busi- 
ness. The house in which Doctor Belt later resided was the first residence 
of the village. Davis, Livingwood & Son put in operation an ox-tread grist- 
mill, which later was removed to Aullville. The second store in the place was 
built by Wesley Cox, and there he carried a small stock of dry goods and 
groceries. Three years before the village was platted, the Christian denom- 
ination erected a church building, at a cost of seven hundred aollars. The 
Methodists also held an interest in it and worshiped therein. It was finally 
removed to Aullville. There were several business houses erected at Free- 
dom, but with the building of the railroad through the township, the good 
start towards a lively town was thwarted and finally all became dilapidated 
and many of the buildings were removed to the nearby railroad station, 
Aullville. Doctor Wilborn was postmaster at one time, and later it was 
moved to the store of Mr. Kane. It is now numbered among the defunct 
villages of Lafayette county. 



The second attempt at town-building in Freedom township was when, 
in 1868, the town of Concordia was platted, by a joint stock company, con- 
sisting of Major G. P. Gordon, Henry Detert, Col. George S. Rathburn, 
Peter and Harmon Uphouse and Henry Westerhouse. It is situated twenty- 
five miles to the southeast of Lexington, on the Lexington and Sedalia branch 
of the Missouri Pacific railroad, and on section 4, township 48, range 24. 

Among the early settlers whose names should not be forgotten are 
these : Mordecai Cook, two miles to the west of the present town ; William 
Cain, sometime prior to the Civil war; Jackson Patrick came very early and 
had many slaves and bloodhounds; Preston Patrick, southeast of town, as 
early as 1845; Fletcher Patrick and Miles Patrick, all brothers, who came 
in from Kentucky. Miles Patrick sold a slave woman to pioneer Francis 
H. Walkenhorst for the sum of ten dollars. 

William Mock started the first nursery in this section of the state more 
than fifty years ago and there are now hundreds of farmers who have trees 
springing from that original stock, among which are many fine varieties of 
apples, including the famous "Huntsman's Favorite," so well known in 

A stage line, with its four-horse stage coaches, ran between Sedalia and 
Lexington, making its trips alternate days. There were relays about every 
dozen or so miles, Mordecai Cook's place, a few miles to the south of present 
Concordia, being a station for one of the relays. Men still living here relate 
that the signal of the approaching mail coach was the long, loud blowing of 
an immense tin horn, when all would gather at the station to watch the lusty 
driver change horses, mount his high seat and ply the long whip to the fresh 

Marked, indeed, has been the change of the appearance of things in and 
about Concordia, with the passing of more than forty-two years, since the first 
townsite stakes were driven. 

Before the platting of the place, in 1856, it was that a good grist-mill was 
put in operation at this point by Henry Flandermeyer and Lewis Bergmann, 
the same costing about three thousand dollars. This property was burned in 
1859. Then followed a blacksmith shop by Frederick Henricks, in 1858. A 
year later a store was started by Henry and August Brockhoff. It was a 
story and a half building, twenty-five by forty feet. 

The second store in the place was that of Hackman & Detert. The first 



hotel that was built and conducted by Henry Meinecke, on the corner of what 
is now known as St. Louis and Bogg streets. 

These, with possibly a few others, constituted all there was of the hamlet 
before it was platted in 1868. 

A postoffice was established in 1870, with August Heckman as postmaster. 
In January, 1877, tne P^ce was incorporated, with John Smith as its first 
mayor. The earliest school house was erected in 1874, of brick, and cost 
one thousand three hundred dollars. Fifty pupils attended the first term, 
which was taught by William F. Walkenhorst, at a salary of fifty dollars per 
month. Dr. F. L. Flanders was the first physician in the town, coming from 
Illinois, and removed to Kansas City in 1881. The first religious services 
were conducted by the Methodist Episcopal people, under Rev. C. Bruegger. 

The settlement was largely made of German people, and is today mostly 
of German or German-descent population — a thrifty, well-to-do class of most 
loyal, excellent citizenship. In 1880 the federal census gave Concordia a popu- 
lation of three hundred and ninety-one, but by another count in 1881 — one 
year later — the population was about five hundred and fifty. The business 
was then represented as follows : Five dry goods stores ; five groceries ; two 
lumber yards ; three blacksmith shops ; two shoe shops ; one harness shop ; one 
bank ; two boot and shoe stores ; two furniture dealers ; two mills ; four saloons ; 
two meat markets ; a livery stable ; two drug stores ; three hardware and imple- 
ment houses ; two hotels ; four doctors ; one millinery store. Of the schools, 
it may be stated that at this date — 19 10 — the enrollment is one hundred and 
twenty-six ; teachers employed, three ; average wages paid teachers, sixty-six 
dollars and thirty cents; district total valuation, three hundred thousand dol- 
lars; levy on each hundred dollars, thirty cents. 

That the people who settled at this town were of the intelligent, progres- 
sive type, it only needs to be said that as early as 1880 the Concordia Library- 
Society was organized, then consisting of eighteen members, with W. F. 
Walkenhorst as president and D. H. Smith, librarian. It was the aim of the 
promoters to furnish a suitable place for the rising young to while away their 
spare hours, instead of visiting the saloons. 

For one reason and another, with the passing years, this library went 
down, but the Lutheran college and other public school library facilities have 
in a measure taken its place. The books are now in the public school library. 

Concordia has always been a good milling point. The first mill in the 
neighborhood was a treadmill by which oxen and horses were used as a pro- 
pelling force, treading on a large half-inclined wheel. This was erected west 
of town by Fritz Rope; but later it was burned. Then the proprietor of that 
improvised mill erected a steam mill, with two run of stones, in town and it 


was run until in 1882, when it also was burned. It was owned by John F. 
Meyer, who died, then John S. Klinkenberg bought it and under his owner- 
ship it was destroyed. 

Henry Baepler & Sons built a mill, two and a half stories high, in 1877, 
which had a capacity of four thousand barrels of flour annually, the product 
being chiefly sold in the markets of St. Louis. Its cost was ten thousand 

The present milling industry of Concordia is in the hands of the Con- 
cordia Mill and Elevator Company, a stock concern, organized in 1908, the 
capacity of the plant being one hundred and twenty-five barrels daily. 


Before the town was laid out there was a country postoffice west of 
the present town site two miles, known as "Castle," where M. Cook was 
postmaster. Then it was removed to the home of Rev. J. F. Biltz, near the 
old brick church, a half of a mile out from the present office. Postmaster 
Biltz changed the name to "Concordia," probably after his old alma mater, 
the Lutheran college at Fort Wayne, Indiana, called Concordia. The post- 
masters who served after this change were as follows : Messrs. Hackman, 
Scheikhardt, F. C. Cook, E. F. Ninas, Althoff, Henry Elling, William Doblie, 
Julius Vogt, Jr., A. E. Bruns, and the present incumbent, William F. Walken- 

The office was changed to a third-class office in 1906. It has four rural 
free delivery routes running out from it. The first was established in July, 
1901, twenty -five and seven-eighths miles long; one known as No. 2, in July, 
1903, that is twenty-four miles long; No. 3, established in July, 1903, twen- 
ty-two and five-eighths miles long, and No. 4, established in May, 1904, 
eighteen miles in length. 


Concordia was incorporated in 1877, as a village, and in 1883 as a city 
of the fourth class. The last chairman under village life was Fred C. Cook, 
and the mayors have been: 1883, Fred C. Cook; 1886, Henry Ficken; 1888, 
F. C. Cook; 1890, Henry Ficken; 1892, Henry Ficken; 1894, Henry W. 
Thieman; 1896, Henry W. Thieman; 1898, Louis H. Mehl; 1900, Henry W. 
Thieman; 1902, George Duensing; 1904, George Duensing; 1906, Max Do- 
blie and still mayor in 1910. 



At present the only lodge in Concordia is the Woodmen of the World. 
At one time the Odd Fellows sustained a lodge here, but owing to the general 
sentiment of both the Catholic, Baptist and Lutheran churches against secret 
orders, it went down. 

The churches represented here are the Lutheran, Evangelical (synod of 
North America), Methodist Episcopal, Baptist and Catholic. A history of 
each appears in the chapter on Churches. 


Banks — The Concordia Savings and the Farmers Bank. 

Bakery — C. F. Schmidt. 

Blacksmiths — E. L. Tieman, Max Doblie, Walter Roepe, William Ev- 

Brick and Tile Works — Henry Basselmann. 

Concrete Works — Louis Henck. 

Creamery — Concordia Creamery. 

Drugs — Alfred Kroencke, Dr. F. Schreiman, Dr. F. D. Lieser. 

Doctors — Schreiman, J. A. Schneider and Oetting, Dr. F. D. Lieser. 

Dentists — W. A. Gruebebel, G. T. Scholle. 

Harness Shops — A. E. Bruns, F. H. Brockmann. 

Elevators — John S. Klingberg & Son, Concordia Elevator Company. 

Hardware — Concordia Mercantile Company, Sodemann Hardware Com- 

Hotel — The Central, by William Deke. 

Furniture — Daniel Schlapper, E. Bergmann. 

General Dealers — Concordia Mercantile Company, Mayer, Kroencke & 
Halston, A. H. Deke, J. P. Lohoefener, Bergman Department Store. 

Grocers — M. Tieman & Company, Martin Miller, John Lohmann, F. W. 
Petring & Son. 

Jewelers — Henry Beissenherz, F. H. Freese. 

Lumber — George Duensing. 

Livestock — M. Tieman & Company, H. Mahnken & Son, Fritz Lampe. 

Livery Barn — Henry Franz. 

Mills — Concordia Milling and Elevator Company. 

Marble Works — Herman Weimbeig. 

Millinery — Minnie Tegeler, Alpers Sisters, Mary Kronsbein. 

Meat Market — William Gieseke Bros. 


Newspaper — The Concordian, J. J. Bredehoeft, editor and proprietor. 

Produce — Concordia Produce Company. 

Photographer — Abraham Davis. 

Shoemaker — H. Schumacher. 

In 1898 the town put in its present water works plant and has maintained 
and improved it ever since. In 1909 Runge Brothers installed the present 
electric lighting plant. 


The most exciting times experienced at the usually quiet, orderly town 
of Concordia was in the years 1863-64 and again in 1878. 

In 1863, during the Civil war strife, a party of thirty-five bushwhackers 
came across Davis creek to where Concordia now stands and killed Lewis 
Fiene, William Schornhorst, D. Karston and Conrad Bruns. They were 
made to stand up in a row, and when the shooting at them commenced some 
started to run, but all were finally killed. 

October 10, 1864, a report reached Concordia that a party of bush- 
whackers were in the immediate neighborhood, and the alarm was given by 
blowing a horn. The citizens gathered at the Lutheran church and about one 
hundred men rapidly organized, under command of Captain Pepper and 
Lieutenant Stuenkle. About one-half were mounted on horses. They started 
in hot pursuit of the bushwhackers, the mounted men dividing into two par- 
ties, the one going east and the other party northeast, in order to head them 
off before they could cross Davis creek. The party going east encountered 
the enemy, about one hundred strong, and, observing the inequality of num- 
bers, at once turned in retreat, closely followed by the outlaw band, who shot 
them down along the way, all being killed but five or six. Among those thus 
pursued and shot for protecting their home and town were the following : 
Capt. George Pepper, Lieut. Lewis Stuenkle, F. H. Walkenhorst, H. Freitag, 
Fritz Bruns, Fritz Meyer, C. Wahrenbrock, H. Wolters, Henry Reiter, 
William Bobenstab, H. Deus, Henry Gritman, Fritz Dettmer, Fritz Brock- 
mann, Henry Meins, D. Carsons ; H. Dickenhorst, Judge Prigmore and 
Henry Vrede were killed at their homes, on the same day, by the same in- 
human bushwhackers. 

One of the most daring bank robberies of this country was executed on 
August 29, 1878, at half past one o'clock in the afternoon, at the usually 
quiet town of Concordia, this county. In brief the robbery occurred as fol- 
lows : Henry Ficken (who still presides as cashier) was seated at his desk 


engaged in writing, when two men presented themselves at the counter. One 
asked for change for a bill, which he laid down. Mr. Ficken turned to the 
money drawer to accommodate the stranger, and while his back was turned 
the robber, a powerful fellow, jumped over the counter and seized him in such 
a manner as to render him powerless to move or cry out. The other robber 
then presented a revolver at his head and demanded the money. They com- 
pelled him to open the safe, took out the valuables and placed them in a flour 
sack, and with a third confederate, who had been guarding the entrance 
outside, succeeded in making good their escape. They mounted on horses, 
which had been hitched near the bank in waiting for them, and rode toward 
the south and when not far out of town met many coming home from a 
picnic. They boasted to the crowd that they had robbed the bank and hur- 
ried on by the throng in gleeful triumph. Searching parties were at once 
sent out and the country scoured, and later a party of detectives was put on 
their trail and much money spent, but all to no purpose, as they were never 
captured. It was later believed, and is by many today, that this was a part 
of the Jesse James outlaw gang, for they were well acquainted here, and the 
ground and the day had evidently been carefully selected, at a time when 
but few were liable to be at home and when business men were absent. 

Three suspects (not of this county) were arrested and brought to the 
county seat for identification and trial, but no responsible person could iden- 
tify them, and really they proved a complete alibi, hence were discharged. 
William Young was then prosecuting attorney. 


This sprightly town was founded in the month of July, 1869, by Hall 
Hungate and C. B. Russell, and was incorporated in 1876. It is situated in 
section 28, township 49, range 25. The first business house was erected by 
Bell & Erskin. A postofnce was secured in 1871, with H. T. Hartman as 
postmaster. The first mayor was James H. Barnes. The first school house 
in town was erected in 1873, at a cost of one thousand five hundred dollars. 
Miss Lillie Tolbert taught the first school, her wages being twenty-five dol- 
lars per month. The number enrolled was sixteen. 

The first male child born was John Ennis, son of G. M. and Tenny 
Ennis, born in 1871. The first female child born in the village was Nola, 
daughter of John W. and Franky Endley. 

The first person to die was Mrs. Miller, in July, 1872. 


The first physician of the place was Dr. H. T. Hartman, a native of La- 
fayette county. The Missionary Baptists held the first religious services in 
town, on the second floor of the store building of George Emn. The earliest 
minister was Rev. E. Roth. 

In 1876, a flouring mill was erected by Dr. J. T. Watson, and later op- 
erated by Major & Ridgeway. Its first cost was two thousand five hundred 
dollars; its machinery cost four thousand dollars. In 1880 this milling plant 
turned out three thousand two hundred barrels of excellent grade flour, a 
part of which was consumed at home and the balance sent to St. Louis. 

A Masonic lodge was instituted at this point in 1872 — see chapter on 
Fraternities elsewhere in this volume. The secret societies of the place at 
this time are : The Masonic, Woodmen of America and Mystic Workers. 

The first incorporation of the village — that of 1876 — went down, and in 
1905 it was reorganized as a village. 


When the first postmaster, H. T. Hartman, was appointed, in 1871, the 
village was very new and small. The office has grown with the passing years ; 
it is a fourth-class office yet, but doing a large business. In 1903 one rural 
free delivery route was established at this point, the same extending out and 
back a distance of almost twenty-five miles. Among the postmasters who 
have served here may be named Messrs. Hartman, George Phelps, Henry 
Henrichs, J. M. Hord, James H. Barnes, and the present incumbent, R. A. 
Roberts, who has served since February, 1889. 


In the month of May, 1910, the following were the business houses of 
Aullville : 

Banks — Aullville Bank. 

Drugs — C. R. Boone. 

Hardware — Mode Anson. 

General Dealers — R. A. Roberts, S. P. Philips. 

Grain Dealer — J. S. Klingenburg & Son. 

Stock Dealers — Greer Brothers, W. W. Parker and Collins & Little- 

Blacksmith — S. Graham. 

Harness Dealer — R. A. Roberts. 


Shoe Shop — W. E. Cunningham. 
Hotel — R. C. Caplinger. 
Livery — R. C. Caplinger. 
Physician — C. R. Boone. 


Just a little to the north of the village of Aullville, at one time was the 
home of that well-known Confederate general, Joseph Shelby, who at an 
early day was a large land owner in this county. Southwest of Waverly 
is what is known as the "Shelby tract," consisting of about eight hundred 
acres of excellent land, now held by the Yancey brothers. 

In the sixties and seventies there were enacted many dark, criminal 
deeds in and near the village of Aullville, some of which it is probably not 
wise to blacken the pages of this volume with, but there are others that 
would seem to find a proper place in the annals of the county, of which this 
work is supposed to impartially treat. Within the nearby vicinity of the 
place the notorious outlaw, Jesse James, once made his hiding place during 
the interims between the dark crimes with which he was from time to time 
connected. It was in the seventies, when Hon. William Young was sheriff 
of the county, that Jesse James was hiding from justice in this township and, 
being hotly pursued by the officer named, that he left his bed, just in time to 
make his escape. Sheriff Young had difficulty in crossing the waters of Davis 
creek, hence lost his man, who even then was known as among the greatest of 

At other points within this county Jesse James remained at farmhouses 
several weeks, but at the time was unknown to the people here. It was right 
after the close of the Civil war, and his carrying such an array of firearms 
and going "armed to the teeth" as he was, finally caused a suspicion among 
the members of a family where he was stopping as a boarder, and one of 
them told him he must leave, as such things did not look well in a civilized 
country. He took the hint and left, and not long thereafter it was learned 
that the "boarder," who came and went at all times of the day and night, 
was none other than the notorious Jesse James, so much wanted by the state 
and federal authorities for numerous crimes. 

Until a vigilance committee waited on a large number of bad citizens 
in the vicinity of Aullville, in the seventies, that community was the scene 
of many foul deeds. When crime was committed, sympathizers were on 
hand to see that the law was thwarted in bringing them to justice. Many 


guilty persons escaped their just deserts. On one occasion more than fifty 
persons were personally placed under arrest by Sheriff Young and brought 
to Lexington, and placed — some as witnesses and others as criminals — on 

Outside of Concordia and Aullville, in Freedom township, are these 
churches: The Baptist, two and a half miles to the west of Concordia; the 
Evangelical church, two miles to the east of town, and a Lutheran church, 
four miles west of town. 

There are small coal mines within Freedom township, west of Concor- 
dia, but not of any great magnitude, and they are only periodically worked. 



Lexington township, the civil subdivision of Lafayette county in which 
the city of Lexington is situated, was first mentioned as one of the townships 
comprising the county May 24, 1824, when the following court record was 

"Ordered that the following bounds be considered and known by the 
name of Lexington township, within and for Lillard county, to-wit : Be- 
ginning at the mouth of the Big Sniabar; thence up the east fork of said Big 
Sniabar to its source; thence due south to the middle of the Osage river; 
thence down said river to where a line running due south from the head of 
the Big Tabo or main Tabo crosses; thence with and along said line due 
north to the head of the creek ; thence down said creek to its mouth, or 
where it empties into the Missouri river; thence up the Missouri river 
to the place of beginning." 

It will be observed that these boundary lines, on the west, correspond 
with the eastern boundary of Fort Osage township, thus for the time being 
wiping out Sniabar township. The eastern and northern bounds are the 
same now as at first. East of Tabo creek was then called Tabo township. 
The first election and all subsequent elections in Lexington township were 
by the court ordered held at Lexington town. James Fletcher was com- 
missioned by the governor as the first justice of the peace and James D. War- 
ren was first to be elected constable. February 7, 1826, the first company 
of patrols were appointed and were named as Capt. John Robinson and Har- 
vey Owen, who were to serve one year. These were a sort of police. 


As has been observed in the Early Settlement chapter of this volume, 
Gilead Rupe was the first white man to invade this county for the purpose of 
making actual settlement. He located two and a half miles southwest of 
Lexington site in 181 5. A full account of his settlement has been given, 
hence will not be repeated in this connection. 


Following Rupe, in Lexington township, came David James and his 
grown sons, Jesse and Henry, who settled on section 16, township 50, range 
27. When he learned that he had squatted on a "school section," as subse- 
quent surveys proved, he selected a tract a little distance south, but later 
removed to the headwaters of the Little Sni. 

In 1818 (or, some say, 1819) Nicholas Houx came in and built a tan- 
nery, which in 1827 was bought by William Smith (father of Doctor Smith), 
who operated it eight years or more. 

The first regular physician who appeared in this township was Doctor 
Rankin, from Kentucky, whose father was the founder of the famous Shak- 
ertown, of that state. The Doctor located near the camp ground situated 
on section 17, township 50, range 27. He lived to be over ninety years of 

The first school taught in this township was in a log cabin, near where 
John R. Houx afterwards resided. It was taught by Robert D. Morrow, 
in 1 82 1 or 1822. He later became a Cumberland Presbyterian minister. 

The first public school house was built of logs in 1829 or 1830, the 
neighbors furnishing the material and doing the work. Harry Bellows taught 
first in this building. 

The first steamboat landing in the township was at Lexington, or at 
the mouth of Rupe's creek, or, as sometimes called, "Rupe's branch." It 
was known as "Rupe's Landing." 

The only cities or towns within Lexington township are the city of Lex- 
ington and Northrop station, on the River division of the Missouri railway. 
The latter is a mere stopping place and hamlet of no considerable conse- 

The population of Lexington township, outside the city of Lexington, 
was in 1900 about three thousand five hundred. 

The schools and churches of the township are interwoven with that of 
the city, hence will not be repeated here. 

This township is now well cultivated and the coal mining interests have- 
come to be of great profit. The land is excellent and the tilling of it is in 
no manner detrimental to the mineral wealth or mining operations, hence 
the land is doubly valuable. It is known personally to the author, that the 
finest of tobacco, as well as most prolific growth of hemp and the choicest 
flavored fruit has been grown on this soil around the city of Lexington. And 
the "Lexington" output of soft coal has no superior, if indeed an equal in all 
Missouri's far-famed coal mining districts. 



As revolting as it is to repeat the stories of that cruel civil conflict from 
1861 to 1865, no history of this township could be credited with being com- 
plete without making the following reference to a cold-blooded murder in the 
early months of that terrible war. It should be added that these horrible 
deeds were perpetrated alike by Union and Confederate men; in this instance, 
it was by the Confederate sympathizers. 

The crime referred to in Lexington township was this : A New Yorker, 
named Charles White, who had married the widow Graves and settled as a 
farmer two and one-half miles south of Lexington, was a pronounced Union 
man. After the battle of Lexington, Capt. Fred Neet and Major Becker were 
paroled, and hence had to leave town in any manner they could provide, so 
they started on foot to Hamilton, Missouri, then the nearest railway station 
from the city of Lexington. Mr. White accompanied them on their forced 
journey, and when the party reached a distance of three miles beyond Rich- 
mond, near Duval's, they were overtaken by cavalry claiming to have an 
order for the arrest of Neet and Becker, signed by Gen. Sterling Price. 
Two of the cavalrymen rode up, one on either side of Mr. White, whom they 
caught by the ears, pulling him along in this rude fashion until they had 
gone out of sight from where Neet and Becker had been stopped, three other 
men following along. Two pistol shots were heard and then in a few min- 
utes the five riders returned, and the party started back to Lexington. At 
Richmond Neet saw one of the men, who had White's overcoat, pull out 
the murdered man's pocket book and pay for the drinks for the crowd, the 
same having bank bills within it that were previously seen by Neet and Beck- 
er. It is stated that the men who committed this dark crime were still living 
in the county as late as 1880. 

After being brought to Lexington and lodged in jail, Neet and Becker 
learned that they had been charged with robbing a jewelry store, but Gen- 
eral Price found nothing against them and they were again set at liberty. 
By traveling by night and secreting themselves by day, they finally made 
their escape to Sedalia and from there to St. Louis. 



Middleton is the extreme northeastern sub-division of Lafayette county, 
and the first place the public record speaks of this township is dated July 7, 
1845, wnen James Pearman petitioned for a license to keep a dram shop 
(saloon) in the town of Middleton, in Lafayette county, in the house of David 
K. Palmer. He was granted such permit for the "sum of twenty-five dollars 
as a state tax and eighteen dollars and seventy-five cents county tax, and the 
ad valorem tax on the sum of one hundred and twenty-six dollars and seventy- 
five cents, the amount of his stock subject to this tax." 

The next mention of this township is in September, 1847, when a road 
petition was presented the county court, in which the name Middleton appears. 
But this seems to have reference to the village of Middleton, which was 
changed to Waverly about July 1, 1850, when its bounds were greatly enlarged 
and the place was legally incorporated. 

The boundary lines of Middleton township were defined and recorded 
July 4, 1848. The record reads: "Commencing where the range line be- 
tween ranges 24 and 25 intersects the Missouri river; thence south with said 
range line to where the same intersects the township line between townships 
49 and 50 ; thence east with said township line to Saline county ; thence with 
the boundary line between Saline and Lafayette counties, north to the Missouri 
river ; thence up said river with the meanderings thereof to the place of begin- 
ning." These boundaries have never been changed. 

The township has two railroad systems within its borders, the River divi- 
sion of the Missouri Pacific and the Chicago & Alton lines, the former in the 
extreme northern part and the latter in the extreme southern sections. 


The first settlement in this township was made by pioneers including the 
following: Col. John Dennis Thomas, of Kentucky, settled where Waverly 
now stands in 1822 and was the founder of St. Thomas, which was later called 
Waverly, the two plats having been merged into one incorporation. Notely 


Thomas, a brother of the Colonel, raised the first crop of hemp in this part of 
the country and took the same to Old Franklin, near Boonville, where he sold 
it for seven dollars a hundred pounds. This was the beginning of the hemp 
growing industry in Lafayette county and which was the chief crop until the 
breaking out of the Civil war. Other early settlers were Alexander Galbraith, 
from Kentucky, who purchased two hundred acres of land on sections 22 and 
14, township 51, range 24. Mr. Dustin located on section 24 and John D. 
Thomas, Littleberry Estes and Washington Shroyer of Kentucky settled near 

The first female child born in the township was Susan Estes, daughter of 
Littleberry Estes and wife. The first death was that of Mrs. Hugh Crawford, 
who was buried in the Estes graveyard. Doctor Buck, who died in Arkansas, 
was the first physician. It is supposed that the first minister was Rev. S. 
Bradley, of the Christian denomination. 

The first cloth was woven by Mrs. Alexander Galbraith. Mr. Dillard 
taught one of the pioneer schools of Lafayette county, if not indeed the first 
in this township. It was a private school, at which two dollars and fifty cents 
per pupil was charged for one term. 

Gen. Joseph Shelby's family held a large tract of land, known even unto 
this day as the "Shelby Tract," a portion of which is now the property of the 
Yancey brothers, the same being situated about five miles to the southwest of 
Waverly. This township has prospered and developed until today its surface 
is one beautiful garden spot of most excellent farming land, well tilled and of 
the highest price in all this section. Orchards are to be seen in all their beauty, 
here and there, while the great fields of waving grain and corn make the land- 
scape ever a feast to the eye of the beholder. The pioneer sleeps the long sleep 
of death — "The workmen fall but the work goes on." 


Waverly is situated in the northeastern part of Middleton township, not 
far distant from the waters of the ever-changing Missouri. It was originally 
founded in 1845 by Washington Shroyer and named "Middletown," its present 
name, Waverly, being adopted about 1848. In 1850, or possibly a little later, 
Col. John D. Thomas bought land adjoining the town on the east and there he 
platted "St. Thomas." Soon after the Civil war Mr. Thomas died and St. 
Thomas was annexed to Waverly. It was incorporated in 1850 and judge 
William Thomas was elected its first mayor. The first house was built by 
David K. Palmer, and was many years since washed away by the angry waters 


of the Missouri river. He also had the first store. In 1846 a frame school 
house was erected, costing one hundred and forty dollars ; it was also used for 
church purposes. A Missionary Baptist named Roth preached the first ser- 
mon in the town. Mrs. Susan Shroyer taught the first school and received as 
her wages thirty dollars a month. The marriage of John Morrison to Lucy 
Shroyer in 1849 was the first wedding in the community. In 1835 Jacob 
Shroyer, son of W. W. and Jane Shroyer, was born, that being the first birth 
to record in the limits of the place. His sister, Lucy Shroyer, born in 1833, 
was the first female born in town. Dr. P. H. Chambers was the first regular 
physician in the community. He came from Kentucky and subsequently re- 
moved to Lexington, Missouri. 

The history of the newspapers, churches, lodges and schools will appear in 
separate chapters in the general sections of this volume, hence will not be 
treated in this connection. 


While Waverly has usually been considered as existing by reason of its 
retail trade, yet it has from time to time been noted somewhat for its manu- 
facturing enterprises. Landrum Brothers located there in 1873 and engaged 
in the manufacture of fine wagons and kindred goods. They invested a cap- 
ital of almost three thousand dollars in buildings ; in machinery, one thousand 
five hundred dollars; incidentals, two thousand dollars, or a total of almost 
six thousand dollars. Seven men were employed as workmen. In 1888 W. 
H. Landrum went to Kansas and remained three years, then returned and 
resumed his work in the factory, but his brother later established a farm imple- 
ment business at Waverly. W. H. still occupies the old works, but with the 
cheaper factory-made grades of wagon work, he turned his attention more 
especially to the making of fine buggies and carriages. He also does much 
repair work, has suitable machinery and handles many threshing machines, 
engines, etc., and does repairs on the same. 

The business of Waverly in May, 19 10, was chiefly as follows : 

Banking — Waverly Bank. 

Newspaper — The Waverly News. 

Hotels — The Couthorn, The Zeysing and the Novel Hotels. 

Physicians — Drs. Williamson and Kelling. 

Attorney — M. C. Shuwalter. 

General Merchandise — The Waverly Mercantile Company, T. R. Land- 
rum, Gordon & Thomas and J. H. Leach. 


Grocers — J. W. Hays. 

Hardware — T. R. Landrum, Hornbustel & Peters, William Oster. 

Implements — T. A. Landrum. 

Harness dealer — T. A. Landrum. 

Drugs — Isaac Fulkerson, J. A. Allison. 

Blacksmiths — Al. Tussey, William Martin, W. H. Landrum. 

Livery Barns — Nathan Gordon. 

Lumber — Hornbustel & Peters. 

Mule Dealer — George Hackley. 

Furniture — T. R. Landrum. 

Coal Operators — Christy Coal Company, Waverly Coal Company. 

The churches of the place at this date are the Baptist, Christian, Methodist 
Episcopal (South) and the Presbyterian. 

The lodges now here represented are the Masonic and Woodmen of the 


A postoffice was established here at a very early date. The following 
have served as postmasters for a greater part of the years clown to the present : 
David Miller, Charles Patterson, Quinn Parrent, Mary James, Mary Henry, 
George Bickford, Mrs. Francisco, Herman Oelschlager and the present post- 
master, Henry A. Hoener. 

The first rural free delivery route out from Waverly was established in 
1904, and its total length is twenty-four and a fraction miles. 


Waverly, as has been indicated, was at first called Middleton, and it was 
changed in 1850 to Waverly, when it was incorporated as a village. The pe- 
tition for such incorporation was signed by Charles M. Cowan and thirty-four 
others, claiming to be more than two-thirds of the tax-payers of the village. 
David Callahan, Lewis Fairchild, Elisha M. Edwards, Charles M. Cowan and 
Alexander Skillen were appointed as the first board of trustees of the new in- 
corporation. Judge William Thomas was elected the first mayor. Others 
serving in such capacity are Charles H. Collins, E. W. Edwards, John Hall, 
William A. Redd, John E. Corder, Aldrich Corder, Scott Thomas, M. E. 
Alderman, Isaac Fulkerson, and possibly a few more whose names have not 
been omitted on purpose. 



Alma, situated within the southern portion of Middleton township, is 
located in section 28, township 50, range 24, and was platted and incorporated 
in 1879-80 on the new line of the Chicago & Alton railway. Its founder was 
Captain Lysing and John W. Woodson. It was incorporated in 1880 with 
Dr. Thomas Field as its mayor. A postoffice had been established at this point 
in 1879, with Perry Catron as postmaster. Doctor Field built the first house 
and conducted the pioneer store of the village. The first school house was 
erected in 1880 at a cost of seven hundred dollars, Carrie Bascom teaching the 
first term of school. Thirty pupils attended and the teacher's wages was 
forty-five dollars per month. The first marriage in the town was that of H. 
C. Clay to Miss Milburn, Thomas Luke, a justice of the peace, performing the 
ceremony at his house. 

The present church organizations of Alma are the Lutheran, German 
Methodist Episcopal (North), Presbyterian, all having good buildings. The 
lodges are narrowed down to the single fraternity of Woodmen of America. 

The only considerable loss ever sustained here by fire was that affected by 
lightning. The place has no regular fire protection, save through its several 
street cisterns and a mutual company, unorganized. 

Alma was incorporated in June, 1880, and the first village officials were as 
follows : Dr. T. H. Field, chairman ; George B. Weston, Samuel C. Collins, 
W. Daubler, Charles Mevius, trustees. The officers at this date — June, 1910 
— are: Chairman, C. A. Guenther; clerk, T. C. Marshall; marshal, August 
Buck; trustees, C. A. Guenther, William Hartman, H. J. Dieckhoff, J. G. 
Mueller, H. Kleeschulte. 

A neat, substantial city building was erected in 1909, made of modern 
concrete, and provided with a jail. The same cost the village one thousand 
four hundred dollars. 

The postoffice, which is of the fourth class, was established in 1879, and 
the postmasters serving have been as follows : Perry Catron, R. W. Neal, J. G. 
Goodwin, Miss Betta Goodwin, E. W. Erdmann, and the present incumbent, 
P. H. Koppenbrink, who was commissioned in March, 1905, by President 
Roosevelt. There are now two rural free delivery routes, the first being es- 
tablished in 1902 and is twenty-five miles long; the second is the same length 
and was established one year later. The only robbery of this office was a few 
years since, when a mail sack was taken from the depot. 




Banking — Alma Bank, organized in 1884. 

Hardware Dealers — Alma Hardware and Implement Company. 

Drugs — Horner & Kessler. 

General Dealers — Lohoefener & Weisbodt. 

Grocers — R. A. Furcht. 

Meat Market — Theodore E. Buhlig. 

Mills and Elevators — H. H. Horstmann, the Alma Grain Company. 

Lumber — Hartman Brothers. 

Livestock — Loevercamp & Rolf. 

Harness — F. A. Frerking. 

Blacksmiths — J. G. Miller, Jacob Kroencke. 

Physicians — Dr. J. W. Horner, Dr. J. G. W. Fischer. 

Realty and Insurance — Leimbrock & Bokelmann. 

Cement Block Works — Hartman Bros. 

Creamery — The Alma Creamery Company. 

Brick and Tile Works — G. Neimann. 

Livery — J. G. Francis. 

Hotels— W. W. Corder. 

Restaurants — Charles Kurtz. 


By George A. Campbell. 

The first history of Sniabar township with its present boundaries, all the 
territory west of Lexington and Washington townships, was called Sniabar, 
extending west to Jackson county, on the south to Johnson county. Novem- 
ber J, 1825, Clay township was organized and its boundaries as then defined 
embraced all there was left of Sniabar township. The name "Sniabar" drop- 
ped out of record until February 5, 1838. The county court ordered that a 
new township be made and called Sniabar and that it should be bounded thus : 
"Beginning at the northwest corner of Washington township, thence west with 
the township line between townships 48 and 49, to the Jackson county line ; 
thence south with said line to the northwest corner of Johnson county ; thence 
east with the county line to the southwest corner of Washington township, 
thence north to the place of beginning." 

It appears from the records, that Sniabar settlement was first mentioned 
as being in Cooper county. Cooper at that date included all the territory to 
the Kansas line. We next find Sniabar township in 1821 as being in Lillard 
county. The record says, "It is ordered by the court that Markham Fristoe 
be appointed constable in and for the township of Sniabar for the term of two 
years." A little later and in 1825, when Lafayette visited the United States, 
Lillard county was changed to Lafayette in honor of his sacrifices for our 
country. Tradition says that the name "Sny" was given by some French 
explorers, headed by DuBois. The Missouri river was high and backed up 
the main stream a mile or two, and they thought it was the mouth of the 
river, but found it was but back-water and then gave it the name of "Sny," 
which in the French language means "slough." 

[There have been so many and such fanciful accounts of the origin and meaning of 
the word Sni-a-bar that the editor feels constrained to give the true account. Just be- 
low the town of Wellington in Lafayette county, is Wolf's island which is made by an 
arm of the river circling out through the bottom on the south side of the river. This 
arm is called in the neighborhood the "Slough," but it has none of the characteristics of 
a slough. It is thirty or forty yards wide and the water flows through it from one end 
to the other swift and deep. This is the "Sni," so named by the French voyageurs in 


The present population of Sniabar township is estimated at about three 
thousand and fifty on account of the presidential vote, which last gave the 
township six hundred and ten. 


A good many of the places named around here came from incidents that 
occurred. Thomas Hopper, one of the first settlers of the township, shot and 
killed a very large bunch of elk on the knob now owned by Joseph Barnette — 
hence the name of Buck's Knob. Wagon Knob took its name from the fol- 
lowing incident : Dr. Robert Rankin and some of his friends who lived close 
to Lexington went on a bee hunt on Big creek, in Cass county. They suc- 
ceeded in securing a large amount of honey and loaded it onto an old wagon 
they had along and started for home. When they got upon the top of the 
knob the old vehicle broke beneath its great load and some of the party had 
to go for another wagon, while the others remained and stood guard over their 
sweet treasure. When they got back with another wagon they loaded the 
honey on and went off and left the old wagon to rot down there on the knob — 
hence the name "Wagon Knob." This special place is a natural watch-tower, 
standing guard over the beautiful Alt. Hope Prairie. From its summit I have 
seen the wild flowers bending to the breezes, the prairie grass like billows 
seemed to roll in the sunlight ; looking to the west into Jackson county hills 
and to the north over Greenton valley, across the Missouri river into Clay 
county, and to the east into Saline county and south to Warrensburg. On 
the south end of this knoll is the graveyard known as the^Bullard graveyard^ 
The early settlers buried their dead on their own farms, as a rule. The 
first cemetery I have any account of was at Old Concord church, established 
in 1842. The next was at Mt. Hope, by the Hopewell Presbyterian church, 
consisting of an acre and a half. This was in 1854. The next was established 

their early explorations of the river. There is another one in Illinois in the Missisippi 
bottom opposite Hannibal, Missouri, about thirty miles long, and it is known by no other 
name than "The Sni." The upper end of the "Sni" in question is peculiarly situated so 
as to catch the driftwood. In earlier times during the spring freshets great quantities 
of driftwood were brought down the Missouri river and thrown into the upper end of the 
"Sni," effectually stopping all egress or ingress to or from it by water. I have seen 
piles of logs and brush therein hundreds of yards long and twenty feet high making 
an effectual bar to all navigation. This bar remained the year round, and so the voy- 
ageurs found it and named it the "Barred Sni," or "Sni-a-bar." Into this "Sni" two 
creeks empty, one much larger than the other. These are called Big Sni-a-bar creek and 
Little Sni-a-bar creek. Big Sni-a-bar creek has its source in the southwest corner of 
Lafayette and the southeast corner of Jackson counties. The adjoining townships in 
these two counties have both been named Sni-a-bar township for the stream which 
heads therein. — Editor.] 


in 1857 at McKendry Chapel, by the Methodist Episcopal church South. The 
first to be buried there was James Wagoner, son of Edward Wagoner. To 
the southwest of this is what is known as the Cobb graveyard. 

The price of land in Sniabar township, as far back as I can remember in 
the beginning of the fifties, ranged from a dollar and a quarter to fifteen dol- 
lars per acre, according to the improvements and location. My father bought 
three hundred and twenty acres for eleven dollars an acre, from Archibald 
Scott, in 1855. The early settlers located their homes near timber and creeks, 
thinking the timber lands would be the most valuable in the future, but after 
the flight of sixty years the timber lands have become the cheapest lands in the 
township. Wire took the place of fencing of timber. The present price of 
the farm lands of this township ranges from forty dollars to two hundred dol- 
lars per acre. 


The first mills that were erected in Sniabar, as far as I can learn, were 
built in the southwest corner of the township by a Mr. Shores, and another 
by Joseph Cox in the northeast part, southwest of Odessa. Both were merely 
tread-mills. It took a heavy yoke of oxen or three horses on the wheel to do 
the grinding. The usual custom was to hitch a yoke of oxen to the fore wheels 
of a wagon and then put the sack or sacks on the tongue and call the dogs and 
then start for the mill. The grinding was by a slow process ; while waiting for 
our turn, we boys would parch corn in the ashes, play fox and geese and oc- 
casionally have a fight or two to while away our time. Lexington was our 
nearest mill where wheat could be ground or exchanged for flour. With all 
of the inconveniences the people were happy and contented, adapting them- 
selves to their surroundings. The present merchant mill in the town of 
Odessa, now owned by D. C. Beggarly, was built in 1884. It has a capacity 
of one hundred and twenty barrels a day. 


The first settlers of this part of the county were : Charles Hopper, Wil- 
liam Helm, Allen Helm, Joseph Cox, James Harris, James Wood, Isaac H. 
Wood, James Cobb, Albert Cobb, Washington P. Martin, Bert Monion, Alex- 
ander Cheatham, Thomas S. McChesney, Oliver C. Gann, Rev. Edward Wag- 
oner and sons, Thomas Riddings ; the Shores, Bledsoes, Saterfields, and later, 
the Campbells. These old pioneers were from Kentucky, North Carolina, 
Tennessee and Old Virginia. I do not believe the present generation appreci- 


ates fully as they should the toil and sacrifice made by these our forefathers in 
driving the Indians and buffaloes from the beautiful prairies and in building 
their homes on this the outpost of civilization, that their children might have 
greater opportunities in the great battle of life, making it possible for them to 
build their homes in the land of plenty. 


Indeed, I feel that I would go amiss did I not speak of the social features 
of life in those earlier days, before the money devil had polluted himself at 
the forks of the road. Then men were measured by their moral worth, not 
by their dollars and possessions. The injury of one of their number was the 
concern of all. The ladies were not too proud to wear their home-made linsey, 
the work of their own hands, and could dance as gracefully as queens in their 
royal dresses. The boys did not part their hair in the middle, nor did they 
smoke vile cigarettes. In all the social commingling of the young folks honor 
ruled, not fashion. The young men and women did not develop the type of 
fashionable butterflies and worthless dudes that think labor is degrading, and 
which are really parasites on society and a detriment instead of a benefit. 

Of the famous educational institution, Chapel Hill College, of this town- 
ship, I will not discourse, for the reason that I am informed that the author 
of this history has prepared an excellent article on this institution, so it will 
be omitted here. It may be added, however, that the school and Chapel Hill 
village was burned by Quantrell's band. The place has only been partly re- 
built since the war. 


How many people are aware that there lives at Chapel Hill an old gray 
haired veteran, who in his younger days was as brave a knight as ever leaped 
into the saddle at the call of the bugle in defense of our fair Southland? This 
knight was none other than Capt. Tilden Wilkerson, the unassuming black- 
smith of Chapel Hill. In 1863, the night before the evacuation of Little Rock, 
General Shelby ordered him to pick eleven brave men from his company, with 
good horses and well armed, to report at his headquarters. Some of their 
names I can now recall — Joe Christy, Bert Spencer, John Gillerland. Ben 
Pemberton, Sr., Ben Pemberton, Jr., George Boon, Dick Wolfenbarger and 


Asa Tracy. When they reported General Shelby ordered the captain "to cross 
over Byometer and avoid all public roads, get all information possible and not 
to return until you have seen General Steele's camp." 

How well the General knew that this order would be faithfully carried 
out can be inferred. They started on their dangerous errand, crossed over 
the Byometer, winding their way through swamps, briars and tangled under- 
brush, until they crossed a public road and stopped to listen ; while listening, 
a scout of Federals passed on the road ; while standing there, a chicken crowed 
to the east of them. Knowing there must be a house, they started towards it 
through an old field grown up with sassafras bushes ; when they emerged from 
the bushes in front of the house, the moon was throwing her silvery light over 
the tents of the host of sleeping enemies that lay dreaming of conquest and 
plunder. Undaunted, the Captain dismounted, handing his bridle reins to Joe 
Christy, with pistol in his hand, walked to the door and knocked. A typical 
Southern lady struck a match as she opened the door. As the light flashed on 
his gray uniform, she beckoned him to go back, that there were six or seven 
Federal officers sleeping in the house. He told her he was after information 
as to their movements. "Go away or you will be captured; I heard them 
say they were going to move on Little Rock tomorrow." 

Returning to his men, they held a council whether to capture the sleeping 
officers or return to General Shelby's headquarters with their report. The 
latter prevailed, however, so they returned, avoiding Federal pickets and scouts 
and made their report to Shelby. 

At another engagement, not far from Clarksville, in a charge on the Fed- 
eral infantry, they were in close quarters. His brother Elee was a few paces 
ahead of him, when a brave Federal, secreted behind a large tree, emerged 
from behind the tree and fired, being so close that the horse threw his head up 
and the bullet pierced his head, killing him. The brother's leg was caught 
under his horse, as he fell ; the Federal sprang at Elee to pin him to the ground 
with his bayonet, when the sharp crack of Captain Wilkerson's pistol sent 
a bullet into his brain. The soldier fell within two feet of his prostrate brother. 

In the fall of 1864 when General Price and his army passed west through 
Lexington, we were permitted to visit our homes, mingling with the dear ones 
for two days. We met at my father's house. Upon leaving the place we were 
overcome with sadness. I stopped my horse as we ascended the hill (Chapel 
Hill) and turned him around on the rocky ledge, as I then thought it might be 
my last look at home. I could see the dear old homestead in the dim distance 
and I lowered my head and wept like a child. Patriotism is a flower that has 
its roots in the love of home. If not, why is it that tears come to the eyes of 


Americans in distant lands, when "Home, Sweet Home," is sung? Or why- 
cheers spring to the lips of every lover of the sunny southland when the band 
plays "Dixie" ? If it is not the love of home that inspires the soldier, the poet 
and statesman, the historian, then patriotism is dead. And we as a nation 
will travel the downward road that leads to destruction. 

Chapel Hill is located on a range of hills about three miles east of the 
Jackson county line, and from the top of the hill looking to the east, over the 
Blackwater valley, where the earlier settlers chased the elk and deer, now 
stand happy homes and one of the largest orchards in Sniabar township — 
sixty acres of apple trees yielding abundant fruitage each year. This is owned 
by Rev. Bronham. 

The first postoffice was kept by an old settler, Mr. Shores, on section 35, 
and now owned by the Wilkerson heirs. 

The first building that was erected at Mt. Hope was the Presbyterian 
church, in 1854; this was a brick structure, about forty by sixty feet. It was 
at first known as the Hopewell church and Rev. Thomas Bracken was its first 
pastor. The first postoffice was established at Mt. Hope in 1857. The first 
regular physician was Dr. A. B. Heariford. At the beginning of the Civil 
war there were two stores, one kept by W. K. McChesney and one by Mr. 
Kirkwood ; also a blacksmith shop. In the petition for the postoffice, the 
name Hopewell was suggested, but later finding another of the same name in 
Missouri, it was changed to Mt. Hope. After the war this became quite a 
business center and continued to grow until the building of the Alton railroad 
in 1879, when the Presbyterian church and most of the buildings were removed 
to Odessa and the postoffice was also moved ; thus nothing remains but the 
mere memory of old Mt. Hope. 

How many tender memories cluster around old Mt. Hope and Mt. Hope 
Prairie. There are few regions more gloriously picturesque and beautiful 
than that which lies between Odessa and Blackwater; here, where my boy- 
hood was lived — my schooldays and my sweetheart I thought I loved; the 
place we spent so many happy hours with those who sleep beneath the sod. 
Memory lingers around the early haunts of childhood like the young bird 
around the old nest, when left by its mother. In all my wanderings I have 
felt that my feet would bring me back to Mt. Hope Prairie, where my home 
is now a part of it. And as much as I have been ostracized on account of 
my political views, much as I have suffered here, much as I have been mis- 
understood here, Mt. Hope Prairie is the dearest old place in all the world 
to me. The songs of the birds seem to be sweeter as they pour forth their 
melodies from the boughs of the maple trees in front of our house, because 


we planted them with our own hands, and our children played under their 
branches. If the earthly ties are so dear to us, when we pass through the 
shady side of life to the banks of the Jordan and cross over on the other 
side, what must be the joy of meeting those we have loved and parted with 
whose earthly lives were lived in happy homes on the lovely and beautiful 
Mt. Hope Prairie? 

South of Mt. Hope was the home of the noted Hill family. Four of the 
boys belonged to Quantrell's command. They were rough-riders of the most 
daring type. Each one of them was a moving arsenal. They carried four 
navy pistols and a Sharp's rifle. They were noted for their daring and 
for their marksmanship with the revolver. They rode the fleetest horses that 
the country afforded. In the summer of 1863, the two oldest, Wood and 
Tuck, were on top of the "Wagon Knob" when a scout of Federal troops 
were coming south. When they reached the Hammond place, in full view 
of them, they rode out east in front of them, knowing that the Federals 
would give them a chase. Holding their horses in check until the advance of 
the Federals was in pistol range, then quickly checking their horses and 
fronting them, they opened fire with pistols, killing one of the advance. 
Then they turned and made good their escape. The Federal was buried at 
Mt. Hope cemetery. 

The noted men who were elected to office from Sniabar township in- 
clude Isaac H. Wood, who was elected to the state Senate in the latter part 
of the fifties; Judge F. E. Barnette, who sat on the county court bench in 
1874; Judge Henry Green, who served two terms as a member of the county 
court; the Hon. J. T. Ferguson, who represented this county in the Legis- 
lature two terms; Justice of the Peace James Harris, William Harris, New- 
ton Bledsoe, Gross Kesterson and J. N. Campbell ; also Green D. Satterfield, 
Price McCormic, John Philipp and Dick Taylor, present justice. 

The leaders in the political battles at an early day were Thomas S. Mc- 
Chesney, Major Bratton, Esquire Bledsoe, Isaac H. Woods, Washington P. 
Martin, William Harris, Archibald and Thomas Riddings, A. I. McChesney, 
Joseph Cox, R. T. Russell and Dr. A. B. Hereford, all men of sterling worth. 

Sniabar claims to have the oldest person living in the county, Mrs. Escu- 
lania Barnette, wife of the late Judge F. E. Barnette, born December 8. 1822. 


Just before the war there were two negro men arrested for stealing by 
Joseph Johnson, the constable of the township. The negroes were tried 
before Squire James Harris. The court sentenced the negroes to be whipped. 


Constable Johnson executed the sentence. When the Civil war broke out 
the negroes ran off and joined the Kansas Red-Legs. In 1863 the Red- 
Legs were stationed at Chapel Hill. They arrested Joseph Johnson, took 
him one mile east of Chapel Hill to the barn of William Harris and hung 
him, leaving him hanging in the barn. In their scouting and robbing the 
helpless citizens they came to the home of one among the best men I ever 
knew, Uncle Peter Goot, who lived on the farm now owned by Conley 
Harmon. They demanded his horses. He told them he had none, when they 
put a rope around his neck and pulled him up to a limb and kept him there 
until he was nearly dead. When he became conscious he told them it was 
pretty tough to hang a man because he had no horses. 

On another occasion there was a company of Federal scouts passing 
through a skirt of timber and was fired upon from the brush and put to 
rout. The bushwhackers followed in hot pursuit. Among the fleeing men 
was a big fat Dutchman, riding on an old farm horse that was falling behind. 
When one of the bushwhackers was rapidly gaining on him, the Dutchman 
began crying, "Oh, Lordy, Oh, Lordy." The bushwhacker yelled at him 
that it was no use to call upon the Lord when the devil was after him. 

I could narrate incidents like this to fill pages, showing the cruelties 
that occurred during the Civil war. I stood in my father's yard January 6, 
1862, and counted twenty-seven houses on fire at one time. The Kansas 
Jayhawkers burned a strip from one to six miles wide, from Harrisonville 
to Columbus, in Jackson county. It was very cold weather and snow man- 
tled the earth a foot deep. Women and children were turned out of home, 
half clothed, to face the cold and pitiless north winds, homeless and dis- 
heartened wanderers. I have lived to see these once beautiful prairies trans- 
formed from their wild virgin state into well cultivated farms, whose deep 
and fertile soil is unsurpassed by the valley of the Nile. I have seen the 
steady march of improvement in farming, from the wooden moldboard 
plow, drawn by oxen, to the four-horse riding sulky plow, turning two 
furrows of twelve inches each. I have seen all of our grain harvested with 
the old-fashioned fingered cradles, laying the grain in swaths, followed by 
men and boys picking it up with naked hands, and binding it with straw. 
But now we have the self-binder, like some fabled monster, sweeping down 
the golden grain, tying and delivering it in piles for the shockers. I have 
seen the telephone system expand from a small beginning until it now reaches 
to every well equipped home in the township. I have lived to see the rural 
delivery mail box tacked up in front of every farmer's gate, putting them 
in close touch with all the news of the world. And when the author of the 


bill, Thomas E. Watson, after fighting it through until it became a law and 
in 1908 when Mr. Watson was a candidate for the presidency, most of the 
farmers had the base ingratitude to knife him at the ballot box and vote for 
their oppressors. 


Odessa is a beautiful town nestling in the foothills of the township on 
the line of the Chicago & Alton railroad, thirty-nine miles east of Kansas 
City. Its population is between one thousand seven hundred and two thou- 
sand. It was first platted on lands owned by A. R. Patterson and Judge Kirk- 
patrick in 1878. It was named Odessa by the thoughtful man, Mr. Black- 
stone, one of the officials of the railroad company. The name was given 
in honor of the great wheat exporting city of Odessa in Russia. When 
platted this town of Lafayette county was surrounded with wheat fields. 
The limits of our city have been extended from time to time — first Russell's 
addition; Smith and Patterson's addition; McBurney's addition; Ramsey's 
addition, etc. 

Odessa, backed by the high moral sentiment of her citizens, has banished 
the saloons to the moles and bats, where they can no longer hand out death- 
dealing lotions of poison to the rising young, and with her splendid mayor 
and marshal and board of aldermen, instead of dreaming of the paradise of 
the future, have gone to work to make it a paradise on earth, where we now 
live. With our backs turned on the past and face set toward the future, 
she is marching on to a higher plane of better ideals. Already she has 
reached the position of being one of the best towns in western Missouri. 
The people in the surrounding country also proclaim, with one accord, that 
other places are good, but Odessa is to them the best of all! 


Odessa has three flourishing banking houses, with deposits aggregating 
from four to six hundred thousand dollars. (See Banking chapter for his- 
tory of these banks.) 

In the dry goods line there are three live, up-to-date stores second to 
none in Lafayette county, Heariford Brothers, Wagoner & Conner's and 
Pearson, all doing a thriving business. There are two large clothing stores ; 
real estate dealers galore. The place has a notion and music store run by 
Alonzo Dyre. In the grocery line, Odessa has six stores, all running in a 
prosperous manner. In the hardware line, she has three large establish- 
ments, with first-class stocks of everything carried in a modern hardware 


store. In the lumber business there are two large yards, one operated by 
I. E. Wagoner and one by Lee Benning, both enterprising and trustworthy 
gentlemen. There are four drug stores in Odessa, Goodwin & Sons, Light- 
ner, Shulls & Sons, and George Bryant, all men of high standing. The trav- 
eling public are accommodated by two first-class hotels and one boarding 
house. There are four excellent livery barns and four mule market barns, 
doing an excellent business in Missouri mule stock. Odessa also has the 
following: Dentists — Dr. Snyder, Osborn Bros, and Downing; attorney, Wal- 
ter Bacon; millinery store, Baird & Cornwall; feed mill, Ferguson & Thomas. 


Odessa was incorporated in 1880 and the following have been its may- 
ors : Horace Rawlings, Doctor Johnson, Ed. Blake, John Phillips, Ed. 
Blake, John Prince, F. L. McBurney, R. W. Carson, J. F. Blackwell. 

The city has street cisterns and a hand-engine brigade. About 1900 the 
place provided itself with a good electric lighting plant at a cost of twenty- 
five thousand dollars. 

From 1883 to now the place has had four great fires, destroying much 
property, not more than one-half covered by good insurance. 


The office was established in July, 1879, with M. V. Powell as post- 
master. The following have succeeded him in office : A. W. Stevens, Green 
Gaston, J. Mclntyre, Charles Frost and John T. Wagoner. There are now 
five rural free deliveries running out from Odessa, the first being established 
in 1902. 

As the loyalty and patriotism of our people, it may be stated that in the 
Civil war days the Southern army had thirty-eight men from Sniabar town- 
ship who were killed and ten died of disease, while many more went into the 
Union army. 


The amount of freight shipments from Odessa is large. The last year's 
reports show : 153 cars of cattle, 233 cars of hogs, 16 cars of horses, 18 cars 
of sheep, 23 cars of hay, 16 cars of flour, 9 cars of corn, 10 cars of live 
poultry, 78 cars of dressed poultry, 4,286 cases of eggs, 18,195 pounds of 


hides, 21,340 pounds of butter, 5,000 pounds of clover seed, 3,000 pounds 
of flax seed, besides large amounts sent by express companies. 

This showing, together with the near approach of the construction of 
the Kansas City & St. Louis electric railroad through Odessa, and the fer- 
tility of the soil surrounding the place, insures our greatness in rank among 
the sister towns of Lafayette county. 

The public school buildings of Odessa are monuments of credit to the 
intelligent populace. The schools are under the control of Prof. Fred Mc- 
Chesney. The township has nine school buildings, all having from six to 
ten months school each year. 

Of the churches of Odessa let it be stated that it is a "church town." 
There are two Presbyterian churches — one North and one South ; two Meth- 
odist Episcopal — one North and one South; two Christian churches — one 
known as the anti-organist ; one Baptist church ; one Catholic church, and 
lastly three negro churches, all striving for the uplift of poor humanity, 
lifting the people to a higher moral plane of citizenship, pointing out to them 
their duties to God and their fellow men. For be it remembered that when 
any people forget the Man of Galilee, who spake as man never spoke before, 
they start on the downward march that leads them to the dungeon where all 
who enter must abandon hope. 

Odessa has two weekly newspapers, the Democrat, edited by Mr. Adair, 
and the Ledger, edited by Mr. Ewing. Both are Democratic in politics and 
work for the best interests of the community. (See Press chapter.) 

The Western Bible Literary College is an educational institution located 
at Odessa, and its history is given in the Educational chapter of this volume. 



Washington is the central township, or civil subdivision, in the southern 
part of Lafayette county. It was taken from Lexington township August 
2, 1836, with the following boundaries : 

"Beginning at the east line of the municipal township of Clay, on the 
township line between congressional townships 49 and 50; thence south, 
with said Clay township line to Jackson county ; thence east with the county 
line between Jackson and Lafayette counties to the Freedom township line; 
thence north with the west line of Freedom township to Davis township; 
then with the west line of Davis township to the line between the congres- 
sional townships 49 and 50; thence west with said line to the beginning." 

The place of holding the first election in the newly created township 
was at the house of William Robinett, the date being fixed as October 29, 
1836, the object being to elect two justices of the peace. 

Washington is the largest township in Lafayette county, containing the 
same number of sections that it was first organized with, one hundred and 
two. Its boundary lines remain as above specified by the county court in 

The headwaters of the Tabo and Davis creeks find their source in this 
section of the county. The farming section is scarcely excelled in any part 
of Missouri. The many well-tilled fields that have brought forth their an- 
nual harvests still give up their wealth at the touch of the plowmen of today, 
as well as in the long-ago days "before the war." 


From the best record obtainable, Richard Powell was the first man to lo- 
cate in this township, he coming as early as 1820. His sons, David and 
Thomas J., and a son-in-law, Eli Adams, occupied the farm after his death. 
Others who came very early and claimed some of these very superior lands 
may be named : John Jennings, Bentley Barton, Rev. John R. Whittsett, a 
Cumberland Presbyterian minister, Judge Julius Emmons, Charles Smith, 
John Ingram, Nimrod Scott, Norman Pool, James S. Whitsett, Henry James, 
Thomas Hutchinson, Ephraim Pool, John McNeal, Morgan Cockrell, James 


Baker and others whose names have passed from memory. These pioneers 
nearly all settled in the eastern, southern and northern portions of the town- 

John Whitsett settled in Dover township in 1819 and in 1834 moved to 
the Slaughter farm in this township. His father, William Whitsett, fur- 
nished the following concerning this township more than thirty years ago 
and may be relied upon as accurate : 

"The first settlers in the vicinity of Mt. Hebron church were John In- 
gram, of Tennessee, Charles Smith, from the same state, William Whitsett, 
of Kentucky, Richard Powell and John Whitsett, of Kentucky. The chil- 
dren of John R. Whitsett were the first born, both male and female. The 
first death was Mary, daughter of Chatham Ewing, and she was buried at 
the old brick church south of Lexington. Dr. M. W. Flournoy, of Ken- 
tucky, and Dr. J. M. Keith were the first physicians. Rev. Robert Renick 
was the first Christian minister, and he preached at the old school house. 
He was a Cumberland Presbyterian. The first school house was built in 
section 29, township 49, range 27, of logs, by the neighbors. The first cloth 
was woven by Mrs. Charles Smith. In February, 1835, a negro woman 
belonging to Nimrod Scott, lost her way and was frozen to death, and was 
buried on the roadside by the neighbors." 

Eli Adams claimed many years ago that "the first death was that of 
Mrs. Julius Emmons, in the spring of 1837, and that the earliest ministers 
were Revs. Finis Ewing, Robert and John Morrow, Robert Sloan, Rev. Ka- 
venaugh, of the Cumberland Presbyterian church, and Rev. John Warder, of 
the Regular Baptist church." 

After the above settlers came in the country settled up too fast to be 
able now to trace their settlement dates and locations. 

Mound Prairie Baptist church was organized in 1842 and is mentioned 
in the chapter on churches in this volume. Also Mt. Hebron Presbyterian 
church, organized in 1852, by George Houx and other families. 


Mayview is the only village within Washington township and around it 
is woven considerable history, many good points of which have been pre- 
served in the annals of the county, as having come from the tongue and pen 
of "Uncle George Houx," a pioneer so well known in Lafayette county. 
Among others is this concerning the "Mounds" : 

"In 1 81 2 the British brought to bear every influence they could to have 
the Indians engage in hostilities against the Americans, and bands of the 
Osage and Kaw took the warpath. Captain Heth, an old settler of Cooper 


county, was out with his scouting party from Boonville, or Old Franklin, 
and encountered a band of these hostile Indians a few miles west from this 
mound, but then fell back to it and there made a determined stand. A sharp 
and bloody battle then took place, 'and the Injuns got licked.' This place 
was thereafter known as Heth's Mound. General Graham also verifies the 
statement that Houx made of this incident. 

May view is in a beautiful, commanding section of the county, on a high 
ridge, and was formerly known as a part of the "Blue Hills" running from 
toward the Missouri at Lexington, and at an early day the entire ridge, 
or chain of hills, presented one grand panorama. The village is situated 
on section 18, township 49, range 26, and section 13, same township and 
range 27. It was laid out in 1866 by John P. Herr, George Houx, Stephen 
G. Wentworth and William Morrison. "Mayview" was suggested by Mr. 
Herr, who thought it a beautiful site for observation in the month of May, 
with each returning springtime. 

A postoffice was secured for Mayview in 1868, with John P. Herr as the 
first postmaster. He also erected the first house, and owned and operated 
the pioneer store of the place. About the same date George Houx built 
a dwelling house. A frame school house was built in 1866, the cost being 
six hundred dollars. Rev. William Gordon taught the first school in this 
house and had fifty pupils, each of whom paid a tuition of two dollars per 
month. The marriage of John McAllister and Jennie West was the first in 
the place, they being united in 1868 by Rev. Roth. The first male child born 
in the village was Oscar, son of Thomas T. and S. Belle Puckett, born July 
6, 1870. The first female child born in the place was Agnes Lee, daughter of 
Dr. David H. and Katie Bradley. The first death was that of Young Ewing, 
in 1869, who was buried at Mount Hebron cemetery. The first physician 
to practice was (it is quite certain) Doctor Bouton, a Kentuckian, who later, 
about 1880, removed to Colorado. The first religious services in the village 
were held at the school house, by the Christian denomination, with Elder 
G. R. Hand as pastor. 

The Christian church of Mayview (a history of which appears in the 
regular Church chapter of this volume) was formed in 1852, and known as 
Union : it was located three miles to the south of present Mayview. 

In 1879 an Independent Order of Good Templars lodge was instituted 
at Mayview. The Pucketts, Herrs, Waterhouses, Moores and many others 
took a prominent part in sustaining the temperance society, which bore well 
its part in those days when people had come to realize the greatness of the 
evil that is still being battled against by all who profess high morals and true 


An addition was made to the original town plat in 1878 by Messrs. 
Waterhouse and Ridings. In 1880 the village had a population of about 
two hundred and fifty; today it has about three hundred and fifty. It is well 
located on the line of the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis railroad, which was 
put through the county early in the seventies. 

The postmasters who have served at this point are as follows : John 
P. Herr, Ruben Puckett (but conducted by his son, Thomas), M. A. Hay- 
den, James W. Graham, Ed. F. Parker, T. W. Wheatley, Otto Nolte. It 
has two rural free delivery routes running out through the surrounding 

The place was incorporated in 1882; its mayors (chairmen) have been 
among the best men of the place, but no regular record tells who they have 
been. In 1910 the village officers were: Otto Nolte, chairman; G. H. Rabius, 
treasurer; Mr. Tapmeyer, and C. W. Kincheole, marshal. 

The place now supports the following and other business interests : 

Bank — Farmers Bank of Mayview. 

Hotel — Commercial, A. W. Marshall, proprietor. 

Physician — Dr. C. A. Nickle. 

Drugs — S. M. Greene. 

Hardware — T. B. Benning. G. H. Rabius. 

Lumber — T. B. Benning. 

Implements — G. H. Rabius. 

General Dealers — George H. Plattenberg, Mr. Tapmeyer. 

Grocers — W. J. Weaver, Otto Nolte. 

Livery Barn — Charles W. Kinchloe, Sr. 

Grain Dealer — John Hackley. 

Stock Dealer — John Hackley. 

Meat Market — William Heidbrink. 

Restaurant — John Welliver. 

Fruit Evaporator — G. W. Henner. 

Realty, Insurance — Thomas Puckett. 

Blacksmiths — Thomas Wells, O. M. Willard, Sam Winn. 

The religious organizations of Mayview are at this date the Christian, 
Baptist, German Evangelical Lutheran, Methodist Episcopal (South) Col- 
ored, and the colored Baptist, all of which have buildings. See Church His- 
tory chapter for details. 

The present fraternities of the village are the Modern Woodmen, Mystic 
Workers and Court of Honor. 




Mayview is and has long been the greatest shipping point for fruit in 
Lafayette county, being situated in the heart of the fruit growing belt of the 
county. Washington township is situated in an exceptionally fine section for 
fruits, especially apples, which grow in almost astonishing quantities. It 
was about 1888 when large orchards were planted out and these are now 
annually bearing immense crops of luscious apples which are purchased by 
regular fruit dealers' associations, some taking the entire crop, while others 
buy only the select pickings which find their way to the large city markets, 
bringing good prices. 

A large fruit evaporating establishment is situated here and runs with 
a large force of persons during the fruit season. This is the property of 
G. W. Henner, of Webster, New York. There is also a large vinegar plant 
and two large cider factories located here. 

Concerning the orchards of this township let it be stated that the largest 
now are A. B. Matthew's, with about seven thousand trees; W. P. Keith's, 
covering forty acres ; T. M. Chinn's, with eighty acres ; E. S. Butt, with forty 
acres, besides scores of orchards, on farms nearby, running from five to 
twenty acres each. It is now estimated that not far from a half million 
apple trees are bearing fruit today in this one township, in Lafayette county. 


From an early history of this section the following was furnished by 
Eli Adams : 

"In the spring of 1841 Mrs. Mary Scott and her son. King B. Scott, 
were murdered in this township. Mrs. Scott's body was found in the fire 
in the house. Two years later the body of the son was found in a branch 
of the Sni creek. Suspicion rested on John C. Lester, a son-in-law of Mrs. 
Scott, and John Horton. Horton was arrested on a charge of passing coun- 
terfeit money and was sent to the penitentiary for a term of two years. While 
there he declared that Lester had committed the murder of the Scotts. The 
governor was petitioned for a reprieve. Horton returned and Lester was 
arrested and indicted for the murders, but, owing to a technicality, the indict- 
ment was dismissed. He was again indicted, took a change of venue to 
Henry county, was there tried, found guilty, and hung at Clinton, in 1844." 

Some two or three years before the Civil war a murder was committed 


on the Early farm. Two negroes had carefully secreted themselves behind 
the gate post, and as Mr. Nance, overseer for Early, was passing through 
the gate the negroes struck him with a club, killing him instantly. This hap- 
pened about daybreak. 'The murderers were taken to Lexington, tried reg- 
ularly, and hung. 



In the compilation of every county historical work there are certain 
incidents and interesting events which do not properly belong to any of the 
special chapters and regular subjects, hence there are here collected together 
a number of interesting and truly valuable items of Lafayette county history. 


Pioneer Col. James Hale furnished the following incident as worthy of 
preservation in the annals of Lafayette county : 

"At an early time in the history of Missouri the Methodist church estab- 
lished a mission on the upper Osage river near the western limits of the 
state and just across the line was the Indian Territory. Later on, about 
1837 (the exact time not now known to the writer), information was re- 
ceived by the Governor that the Indians across the line were preparing to 
make a raid on the mission and wipe it out. The mission being in Gen. James 
H. Graham's military territory, who resided at Lexington, he was ordered 
by the Governor to move with alacrity to the mission with as large a force 
as he could assemble and a few days later he marched with two thousand 
mounted men, well armed, and a long commissary wagon train and a herd of 
fat cattle. And lo and behold, all the Indians he found were three aged 
infirm squaws who were being taken care of at the mission. It was then 
discovered that the alarm had been started by a company of cattlemen who 
had a large herd of fat cattle in the vicinity of the mission and no market 
for them. General Graham, having enough cattle to last through the cam- 
paign, did not buy any and marched his army back and disbanded it." 


At an ex-Confederate soldiers' reunion at Higginsville, held August 2J, 
1889, the ladies of St. Joseph, Missouri, sent a large basket of bouquets to 
the veterans of Bledsoe's Battery and the graceful acknowledgment of the 
same formed a part of the article written by Comrade William Young, from 
which the following is an extract: 


"We stood in line, most of us mere boys, with faces scarcely less smooth 
than the faces of our sweethearts, and received the beautiful flag from fair 
hands and heard from sweet lips the message that sent us forth to battle 
and pledged our honor that the flag should never be disgraced. How well 
that pledge was redeemed, let the record of the battles and the grassy 
mounds where lie the dead, bear witness. Hear the stories of Carthage, 
Wilson's Creek, Dry Forks, Lexington, Pea Ridge. Iuka, Corinth, Port 
Hudson, Raymond, Jackson, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Re- 
saca, Lost Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and the Hun- 
dred Days fight in front of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin, Nashville and the 
retreat. Also scores of skirmishes not of enough importance to be styled 
battles, but where the deadly shot and shell fell. Through all of these with- 
out the loss of a flag or a single gun captured by the enemy." 


It may be of interest to the generation now living, as well as those ot the 
future, to read the following bit of before-the-Civil-war customs that legally 
prevailed, the same being on record in the court house at Lafayette today : 

(Record of January 4, 1847) — "Now at this day comes Harriet, a free 
mulatto woman, wife of Henry Dorsey, a free mulatto man, and makes ap- 
plication to the court here for a license to reside within this state; and it 
appearing to the satisfaction of the court here, that said Harriet is of the 
class of persons who may obtain such license, it is therefore ordered that a 
license be issued authorizing the said Harriet (aged about thirty-two years), 
five feet and one inch high (with a scar in the palm of the left hand), and 
also the two children of the said Harriet and said Henry Dorsey, to-wit : 
Charlotte Ann, aged about thirteen years, and Ellen Chester, four years old, 
to reside within this state as long as she, the said Harriet, shall be of good 
behavior, and no longer." 


More than tradition points to the belief that at some remote period in 
the world's history there strolled along the streams of this county a monster 
animal called by zoologists a mastodon. In an article written in the seven- 
ties, it was stated that Mrs. W. H. Bowen found a monster tooth in Gra- 
ham's branch, nearly under the bridge of the old Lexington & Gulf railroad 
grade, where that stream empties into Rupe's branch. Mrs. Bowen sub- 
mitted the rare specimen to Dr. Alexander, and he pronounced it a genuine 
mastodon tooth. Frank Lamborn, of the Lexington Intelligencer, also found 


a mastodon's tooth which was imbedded in the bottom of Graham's branch. 
Graham's branch flows westward along the southern border of the city of 
Lexington and is supplied with water, mostly, from an immense spring now 
known as Mastodon spring which flows out of the ironated sandbed under- 
lying the bluff formation in all this region. At the point where the spring 
flows out, and a hundred feet down stream, its bed and margin are miry, or 
composed of quicksand, very treacherous to tread upon. It is conjectured 
that in the roaming of this huge animal, he sought this spring to quench his 
thirst and, going too far, got mired in the shifting quicksands and there 
perished, thousands of years ago possibly. This soil not being suitable to 
preserve the whole monster, all dissolved save the teeth, which have been 
recovered at this late day. 


In September, 1881, the city of Lexington, in common with all sec- 
tions of the country, held memorial services over the death of the lamented 
President, Gen. James A. Garfield, who was struck down by the bullet of 
an assassin on July 2d of that year, in the city of Washington. The Presi- 
dent lingered and suffered intensely, until September 19th, when his spirit 
took its flight. This was an historic occasion for Lexington. Plans were 
made for a public procession and memorial service. The court house, city 
hall, postoffice, some of the churches and most of the business houses were 
deeply draped in mourning. National flags were suspended across Main 
street, looped at half mast and draped. R. Taubman and Capt. A. A. Le- 
sueur were marshals of the day. The procession was headed by the Lexing- 
ton Guards' brass band of sixteen instruments, all draped with heavy mourn- 
ing. The Odd Fellows, Masons, German societies, Knights of Labor, Sons 
of Protection, and other orders helped to form the long procession. After- 
wards, in five of the city churches of Lexington appropriate memorial serv- 
ices were held. At the Christian church the services were conducted by Rev. 
C. S. Lucas, Hon. Xenophon Ryland and Colonel Rathbun. At the Baptist 
church, by Rev. George L. Leyburn, Hon. H. G. Wallace and Rev. Dr. Tal- 
burd. At the German Evangelical church, by Rev. Johns, of Sedalia, and 
Revs. Klimpke and Demand, of Lexington. At the Catholic church by Rev. 
Father Lilly. At Zion's African Methodist Episcopal church (colored), by 
Rev. J. A. Quarles, Judge John E. Ryland and William Young, Esq. 

The music chosen was for the most part familiar hymns which the de- 
parted President had sung and loved a lifetime, he having been a church 
member and ardent worker from his youth up. 



Not content with the taking of the life of two Presidents, — Lincoln 
and Garfield, — the hand of the assassin, under the guise of friendship, shot 
William McKinley, while enjoying the festivities of the great Pan-American 
Exposition, at Buffalo, New York, on September 6, 1901. He was then 
taken to the home of the president of the Exposition, Mr. Milburn, where 
he died on the 14th of the same month, at 2 130 A. M. 

At Lexington a very impressive memorial service was held on the fol- 
lowing Thursday, the same taking place in the Methodist church, the Presby- 
terian church, the Colored Baptist church and at the opera house. A mass 
meeting was held on Saturday before the memorial and a set of resolutions 
was adopted showing the respect and honor with which President McKinley 
was held here. On the day the news was received here in Lexington the 
flags were all unfurled at half-mast. Mayor Young issued the proclamation 
for a mass meeting. Business was suspended from twelve to one o'clock that 
day, except one single business man, who heeded not the call of the mayor. 
The bells of the city tolled during the entire hour and flags were half-mast 
throughout the city. 

On Thursday, the time appointed as memorial service day, the exercises 
at the Methodist church were presided over by Judge John E. Ryland and 
the speakers were Revs. Buchmueller, Reeves, Hans, Alex. Graves, John S. 
Blackwell, John E. Burden and E. M. Taubman. At the Presbyterian 
church the presiding officer was Rev. G. W. Hyde and the speakers were Rev. 
Charles Manly, E. C. Gordon, Messrs. W. H. Chiles, U. G. Plitzing and R. 
T. Jesse. At the opera house, the speakers were T. J. Duling and Henry 

From the commencement to the close the business houses, with rare 
exceptions, were closed. The clouds hung heavy and dark, as if in sympathy 
with the occasion. President McKinley's last words were : "Nearer, My 
God, to Thee. Good bye, good bye, all. His will, not mine, be done." 


The years 1874 and 1875 will ever be memorable in this county and 
state for the appearance and ravages of the little winged pests, the Rocky 
Mountain locust, or more generally known as the grasshopper. They came 
in thick flying clouds, at times almost obscuring the light of the sun. They 
came from the north and northwest in the autumn of 1874 and destroyed 


what they could find at that late season that was green and juicy in vegetable 
growth; then they laid their millions of eggs. This county did not suffer that 
year as did many other parts of the state, but when the spring came on and 
these eggs hatched out, with other fullgrown ones that came in from the north- 
western country, they made a marching line which devastated like an army 
going through in war times. An eastern paper's correspondent of May 18, 
1875, said: 

"The grasshoppers are now on the move east, eating everything green in 
their pathway. One farmer south of Lexington had fifteen acres of corn 
eaten by them yesterday in three hours' time. They mowed it down close to 
the ground just as if a mowing machine had cut it. All the tobacco plants 
in the upper part of Lafayette county have also been eaten by them." 

A correspondent writing to the Lexington papers, said : 

"The loss to Lafayette county was fully two million dollars." Another 
wrote from Aullville, saying: "The damage done to three-fourths of Lafayette 
county invaded, has been estimated not far from two million, five hundred 
thousand dollars." Professor Riley, state entomologist, in his report to the 
state in May, 1876, gave a report covering twenty-six counties in Missouri in 
which he placed the loss at a little over fifteen million dollars. He gave the 
following county figures : Jackson county, two million five hundred thousand 
dollars; Ray county, seventy -five thousand dollars; Johnson county, one mil- 
lion dollars ; Lafayette county two million dollars. The heaviest loss in the 
state was in Jackson county. The "infernal pests" took their flight — to be 
hoped forever — in June, 1875. ^ n m any places in the country they were so 
numerous that along the railroad tracks, especially in cuts, they piled up on 
the tracks and impeded the progress of freight trains, by forming a slimy 
grease which caused the wheels to slip. In places the roadbed was covered 
to the depth of a foot or more. They always remained at work in a locality 
until the wind was favorable for their southern and eastern flight. Freezing 
did not appear to injure any of the eggs. 

Farmers re-planted their corn after July 4th and harvested a fair crop 
of "soft" corn, but it made excellent feed. Seasonable rains did what has 
never been done here since, made corn in ninety days. 

"old men's association/' 

The above heading indicates the title of a society formed in this county, 
August 4, 1868, on motion of Henry Wallace, who became its president. 
The constitution of this unique association of "old-timers" read as follows : 




"Article i — A president shall be elected at each meeting, whose duty it 
shall be to preside and keep order. 

"Article 2 — A clerk shall be elected at each meeting, whose duty it shall 
be to keep a record of all the names of the members, their age and nativity, 
and the proceedings of each meeting. 

"Article 3 — Meetings shall be held during the months of May and Sep- 
tember of each year, at the houses of the different members, for mutual con- 
versation and enjoyment. 

"Article 4 — All members of this association must be seventy years of 
age or upwards and must be elected by the unanimous consent of the asso- 

"Article 5 — It shall be the duty of each member, when requested, to re- 
late his experience, either verbally or in writing. 

"Article 6 — Each member's name shall be enrolled, with his age and 

"Article 7 — It shall be the duty of all members to visit each other 
especially in sickness or distress. 

"Article 8 — Each meeting shall be opened with prayer." 

In 1881 there were sixty-five enrolled in this society, and the meetings 
were of great interest, and many historic records came from such associations 
of these old gentlemen — those of three score and ten and more. It will be 
observed that the officers are elected once a year. The present secretary is 
Frank Bowman, who was elected in September, 1893, an< ^ largely by his 
efforts and interest the organization has been kept alive. He is by no means 
seventy years of age, but by reason of his ability the "old men" have insisted 
on his serving as their secretary. The first president was Henry Wallace, 
founder of the society. The first clerk, or secretary, was H. J. Higgins, who 
was succeeded by Rufus Young, and he in turn was followed by Frank Bow- 
man, present secretary. 

In preserving the annals of the community, this society has accomplished 

By Col. James Hale. 

[The following was written by an eye witness to the awful scenes con- 
nected with the blowing up of the steamboat "Saluda," with two hundred 
and fifty Mormon emigrants aboard, in 1852, at Lexington.] 

"The steamer 'Saluda,' a large boat, with propelling power uncommen- 


surate with its size, and commanded by Captain Belt, arrived at Lexington 
April 7, 1852, early in the forenoon, carrying two hundred and fifty Mor- 
mons and their effects, destined for Salt Lake City, Utah, the mecca of all 
Mormondom. After a brief stop at the wharf the boat left, but at the point 
on the north side of the river it encountered a very strong current, with hard, 
heavy running ice, and being unable to make headway it returned to the levee 
and tied up for the night. 

"On the morning of the 8th, the ice having run out, the boat made an- 
other effort to round the point, but the rapidly rising river had made the cur- 
rent so swift and powerful that the boat again failed and fell back to the 
levee, where it remained until the morning of the 9th. 

"Then the captain ordered the engineer to make all the steam possible, 

saying he 'would either round the point or blow the boat to h .' About 

nine o'clock, with all the steam the engineer dare carry, the boat left the wharf, 
and when only about thirty feet from the shore, with the forward cabin deck 
crowded with passengers, the boilers all exploded, causing a complete wreck of 
all that part of the boat above the lower deck and extending back to the wheel 

"The current caught the wrecked boat and threw it back against the 
levee, where it was tied up, the bow resting against the shore, with the lower 
forward deck above the water and the lower deck at the stern several feet 
below the surface. 

"As the writer ran down the hill the first thing he saw was the boat's 
safe lying in the road, back of what is now the waterworks power house. The 
safe was intact, and chained to it was a dead yellow spotted pointer dog. This 
was about seventy yards from where the explosion occurred. 

"In the flat just west of the power house was the dead body of a large 
man, lying with his face downward and limbs extended as if he had sailed 
through the air like a blue rock. Every thread of clothing had been blown off 
his body. A sheet was soon spread over him and he was identified as Captain 
Belt, commander of the boat. 

"In a short time almost the entire male population of the town was on 
the levee and the removal of the dead bodies from the wreck was commenced. 
Mattresses Were placed on the ground and twenty-two large, healthy-looking 
Englishmen were laid on them, their faces perfectly red from severe scalds. 
They were suffering greatly and the air was hideous with their agonizing 
moans. I passed this place thirty minutes later and twelve of them were 
dead, caused by internal burning through inhaling steam. 


"A large brick house at the upper end of the levee was improvised as 
a hospital, and all the injured were given quarters there. Every physician 
in Lexington was soon at the scene of the disaster and did all they could to 
relieve the distress of the victims. 

"While passing along the levee I saw what appeared to be several yards 
of blue calico, spread upon the ground, with a pile of long black hair in its 
center. This I soon discovered to be the remains of a woman, who had prob- 
ably been blown very high and had fallen upon the rocks. Her head was 
mashed nearly as thin as my hand and her face could not have been recognized 
as the countenance of a human being. 

"George W. Gaunt, who was on the bluffs just west of the Emily Aull 
Seminary, looking at the boat when the explosion occurred, informed the 
writer that the pilot house, with two men in it, went higher than he was and 
fell back into the river and sank. Charles La Barge, chief pilot, and his as- 
sistant were the men in the pilot house. Mr. La Barge was of the old French 
family of that name, of St. Louis, who were among the first steamboat men 
to navigate the Missouri river. A daughter of Pilot La Barge died a few 
months ago in St. Louis. Only a small number of those lost were found, 
a great majority of them having been blown into the river and carried down 
stream by the swift current. On the day after the explosion all the then 
dead, numbering about thirty, were buried in a long trench in that part of 
Macpelah cemetery known as the Potter's field. Others were buried there 
who died later or were found. Including the crew, there must have been on 
the boat at the time of the explosion nearly three hundred pople, two hundred 
of whom were never accounted for. It was one of the most destructive 
steamboat disasters that ever occurred on a western river. The second clerk 
was the only officer who escaped. 

"A cottonwood log house on the levee, owned by J. H. Graham, was 
struck by the boiler from the boat, which passed through entirely, knocking 
out one end of the logs. Those above dropped down and occupied the same 
places, and the house stood looking as if nothing had disturbed it." 

The above is a correct statement concerning this accident, notwithstand- 
ing the fanciful story that was published not long since in one of our popular, 
cheap magazines, by a man born long since the accident, and who sought to 
make capital for the teachings of the Mormon religious faith by weaving 
into his account a statement that .before the explosion fifty or more of the 
Mormons were warned by their minister that the sad accident would happen, 
and that by this revelation they did not go aboard the steamer, hence were 


all saved from the horrible fate of the others. There is not one single fact 
to support this statement of fiction. 

It may be added that several of the small children whose parents were 
killed by the disaster were kindly adopted in and near Lexington, and proved 
to be stanch manly and womanly characters in their after years. 


The following commission, making Nicholas Houx, of this county, an 
ensign in 1821, and signed by Alexander McNair, Missouri's first governor, 
reads as follows, and the instrument is highly prized by the relatives of the 
"Ensign" : 

"The governor of the state of Missouri, to all who shall see these pres- 
ents, Greeting — Know ye. that Nicholas Houx, having been duly elected to fill 
the office of ensign of the Boonville Independent Rifle Company, I do hereby 
commission him ensign of the said company. He is, therefore, carefully and 
diligently to discharge the duty of ensign by doing and performing all manner 
of things thereunto belonging. 

"And I do strictly charge and require all officers and soldiers under his 
command to be obedient to his orders as ensign ; and he is to observe and fol- 
low such orders and directions from time to time as he shall receive from 
me or the future governor of the state of Missouri, or other superior officers 
set over him, according to the law and rules and discipline of war. 

"Given under my hand and private seal (there being no state seal yet 
provided), at St. Charles, this thirteenth day of June, A. D. 1821, and of the 
first year of the independence of the state of Missouri. A. McNair. 

"By the Governor: 

"Joshua Barton, Secretary of State." 

On the back of this instrument, which is about nine by thirteen inches, 
is written in faded ink (marking the passage of ninety years now), the fol- 
lowing affidavit : 

"Personally appeared before me, a justice of the peace, Nicholas Houx, 
and makes oath that he will support the constitution of the United States 
and of the state of Missouri, and that he will faithfully demean himself in 
office as ensign of the Boonville Independent Company. Given under my 
hand this 21st day of June, 1821. Charles Woods, J. P." (Seal.) 

Mr. Houx is the same gentleman spoken of as coming to Lexington 
township in 18 18 and establishing a tannery. 



According to the United States census reports, Lafayette county in 1821 
had a population of 1,340; in 1830, a population of 2,912; in 1836, it had 
a population of 4,683; in 1880, it had reached 25,731, consisting of 23,679 
native-born, 2,059 foreign-born, 21,313 white persons and 4,418 colored 
persons. Coming down ten years later, to 1890, it is found that the county's 
population was 30,184. In 1900 it had a population of 31,679. 


According to the census of 1900 the following was the enumeration in 
Lafayette county by towns, villages and townships : 

Clay township, including villages 3- 2 90 

Davis township, including villages and towns 4>&33 

Dover township, including towns 3*878 

Freedom township, including towns and villages 3,260 

Lexington township (outside of city of Lexington) .... 3,371 

Middleton township, with towns and villages 2,236 

Sniabar township, with towns 2,996 

Washington township, with villages 3*625 

Lexington city 4,190 

Total in county 31 ,679 


Mayview, 423 ; Wellington, 520 ; Corder, 538 ; Waverly, 722 ; Con- 
cordia, 889; Napoleon, 132; Higginsville, 2,791; Dover, 242; Alma, 248; 
Odessa, 1,445; Lexington City, 4,190. 


There is no record of a duel ever being fought in Lafayette county, but 
there came very near being one through a pleasing little episode that trans- 
pired many years ago, in which Capt. William A. Redd, now residing in 
Dover, this county, and Capt. Richard A. Collins, both soldiers and comrades 
in the Confederate army during the Civil war, were to be the duelists. These 


brave men were both in General Shelby's brigade and members of the same 
company and regiment. After the war closed both had been "robbed" of 
the fortunes they once possessed, and sought occupations by which to re- 
trieve the same. Captain Collins chose the legal profession, while Captain 
Redd went into mercantile business at the historic little town of Waverly, 
this county. In Waverly lived a notable family in which there were five beau- 
tiful daughters, whose father was the mayor of the town. The elder of these 
sisters had won the heart of Collins, while the younger had almost captured 
Captain Redd by her winsome ways. Redd was at the time a day boarder at 
the mayor's home. 

The trouble commenced at noon one day after dinner, when Miss J. 
remarked that the steamer "War Eagle" was to arrive at the Waverly land- 
ing and that Captain Collins was to be a passenger on it. She requested 
Captain Redd to take a small package to the boat and deliver in person to 
Captain Collins, which he consented to do, not knowing that the innocent look- 
ing little box, so neatly tied up, contained, as he now terms it, "a stick of 
dynamite." In due time it was handed to Captain Collins, who soon went 
aside and opened it, and soon began taking out a bunch of love letters and 
other tender missives. He finally turned to Captain Redd and asked if Miss 
J. had requested him to hand the package to him. Captain Redd assured 
him that she had and that he was innocent of anything it might contain. 
Collins went to the bow of the boat and threw the box and its contents over- 
board into the muddy waters of the Missouri river, and said to Redd "Let's 
take a drink." A round or two was taken, after which Redd excused himself 
on account of a business errand and left the steamboat. That night Collins 
reached Marshall, Missouri, and kept pondering over the strange manner in 
which he thought he had been treated. Finally, the second day, he Wrote 
Captain Redd a letter, believing that Redd had something to do with the affair. 
In this message he challenged Redd, his old comrade-at-arms, to fight a duel 
with him. The little captain, seeing that trouble was really brewing, finally 
chafed himself, and in haste wrote Collins a letter in which the challenge was 
accepted, he naming the place, the weapons and distance apart at which the 
duel should be fought. The place was on the island just above Waverly, the 
weapons were pistols and the distance apart was fixed at fifteen paces. Captain 
Redd practiced considerably by shooting at a large tree, about the size of a 
man. but was relieved (or possibly chagrined) at not being able to hit the tree 
after many shots taken in good faith. 

The news spread far and near that the two captains were really to fight 




it out. Captain Redd chose for his seconds M. A. Francisco and Robert 
Deatherge, who later refused on account of learning that they would be sub- 
jected to a five hundred dollar fine for such an act. Captain Redd then sought 
and found his old friend, General Shelby, and told him his troubles, and he 
agreed to go to Lexington, where Collins was, and see if he could not fix the 
matter up peaceably. Shelby then resided near Page City and Redd re- 
mained at Shelby's house with the latter's most excellent wife and several 
others, including Samuel Redd, his brother. Just at sunset, when all were 
seated on the broad veranda talking over the effects of the late war, General 
Shelby rode up and informed them that Collins wanted nothing but a genuine 
duel and told Redd to prepare for it. 

While Shelby was absent an officer came from Lexington and placed 
Captain Redd under arrest, and was present when Shelby returned. For 
some time this was unknown to Shelby, but when he found it out and heard 
him say that he was going to take him back to Lexington for safe keeping, 
General Shelby, in his characteristic manner, remarked, with an oath, "You 
will, will you? How dare you talk that way? If you undertake that I will 
call my niggers and have them tie you and put you in my cellar. He shall not 
go until this fight comes off." Later, the sly officer of the law left for Lex- 
ington, unobserved by Shelby, saying that he would have the sheriff and a 
posse of men on the duel grounds the next morning, bright and early, for the 
time was fixed at sunrise sharp. The fated hour (?) came and all interested 
were on hand to see the duel. Collins' "second" was seen standing against 
a tree talking with others. As Captain Redd rode by he heard the voice of 
his friend General Shelby, saying: "Well, let the fight come right off." 
Redd then dismounted and hitched his horse, which was soon to be a master- 
less animal ( ?). Just then a friend stepped up to Redd and asked if he ever 
drank anything. He replied, hardly ever, but that if ever it would be accept- 
able it would just then. A bottle was pulled from the pocket, and just how- 
large a draft the little captain swallowed none will ever know — it was some 
of old "McBrayer's Best." Soon a gentleman informed Redd that Collins 
wanted a word of conversation with him, and after first seeking advice from 
Shelby he went aside where Collins stood. Near by Redd observed a sur- 
geon's case and plenty of bandages and instruments, as Doctor Ruffin, of 
Lexington, was on hand to care for the remaining portion of one or both of 
the gritty little soldiers who were expected to be good shots and do business 
after the best known science at dueling. The morning being quite cool, Col- 
lins stood by a burning log, and no one can tell what was running through 



his mind at that instant. In greeting Captain Redd he drew from his 
pocket the letter that Redd had sent him accepting his challenge, remarking 
that he thought it rather a harsh letter to send to an old comrade and friend. 
At this. Captain Redd stated that it was written in haste and in the same 
spirit in which his (Collins') had been written to him. Collins said that his 
letter must have been misunderstood by him, whereupon Redd assured him 
that he understood the English language very well and knew full well what 
he intended. Denial was made time and again and finally Redd condescended 
to say that if that was the case he was sorry the matter had gone as far as it 
had. Just then General Shelby came up and declared that he had heard their 
mutual explanations and that it was his opinion that they shake hands and 
call it square, which they did. General Shelby then invited all hands to his 
house for breakfast, and when the General's good wife saw the procession 
coming, believed it carried the remains of one and possible two who had killed 
one another in the duel, but soon she was delighted to see, instead, two really 
alive and hilarious ex-Confederates, who had "buried the hatchet'' over the 
old log fire. 

All the parties to this missed tragedy have long since passed "over the 
river," save the two ladies, Miss J. and Miss D., who still survive, one mar- 
ried and the other, Captain Redd's girl, a widow, and while time has left 
streaks of silver in her once raven locks, she is still a beautiful woman. 


3 1197 21121 1807 



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